Nicea to Ephesus Teaching on O.T. Individuals –Sept. 2017 version

Old Testament individuals before Judges

Old Testament Individuals after Joshua

Legend for Cells

O1. Cain murdered Abel Gen 4:1-16; Mt 23:25; Lk 11:51

O11. Gideon Jdg 6-8:35

W = Wrote explicitly on this teaching

Pat9. Abraham [friend of God]2Chr20:7; Isa41:8; Jms2:23

O12. Samson Jdg 13:14-16:30; Heb 11:32

I = Implied this is true or opposite is false

O3. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice Gen 22

O13. Samuel 1 Sam 1-4,7-16,19, Acts 3:24; 13:20; Heb 11:32

N = Implied since accepted Nicene Creed

O4. Jacob  Gen 25:28; Gen 27-33; Jn 4:5-6

O14. Saul [son of Kish] 1 Sam 9-24 2 Sam 1-9, 1 Chr 5:10

m = Mixed: some agree, others did not

O5. Esau Gen 25-28,32,33,35,36; Rom9:13; Heb11:10;12:16

O15. David was godly [except Uriah] 2 Sam 7

P = partial, (ex: Epistle of Barnabas on O1 Abel’s blood, but no mention of Cain)

O6. Rachel Gen 29-31; 33,35,46:19-25, 48:7 Ru4:11; Mt2:18

O16. King Solomon was wise 1 Ki 3

O7. Joseph or his brothers Gen 37-47

O17. Elijah was a godly prophet 1 Ki 18-20; Lk 9:33

- = no reference found

O8. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt Ex 12-14

O18. Elisha 1 Ki 19:17,19; 2 Ki 2-9; 13:14-21

X = Disagree

O9. Balaam or his donkey Num 22-24; Josh 13:22; 24:9

O19. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites Jon; Mt 12

blank = not researched yet

O10. Joshua conquered Canaan Josh 1

O20. Daniel Ezek 14:14; Book of Dan, Mt 24:15

Writer totals include W’s & I’s but not P’s

Rows: blue=Bible manuscript, khaki=spurious, green=heresy, orange=schism, pink=strange writer, red=Christians persecuted, brown=Christians persecuting

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

Pages

Date A.D.

O1

O2

O3

O4

O5

O6

O7

O8

O9

O10

O11

O12

O13

O14

O15

O16

O17

O18

O19

O20

Council of Nicea I vs. Arians (c.318 bishops)

3

May-Jun 325

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Persian king Shapur II persecutes Christians

315,318-381

Persian Christians double-taxed after Constantine became a Christian. Violent persecution after 325. In Mesopotamia alone 1,150 Christians killed.

Persian Shapur II attacks Christian Lakhmid Arabs

325

In retaliation for prior raids into Persia, 60,000 soldiers kill everyone in al-Hera.

Juvencus (wrote a commentary: The Gospels)

 

329

-

-

-

W

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

W

W

Eustathius of Antioch (against Origen)

< ¼

323-337

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eusebius of Caesarea (leader at Nicea)

c.404

318-339/340

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

W

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

Synod of Antioch in Encaeniis (97 bishops)

3 ½

341

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Asterius the Sophist

 

-c.341

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mild Arian Creed of Antioch

1

c.341/344

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Council of Sardica (Greek) (church discipline)

5

343/344

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Aphrahat/Aphraates, Select Demonstrations

67 ¼

337-345

W

 

I

 

 

 

W

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

W

W

 

-

 

The Macrostich Creed (very detailed)

2

344/345

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Julius of Rome (supported Athanasius)

9

339 & 346

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Firmicus Maternus On the Error of Profane Religions. God rewards persecuting pagans.

 

348

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

A Poem on the Passion of the Lord

1

315-350

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Mandaean writings (said Christ a false prophet)

3.5

>350?

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Vaticanus (B) Most OT, all NT to Heb 9:15. 6979 verses

325-350

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of NT ½ of OT

340-350

W

W

W

 

 

 

W

W

 

W

 

W

W

W

W

W

W

 

W

 

p25 Mt 18:32-34; 19:1-3,5-7,9f (8.5 verses)

350

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p62 Mt 11:25-30 (6 verses)

350

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p8+p10+p71 29+7+4 verses

4th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

Ammon

 

4th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hegemonius of Sirmium Acts of Archelaus (Disputation with Manes)

58.75

4th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Apostolic Canons

 

4th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Faustus of Milevis (Manichaean)

 

4th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

First Council of Sirmium (Greek creed)

1 ½

351

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ammonas (a founder of monasticism)

 

340-348/53

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodore of Heraclea

 

355

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Council of Arminium, Nicene/Arian compromise

½

355

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Synod of Seleucia in Isauria

1/5

357/358

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eusebius of Emesa

 

c.359

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arian Roman Emperor Constantius

337-353-361

Orthodox bishops were banished, and Athanasius had to go into hiding.

Arian Creed of Nica in Thrace

½

356-361

-

 

-

 

 

 

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

Life of Antony (possibly by Athanasius)

26.5

356-362

-

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

I

-

-

W

Arian Candidus’ Two Letters to Marius

c.4

359-362

-

 

-

 

 

 

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

Marius’s Reply to Candidus (partial)

c.8

359-362

-

 

-

 

 

 

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

Cyrillones Syriac poet Six Hymns

 

4th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Julian the Apostate again makes paganism the official Roman religion

361-363

Roman emperor Julian tries to restore paganism until he dies in battle against the Persians. Valentinian becomes emperor in the west, Arian Valens in the east.

Christians killed in Alexandria and Gaza

361-363

Emperor Julian shows some toleration, yet permits persecution of Christians.

Hilary of Poitiers (taught Martin of Tours)

226.5

355-367/368

-

 

P

W

 

 

 

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

W

-

-

 

-

 

Arian Roman Valens kills Christians in east

370

Valens is finally killed in battle by the Goths, who had converted to Arianism.

Eusebius of Vercelli

 

died 370/371

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Athanasius of Alexandria (partial)

415

325-373

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

Marcellus of Ancyra (Mt, etc.)

 

c.374

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Optatus of Milevis (converted by Augustine)

 

364-375

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

 

 

Athanaric persecutes Orthodox Visigoths

369-376

After converting to Arianism, Athanaric persecuted Orthodox Christians.

Titus of Bostra

 

before 378

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ephraim/Ephrem, Syrian hymn-writer (partial)

161.25

350-378

P

 

I

W

 

W

W

P

W

I

W

W

W

W

 

P

W

W

 

W

Basil of Cappadocia (Origenist) (partial)

326

357-378/379

W

 

 

W

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

Zeno of Verona (Jn, etc.)

 

362-380

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sapor II persecutes Christians in Persia

380

Heliodorus, Dosa, Ia, and 8K-9K others killed

Apostolic Constitutions

 

c.380

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orsiesius

 

c.380

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Meletius of Antioch

 

381

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Synod of Laodicea (in Phrygia) (undisputed)

4.5

343-381

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Council of Gangra -vs. Eustastius of Sabaste

1 1/3

345-381

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

First Council of Constantinople -150 bishops

3.75

381-382

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Eunomius of Cyzicus (extreme Anomean Arian)

c.8

360-c.383/395

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bachiarius Liber de Fide

 

ca.383

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ambrosiaster

 

c.384

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Philastrius of Brescia Catalog of Heresies

 

c.384

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macedonian and Priscillian Heresies

c.383, 385

Macedonians denied H.S. a being. Priscillian denied Jesus God. killed 385 A.D.

Cyril of Jerusalem (at Council of Constant.)

154

c.349-386

W

 

W

 

 

 

W

W

 

W

 

 

 

 

W

W

W

 

W

 

Damasus I of Rome against Arian Nica Creed

2

c.386-389/394

-

 

-

 

 

 

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

Ambrose of Milan (partial, Against Arianism)

446.25

370-390

P

 

P

 

 

 

-

-

 

W

 

 

 

 

W

W

W

 

 

 

Tyconius

 

390

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diodore of Tarsus

 

died ca.390

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gregory of Nazianzen (leader at Constant.)

275

330-391

I

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

W

W

 

 

 

Pacian of Barcelona

c.19

342-379/392

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I

 

 

 

Fortunatus

 

392

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phoebadius

 

After 392

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Diodore

 

Before 394

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Council of Constantinople, under Nectarius

1

394

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gregory of Nyssa (Origenist)

495

c.356-397

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Didymus the blind (Origenist)

 

-398

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Luciferian Schism -Lucifer of Cagliari,Sardinia

 

361-c.399

Orthodox beliefs, except would not accept back repentant Arian/Semi-Arian clergy

Evagrius of Pontus (Origenist)

88

345-399

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Syriac Book of Steps (Liber Graduum)

c.189

350-400

 

 

W

W

W

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

P

P

W

W

 

 

p28+p21+p50+p57+p51 11+8+13+7+15 verses

4/5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

Hyperechius (Mt, etc.)

 

4/5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Macarius/Symeon (Mt, etc.)

 

4/5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Timothy of Alexandria

 

4/5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maximinus

 

4/5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Maximus of Turin

 

4/5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Petilianus, Donatist bishop

 

4/5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Epiphanius of Salamis (wrote on 80 heresies)

 

360-403

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

Flavian of Antioch

 

404

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prudentius of Tarraconensis, Spain (poet)

c.115

before 405

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Rufinus, translator and historian

88

374-406

 

 

 

W

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gaudentius of Brescia (Donatist, 21 sermons)

 

after 406

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mesrop Mashtotz translates the Bible into Armenian

after 406

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Chrysostom (partial)

~3000

before 407

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

I

W

I

-

W

W

W

I

W

W

W

I

W

Chromatius

 

407

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Asterius of Amasea

 

c.410

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nestorian Synod of Seleucia-Ctesiphon

410

 

Violent persecution of Donatists

411

Augustine protested the harshness of the Emperor’s persecution.

Theophilus of Alexandria

 

412

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Niceta of Remesianus

c.63

366-c.415

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orosius/Hosius of Braga (against Priscillian)

c.20

414-418

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Letter from Paula & Eustochium to Jerome

 

Before 419

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Council of Carthage (218 bishops)

39

393-419

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mazdeans percesute Christians in Persia

419

 

Sulpicius/Sulpitius Severus (pupil of Martin)

116 ½

363-420

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Jerome (pupil of Gregory Nazianzen) (partial)

~500

373-420

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

W

 

W

 

 

 

 

W

W

W

 

 

 

Palladius’ Lausiac History (short recension)

 

419-420

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Nestorian Synod of Markabta of Tayyaye

424

 

Sozomen’s Ecclesiastical History

89

370/380-425

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodore of Mopsuestia (Pelagian)

c.94

392-423/429

P

 

-

 

 

 

-

I

 

P

 

 

 

 

W

-

I

 

-

 

Augustine of Hippo  (Ambrose’s pupil (partial)

~4500

388-8/28/430

 

 

P

W

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

Synesius of Ptolemais (Cyrene)

 

397-430

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

John Cassian (father of Semi-Pelagianism)

422 ½

419-430

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

Nilus

 

c.430

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Marcus of Eremita

 

After 430

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paulinus of Nola

 

431

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

Pages

Date A.D.

O1

O2

O3

O4

O5

O6

O7

O8

O9

O10

O11

O12

O13

O14

O15

O16

O17

O18

O19

O20

Council of Ephesus vs. Nestorians (200 bish.)

20

Jun-Sep 431

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Celestine of Rome to the Council of Ephesus

1 ¾

431-432

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Paul of Emesa

 

After 432

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Vincent of Lerins A Commonitory

26

c.434

-

 

-

 

 

 

-

-

 

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

Isidore of Pelusium

 

c.435

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Socrates of Constantin. Ecclesiastical History

178

~400-439

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

 

 

 

 

 

Cyril of Alexandria

 

444

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proclus of Constantinople

 

446

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Eucherius bishop of Lugdunum

 

ca.380-ca.449

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Flavian of Constantinople

 

449

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Persians fight Armenians and Georgians

449

Armenians and Georgians revolt after Yazdirg II tries to impose Zoroastrianism.

Alexandrinus (Mt 25:7-Rev with gaps in Jn,Rm,2Cor)

c.450

W

W

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

W

W

 

 

 

W

 

W

 

Agroecius bishop of Sen, Gaul

 

c.450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Curetonian Old Syriac (Syr C) (Mt, etc.)

5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

-

 

 

 

-

 

 

Cyprian of Gaul Gen-Jdg poetic paraphrase

 

5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Salvian the presbyter from Marseilles On the Government of God

c.84

440-450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Euthalius of Sulca -put most of NT in sections

 

ca.450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hesychius of Jerusalem

 

After 450

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Severus

 

5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Speculum

 

5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Council of Chalcedon vs. Monophysites

18

451

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Oecumenius of Isauria

 

5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Julianus Pomerius

 

5th century

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nestorius’ Bazaar of Heracleides

c.128

451/452

-

 

-

 

 

 

-

P

 

-

 

 

 

 

-

-

-

 

-

 

Quodvultdeus

 

c.453

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Julian of Eclanum, Italy (Pelagian)

 

c.454

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Theodoret of Cyrus (bishop & historian)

318

423-458

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Many Christians killed in Persia, Armenia

420-460

After Bishop Abdas burned a Zoroast. temple, many Christian churches burned.

Isaac of Antioch (Monoph. or Orthodox?)

 

451-460

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Arnobius the Younger of Gaul

 

c.460

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Patrick of Ireland (English missionary to Irish)

15

420-461

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pope Leo I of Rome (turned back Attila)

204

440-461

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Prosper of Aquitaine (foe of Cassian) -partial

c.12

426-465

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hydatius/Idacius of Gallaecia (Portugal)

 

c.400-c.469