What Early Christians Taught

May 13, 2016 version - unfinished

 

Let’s ask the following question. What could you prove about early Christianity if you had no Bible, but only the pre-Nicene church writers? Here is a consensus of what four or more writers said, and none contradicted, prior to 325 A.D.. Afterwards are what post-Nicene authors and heretics wrote too. You can read the quotes and context of them at http://www.ccel.org.

You can see what Christians taught after Nicea at WhatNiceaToEphesusChristiansTaught.doc. The author or work is only in bold if it is the first one that is a implied or a direct reference. Subsequent references and partial references are in normal text.

 

Bible Importance *

B1. Study or obey God’s Word as an authority *

B2. Old Testament has God’s words; study it *

B3. The Old Testament prophesied about Jesus *

B4. Jesus superseded some Old Testament laws *

B5. New Testament has God’s words; study it *

B6. Some parts of the Bible are allegorical *

B7. Old Testament has types of Christ *

B8. Melchizedek was a type of Christ *

B9. Joshua was a type of Christ *

B10. The prophets were until John *

B11. Veil on many when read Moses/OT *

B12. We can understand Scripture *

B13. Acknowledge Bible textual variants *

B14. We are to believe Scripture *

B15. The O.T. said the Messiah had to suffer/die *

B16. Dual meaning of some prophecies *

B17. Don’t twist/corrupt meaning of scripture *

B18. The Law was excellent or good *

B19. Scripture is called the word of God *

B20. Scripture is holy/sacred *

B21. Divine Scripture *

B22. Some corrupted [copies of] scripture *

B23. Law was a shadow of the gospel / things to come *

B24. Scripture was/is fulfilled *

B25. Unbelievers don’t understand OT/scripture *

B26. Lion both good and bad in scripture *

OLD TESTAMENT canon *

OTc1. The Law and the prophets *

OTc2. Genesis is scripture *

OTc3. Exodus is scripture or God says *

OTc4. Leviticus is scripture or God says *

OTc5. Numbers is scripture or God says *

OTc6. Deuteronomy is scripture or God says *

OTc7. 1 or 2 Samuel is scripture or God says *

OTc8. Reference to 1 or 2 Kings as Kings *

OTc9. Job is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc10. Psalms are scripture or God/Spirit spoke *

OTc11. Proverbs are scripture or the Lord says *

OTc12. Isaiah is scripture or Lord/Holy Ghost says *

OTc13. Jeremiah is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc14. Ezekiel is scripture or the Lord says *

OTc15. Daniel is scripture or God showed *

OTc16. Hosea is scripture or God/the Word says *

OTc17. Joel is scripture or God says *

OTc18. Amos is scripture or God says *

OTc19. Micah is scripture *

OTc20. Habakkuk is scripture or God says *

OTc21. Zechariah is scripture or God says *

OTc22. Malachi is scripture or God/Spirit says *

OTc23. Reference to 1 or 2 Chronicles as Chronicles *

OTc24. The Twelve [Minor Prophets] *

OTc25. Use of the term "Old Testament" *

OTc26. The Old Testament is scripture *

OTc27. The Ten Commandments / Decalogue *

NEW TESTAMENT canon *

NTc1. Matthew is scripture *

NTc2. Mark is scripture or God says *

NTc3. Luke is scripture or God says *

NTc4. John is scripture *

NTc5. Acts is scripture *

NTc6. Paul’s letters are authoritative *

NTc7. Romans is scripture *

NTc8. 1 Corinthians is scripture *

NTc9. 2 Corinthians is scripture *

NTc10. Galatians is scripture *

NTc11. Ephesians is scripture *

NTc12. Philippians is scripture *

NTc13. Colossians is scripture *

NTc14. 1 Thessalonians is scripture *

NTc15. 1 Timothy is scripture *

NTc16. 2 Timothy is scripture *

NTc17. Titus is scripture *

NTc18. Revelation is scripture or the Lord says *

NTc19. Using the term "New Testament" *

NTc20. The "New Testament" is Scripture *

Teachings on the Bible canon not on the list *

OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORS *

OTa1. OT has writing in Hebrew *

OTa2. Moses wrote the Law [Pentateuch] *

OTa3. Moses wrote Genesis *

OTa4. Moses wrote Exodus *

OTa5. Moses wrote Leviticus *

OTa6. Moses wrote Numbers *

OTa7. Moses wrote Deuteronomy *

OTa8. David a writer of Psalms *

OTa9. Solomon a writer of Proverbs *

OTa10. Solomon, writer of Ecclesiastes *

OTa11. Isaiah/Esias wrote or said Isaiah *

OTa12. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah *

OTa13. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel *

OTa14. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel *

OTa15. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea *

OTa16. Joel wrote Joel *

OTa17. Amos wrote Amos *

OTa18. Micah wrote or said Micah *

OTa19. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk *

OTa20. Zephaniah is by Zephaniah/Sophonias *

OTa21. Zechariah wrote Zechariah *

OTa22. Malachi wrote Malachi *

NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS *

NTa1. At least 1 NT word originally in Greek *

NTa2. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew *

NTa3. Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark *

NTa4. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke *

NTa5. John wrote the Gospel of John *

NTa6. Luke wrote Acts *

NTa7. Paul wrote Romans *

NTa8. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians *

NTa9. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians *

NTa10. Paul wrote Galatians *

NTa11. Paul wrote Ephesians *

NTa12. Paul wrote Philippians *

NTa13. Paul wrote Colossians *

NTa14. Paul wrote 1 Thessalonians *

NTa15. Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians *

NTa16. Paul wrote 1 Timothy *

NTa17. Paul wrote a 2nd letter to Timothy *

Paul wrote 2 Timothy *

NTa18. Peter wrote 1 Peter *

NTa19. John wrote 1 John *

NTa20. Jude wrote Jude *

NTa21. The evangelists [gospel writers] *

Teachings on Bible authors not on the list *

God’s TranscendEnce *

G1. There is only One True God *

G2. God is almighty (omnipotent) *

G3. God is sovereign / God’s sovereignty *

G4. God is holy, good, or pure *

G5. God does not speak lies / is Truth *

G6. God is a Father *

G7. The Trinity: one God in three ‘Persons’ *

G8. God knows all / even the secret things *

G9. God is everywhere *

G10. God does not change / is unchangeable *

G11. Majesty or glory of God *

G12. God is a jealous God *

G13. God is uncreated *

G14. God is Light *

G15. God of Jesus/Christ *

G16. Most High God *

G17. The Godhead *

G18. Living God *

G19. God is invisible *

G20. God is inscrutable/unsearchable *

G21. God had no beginning / was unoriginated *

G22. God is incorruptible *

G23. God is eternal *

G24. God is the Ancient of Days *

G25. God is Spirit *

G26. God / Jesus is immortal *

G27. God / Jesus before birth was incorporeal *

G28. God’s Holy Name *

G29. Sun / beam / ray analogy of the Trinity *

G30. God is all-seeing *

G31. Genesis 1:26 refers to the Father & Son *

G32. The fragrance of Heaven / God / Christ / the Holy Spirit *

G33. God is above all *

G34. God is a consuming fire *

G35. God or His power is incomparable *

G36. God is blessed *

G37. God/The Father is perfect *

God’s IMMINENCE *

Gi1. God is worthy *

Gi2. God needs nothing from us *

Gi3. God is just / not unjust *

Gi4. God will judge/reward people’s secrets / secret things *

Gi5. God punishes *

Gi6. God is not mocked *

Gi7. God sends evildoers delusion(s) *

Gi8. God can be offended *

Gi9. God is merciful *

Gi10. God wants repentance not sinner’s death *

Gi11. God / Christ is heals /is healer *

Gi12. God is our protector *

Gi13. God is our refuge *

Gi14. God is our deliverer *

Gi15. God/Christ rejoices over us *

Gi16. Calling God Abba, Father *

Gi17. God of Abraham *

Gi18. God of Isaac *

Gi19. The God of Jacob *

Gi20. God of Israel *

Gi21. God is patient or long-suffering *

Gi22. God of the living *

Gi23. God loves us or is kind *

Gi24. God avenges *

Gi25. Christians and Jews/Israel/Moses worship the same God *

Gi26. Abraham’s [Three] Visitors *

Gi27. The Lord/God is faithful *

Gi28. The Creator is our / the True God *

Gi29. God is the Lawgiver *

Teachings on God not on the list *

Timeless Truths of Jesus Christ *

T1. Jesus is the Son of God *

T2. Jesus is the Only Begotten Son of God *

T3. The Deity of Jesus our Lord *

T4. Jesus is the Word of God *

T5. The Son existed from ages past *

T6. All things were created through Christ / the Son of God *

T7. Jesus obedient or subject to the Father *

T8. Worship, praise, or glorify Jesus *

T9. Inseparable/Father in Son or Son in Father *

T10. Christ at right hand of God/the Father *

T11. No one knows the Father except the Son and those revealed *

T12. Father and Son are distinct *

T13. The Word was distinct from the Father at Creation *

T14. Son in the bosom of the Father *

T15. An Equality of the Father and Son *

T16. God the Son *

T17. Specifically "Jesus" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Word, or Son of man *

T18. Specifically "Jesus Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son *

T19. Specifically "Christ" is the Only-Begotten / Son / Son of man *

T20. Specifically the Son is God *

T21. The head of Christ is God *

T22. Christ had the Spirit of wisdom and understanding *

T23. Jesus and the Father are One *

T24. Jesus / the Son is the Logos *

Jesus’ Incarnation on Earth *

J1. Virgin birth of Christ *

J2. Jesus Christ was a real, sinless man *

J3. Jesus was baptized *

J4. Cross’s shape or outstretched arms *

J5. Jesus was crucified or died on the cross *

J6. Jesus was hung on a tree [the cross] *

J7. Darkness or earthquake at Jesus’ death *

J8. Jesus rose from the dead *

J9. Jesus ascended to heaven *

J10. Incarnation of the Word/Jesus *

J11. Word was made/became flesh *

J12. Jesus of the tribe of Judah *

J13. Jesus was born in Bethlehem *

J14. Jesus brought up by Joseph *

J15. Jesus on earth was plain-looking *

J16. Christ/Logos/Son was obedient or learned obedience *

J17. Sign of the cross *

J18. The wood of the cross *

J19. Veil of the Temple torn when Jesus died *

J20. Jesus’ bones were not broken *

J21. Christ emptied Himself *

J22. Jesus asked God why God had forsaken Him *

J23. Calling the crucifixion the Passion *

J24. Some despised Christ *

J25. Jesus rode into Jerusalem on a donkey *

J26. Jesus was beaten/scourged/whipped *

J27. Jesus given vinegar and gall to drink *

J28. Jesus was mocked *

J29. They cast lots for Jesus’ clothes *

J30. Thief/robber on the cross in Paradise *

J31. Jesus’ earthly father was a carpenter *

J32. Christ drove out the money-changers *

J33. Christ prayed that this cup would pass *

J34. The Transfiguration *

J35. Jesus from Galilee *

J36. Jesus said destroy the temple in 3 days… *

J37. Jesus drove money changers out of the Temple *

J38. Jesus [and His family] went to Egypt *

J39. Jesus fasted for 40 days *

TIMELESS TitleS of Jesus *

t1. Jesus is the/our Lord *

t2. King of Kings and/or Lord of Lords *

t3. Jesus is the Alpha and Omega *

t4. Jesus is the Door or Gate *

t5. Christ is the Image of God *

t6. Jesus is the/our Rock/Stone/Cornerstone *

t7. Jesus is the Light or Light of Light *

t8. Jesus is our Shepherd *

t9. Jesus Christ is the Lamb of God *

t10. Jesus is a Lion / as a lion’s whelp *

t11. The Son / Jesus was /was begotten before the morning star *

t12. Jesus/the cross the wisdom and power of God *

t13. Christ is the Holy One of God *

t14. [Christ] the King/Lord of glory *

INCARNATE TitleS of Jesus *

i1. Jesus is the first-born (not just of Mary) *

i2. Christ is the Second/Last Adam *

i3. Jesus called Emmanuel (God with us) *

i4. Jesus is our High Priest *

i5. Jesus is our Physician/Doctor *

i6. Jesus is the Way *

i7. Jesus is the Truth *

i8. Jesus is our/the Life *

i9. Jesus is the Bread or Bread of Life *

i10. Jesus is the Vine *

i11. Jesus is the Messiah *

i12. Jesus a star rising out of Jacob *

i13. Christ is of the root of Jesse *

i14. Jesus is the descendent/seed of David *

i15. Jesus of Nazareth *

i16. Jesus is the first fruits *

i17. Jesus is the son of Abraham *

i18. The sign of Jonah refers to Jesus *

Purpose Of the Life of Jesus *

p1. Jesus sent by the Father *

p2. Jesus saved us/is our Savior *

p3. Jesus was tempted *

p4. Jesus came to suffer [for us] *

p5. Christ is the end/fulfillment of the law *

p6. Jesus/Son of man is Lord of the Sabbath *

p7. Jesus is our Redeemer / redeemed us *

p8. Christ finished His work *

p9. Jesus forgives us / remits sins *

p10. Jesus: the/One Mediator (between God & man) *

p11. Jesus bore our sins/infirmities *

p12. Jesus bore the curse for us *

p13. Christ suffered shame/disgrace *

p14. Jesus was a ransom *

p15. Christ reconciled us *

p16. Christ overcame/triumphed *

p17. Grace and truth by Jesus Christ *

p18. Jesus revealed the Father to us *

p19. Jesus the Paschal Lamb *

p20. Jesus baptized with the Holy Spirit & fire *

p21. Jesus provided purification *

p22. Jesus gives us living water *

p23. Jesus came to save the lost *

p24. Jesus/Christ rescued us *

p25. Do the will of the One who sent Him *

p26. In 1 Jn 2:1 Jesus is our sins’ propitiation *

Teachings on Jesus not on the list *

The Holy Spirit *

H1. Mention of the Holy Spirit *

H2. The Holy Spirit is God *

H3. Person of the Holy Spirit *

H4. Glorify/worship the Holy Spirit *

H5. The Holy Spirit is distinct *

H6. Holy Spirit called Spirit of truth *

H7. Holy Spirit addressed as "He" *

H8. Sevenfold spirit or seven spirits *

H9. The Holy Spirit/Comforter was promised *

H10. Jesus sent the Holy Spirit *

H11. Paraclete or Holy Spirit already present *

H12. Blasphemy against the Holy Spirit *

H13. Holy Spirit dwells/lives in us *

H14. Live in the Spirit *

H15. We can grieve the Holy Spirit *

The Holy Spirit’S WORK *

Hw1. The Power of the Holy Spirit *

Hw2. God’s Spirit moved over abyss/waters *

Hw3. The Holy Spirit spoke Scripture *

Hw4. Sword of the Spirit is the word of God *

Hw5. Christ born of Mary by the Holy Spirit *

Hw6. Holy Spirit appeared as a dove *

Hw7. Holy Spirit came down at Pentecost *

Hw8. Holy Spirit gives gifts *

Hw9. The Holy Spirit is a gift *

Hw10. Fruit of the Spirit *

Hw11. Baptized/washed with the Holy Spirit *

Hw12. The Holy Spirit seals believers *

Hw13. Filled with the Holy Spirit *

Hw14. The Holy Spirit directs *

Hw15. Holy Spirit taught us *

Hw16. The Holy Spirit gives knowledge *

Hw17. Spirit gives us guidance/understanding *

Hw18. The Comforter/Holy Spirit comforts us *

Hw19. Disciples received the Holy Spirit *

Hw20. The Holy Spirit witnesses *

Teachings on the Holy Spirit not on the list *

The Working of God *

W1. God made all things in heaven and earth *

W2. Heaven and earth were created good *

W3. God created things from nothing *

W4. Six days of Creation *

W5. God imparted the breath of life *

W6. Garden of Eden *

W7. Enoch was translated without dying *

W8. Judgment of Noah’s flood / deluge *

W9. God’s appearances in the Old Testament *

W10. Judgment against Sodom or Gomorrah *

W11. The burning bush of Moses *

W12. Plagues of Egypt *

W13. Crossing the Red Sea *

W14. [Moses] battling the Amalekites *

W15. Hezekiah and the Assyrian army *

W16. The star [of Bethlehem] *

W17. Jesus performed miracles *

W18. Jesus fed the 5,000 *

W19. Raising Lazarus from the dead *

W20. The apostle(s) worked miracles *

W21. Tree of knowledge *

W22. Jesus at Cana or turning water to wine *

W23. Four rivers leaving the Garden of Eden *

W24. Ananias or Sapphira killed *

W25. Eve from Adam’s rib *

W26. Ark [of the Covenant] *

W27. Jacob’s ladder *

W28. Water from the rock *

W29. Lot’s wife a pillar of salt *

W30. Christ with the 3 youths in Daniel *

W31. God sends the rain on everyone *

W32. The earth is God’s footstool *

W33. Jacob wrestled with God/an angel *

W34. Abraham’s seed like the stars of heaven *

W35. Manna *

W36. Noah’s ark *

W37. Jesus healed the paralytic man *

W38. God blessed the Seventh Day *

W39. Jesus walked on water/waves/deep *

W40. The firstborn of Egypt perished *

W41. Jesus healed lepers *

W42. Cloud and/or pillar of fire *

W43. Zechariah was made mute [temporarily] *

W44. Scattering after the Tower of Babel *

W45. Healing the widow’s son *

W46. Bronze/brazen serpent in the wilderness *

W47. God confused/altered the languages *

W48. Elisha did miracle(s) *

W49. Jesus calmed the storm *

Teachings on the Work of God not on the list *

People and the Fall *

P1. People are made in the image of God *

P2. Our bodies die but our souls are immortal *

P3. Man fell when Adam and Eve ate the fruit *

P4. Adam & Eve covered themselves for shame *

P5. We have or inherited a sinful nature *

P6. Reason/understanding was darkened *

P7. People are corrupted/corruptible *

P8. People have the will to choose *

P9. All have sinned *

P10. People are hardened *

P11. Idolators/sinners are shameful *

P12. The sinful provoke God *

P13. We are dead in sin *

P14. Works of the flesh / sinful nature *

P15. Ezekiel 18 referring to an individual *

P16. We should tremble at God’s Word *

P17. No way of salvation apart from Christ *

P18. People have guilt *

P19. Salvation/church for all kinds of people *

P20. We are aliens awaiting our eternal home *

P21. World’s wisdom is foolishness to God *

P22. Cross/resurrection is foolish to the world *

P23. Soul shares body’s pain and feelings *

P24. Some people’s conscience is seared as with a hot iron *

P25. Do not trust in man *

P26. People deceive others *

P27. People themselves have broken cisterns *

P28. Some people deceive themselves *

P29. Positive mention of non-Biblical Jews *

P30. No profit to gain the whole world and lose your soul *

P31. People were made of dust *

P32. People are like clay *

P33. People are enslaved by sin / lust / the devil *

P34. The spirit is willing but the flesh is weak *

P35. Kept from the wise/prudent and given to babes *

P36. Those who sin are sin’s servants/slaves *

P37. [Many] Jews rejected Jesus as the Messiah *

Teachings on People not on the list *

Salvation *

S1. O.T. pointed to salvation in Christ in New *

S2. Salvation is a gift of God’s grace *

S3. Jesus’ death paid for our sins *

S4. Saved by Jesus’ blood or dying for us *

S5. Even Jews who reject Jesus will perish *

S6. Believers are God’s elect *

S7. The reprobate (non-elect) will be lost *

S8. Some elect died before knowing Savior *

S9. Some follow Christ for a time, yet perish *

S10. Not saved if living in sin *

S11. Adoption as sons of God *

S12. We need to have faith *

S13. Live by faith *

S14. We are like God’s chickens *

S15. Shipwrecked faith/salvation *

S16. Confidence or assurance of salvation *

S17. Hope in God or Christ *

S18. Our faith is precious *

S19. God’s great, glorious, precious promises *

S20. Mystery of the Lord/faith *

S21. Be born again *

S22. The precious blood of Christ *

S23. Heirs of salvation / Christ / the Lord *

S24. God has called us *

S25. Predestined or predestination *

S26. God can raise from stones children of Abraham *

S27. Jesus bestowed remission of sins *

S28. Many are called but few are chosen *

S29. Faith as a mustard seed *

S30. Narrow is the gate to life *

Teachings on Salvation not on the list *

End Times *

E1. The Antichrist will come -after 125 A.D. *

E2. Heresies and persecution come before Antichrist or Christ’s return *

E3. Before this will be many lesser antichrists *

E4. Jesus will return in glory -after 125 A.D. *

E5. Rapture of believers *

E6. Resurrection of believers / all *

E7. Christ will judge all / quick and dead *

E8. Believers will judge the world or angels *

E9. Believers are sons of God *

E10. Believers will reign with Christ *

E11. Jesus returns in [literal] clouds *

E12. The Tree of Life *

E13. Fulfillment of the Cosmos has come to us *

E14. The End times tribulation *

E15. Every knee will bow to Jesus *

E16. Moon will turn to blood *

E17. Abomination that causes desolation *

E18. God’s future temple on earth/in Jerusalem *

E19. Christ’s coming like the days of Noah *

E20. Meeting the Lord in the clouds *

Revelation Specific *

R1. Seven churches in Revelation *

R2. Two witnesses come before Christ returns *

R3. The Book of Book of Life / the Living *

R4. The Beast or his mark *

R5. The Millennium or the 1,000 years *

R6. Devil and followers cast in Lake of Fire *

R7. Heavenly (24) elders in Revelation *

R8. Woman Babylon in Revelation *

R9. Two-edged sword out of Christ’s mouth *

Teachings on end times and Revelation not on the list *

Ultimate Things - Heaven and Hell *

U1. The Kingdom of God *

U2. The Kingdom of heaven *

U3. Description of God’s throne *

U4. Paul went up to the third heaven *

U5. Reincarnation (transmigration) is wrong *

U6. All who die rejecting Jesus go to Hell *

U7. Unquenchable/eternal fire *

U8. The worm of the lost does not die *

U9. Some lost have more severe judgment *

U10. Those who die are with Christ *

U11. Believers who die are have eternal life *

U12. Believers have rewards in Heaven *

U13. Believers have crowns *

U14. Flesh & blood not inherit God’s kingdom *

U15. We will put on incorruption *

U16. Church/believers are Christ’s bride *

U17. The wedding banquet *

U18. The earth shall pass away *

U19. New Heaven and New earth *

U20. New/heavenly Jerusalem *

U21. Abraham’s bosom *

U22. Outer darkness *

U23. Gates of Hell/Death/Hades *

Teachings on ultimate things not on the list *

Angels *

Ua1. Angels are servants of God *

Ua2. Holy angel(s) *

Ua3. The heavenly host *

Ua4. The archangel Michael *

Ua5. The angel Gabriel *

Ua6. Four Living Creatures / Seraphim *

Ua7. Cherubim *

Ua8. Guardian angels *

Ua9. Angelic / Heavenly powers *

Ua10. Angels worship/praise God/Jesus *

Ua11. Angels rejoice *

Ua12. Angelic hymns / choir(s) *

Ua13. Angels visit shepherds at Christ’s birth *

Ua14. Angels announce/preach the gospel *

Ua15. An angel spoke with Cornelius before he was a believer *

Teachings on Angels not on the list *

DEMONS *

Ud1. Satan / the Devil / Lucifer *

Ud2. Satan/demons fell from heaven *

Ud3. Satan deceives *

Ud4. Serpent beguiled Eve *

Ud5. Satan is a serpent *

Ud6. The Serpent was cursed at the fall *

Ud7. Enmity between serpent and Eve’s seed *

Ud8. Satan is a dragon *

Ud9. The prince of this world/air is evil/Satan *

Ud10. Satan, a murderer from the beginning *

Ud11. Satan looks like an angel of light *

Ud12. Wiles/craftiness of the devil *

Ud13. Demons *

Ud14. Power/principalities of darkness *

Ud15. Demons are worshipped by pagans *

Ud16. Demons deceive / delude people *

Ud17. Devil/demons tempt people *

Ud18. Demons vex/cause harm to people *

Ud19. Demons tremble at/fear Christ *

Ud20. Demons subject to Christ *

Ud21. Satan can have lying wonders *

Ud23. Beelzebub/Baalzebub *

Ud24. Satan sought to sift Peter as wheat *

Ud26. The devil / Satan is a personal being *

Ud27. There are doctrines of demons / devils *

Ud28. [Demons are] unclean spirits *

Teachings on demons not on the list *

PAtriarch Individiuals *

Pat1. Adam and/or Eve *

Pat2. Cain murdered his brother/Abel *

Pat3. Seth [son of Adam and Eve] *

Pat4. Enoch *

Pat5. Noah got drunk *

Pat6. Ham [son of Noah] *

Pat7. Shem [son of Noah] *

Pat8. Japheth [son of Noah] *

Pat9. Canaan [son of Ham] *

Pat10. Job and his sufferings/patience *

Pat11. Abraham [friend of God] *

Pat12. Sarai / Sarah *

Pat13. Lot or his wife *

Pat14. Hagar *

Pat15. Ishmael *

Pat16. Isaac *

Pat17. Abraham offered Isaac as a sacrifice *

Pat18. Rebecca [wife of Isaac] *

Pat19. Laban [Jacob’s father-in-law] *

Pat20. Jacob *

Pat21. Rachel [wife of Jacob] *

Pat22. Leah [wife of Jacob] *

Pat23. Esau *

Pat24. Joseph or his brothers *

Pat25. Benjamin *

Pat26. Dan (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat27. Ephraim (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat28. Judah (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat29. Levi (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat30. Manasseh (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat31. Naphtali (patriarch or tribe) *

Pat32. Zebulun/Zebulon (patriarch, tribe, or land) *

Pat33. Patriarch[s] *

Pat34. The twelve tribes [of Israel] *

Exodus to Solomon Individuals *

ES1. Moses led the Israelites out of Egypt *

ES2. Miriam, sister of Moses *

ES3. Aaron, brother of Moses *

ES4. Pharaoh during the Exodus *

ES5. Korah / Kore *

ES6. Balaam or his donkey *

ES7. Joshua conquered Canaan *

ES8. Rahab of Jericho *

ES9. Jephthah [the judge] *

ES10. Gideon *

ES11. Samson *

ES12. Eli [mentor of Samuel] *

ES13. Samuel *

ES14. Saul [son of Kish] *

ES15. David *

ES16. [King] Saul persecuted David *

ES17. Nathan [the prophet] *

ES18. Uriah [the Hittite] *

ES19. Tamar / Thamar *

ES20. King Solomon was wise *

ES21. Hannah, mother of Samuel *

DIVIDED KINGDOM ON Individuals *

DK1. Jeroboam *

DK2. Ahab *

DK3. Elijah was a godly prophet *

DK4. Hezekiah [godly king] *

DK5. Elisha *

DK6. Naaman [the Syrian leper] *

DK7. Jonah in the fish or warned Ninevites *

DK8. Sennacherib *

DK9. Josiah the godly king *

DK10. Jeconiah/Jechoniah *

DK11. Nebuchadnezzar [King of Babylon] *

DK12. Zedekiah *

DK13. Ezekiel *

DK14. Daniel *

DK15. The three youths in Daniel *

DK16. Cyrus [King of Persia] *

DK17. Darius [King of Persia] *

DK18. Artaxerxes [King of Persia] *

DK19. Ezra the scribe/prophet *

DK20. Zerubbabel *

DK21. Joshua the high priest (in Zechariah) *

DK22. Antiochus [Epiphanes] of Syria *

DK23. The prophets are holy *

Teachings on O. T. individuals not on the list *

New Testament Individuals *

N1. Herod’s slaughter in Bethlehem *

N2. John the Baptist was a godly forerunner *

N3. Simeon [at Jesus’ infancy] *

N4. Peter the disciple/apostle *

N5. Philip the disciple/apostle *

N6. Thomas the disciple/apostle *

N7. Mary Magdalene *

N8. Mary mother of Jesus was blessed *

N9. Judas betrayed Jesus *

N10. High Priest Caiaphas/Herod tried Jesus *

N11. Pontius Pilate sentenced Jesus *

N12. Matthias *

N13. James the Lord’s brother was godly *

N14. Ethiopian eunuch *

N15. Stephen the martyr *

N16. Cornelius the centurion was saved *

N17. Barnabas, companion of Paul *

N18. Paul was a godly apostle *

N19. Apollos *

N20. Jesus’ seventy disciples *

N21. Anna *

N22. Silas, companion of Paul *

N23. Zechariah, husband of Elizabeth *

N24. Magi came to Christ *

N25. Andrew the disciple/apostle *

N26. Zacchaeus *

N27. John the Baptist lept in Elizabeth’s womb *

N28. Saul of Tarsus persecuted the church *

N29. Paul was in prison/bonds *

N30. Elizabeth [mother of John the Baptist] *

N31. Martha *

N32. [Samaritan] Woman at the well *

N33. Barabbas *

N34. Paul was persecuted besides prison *

N35. James son of Zebedee the disciple/apostle *

N36. Shepherds at Jesus’ birth *

N37. Timothy the individual (not just the book) *

Teachings on New Testament individuals not on the list *

Experiencing God *

X1. God/Christ lives inside of Christians *

X2. Our bodies are God’s temple/temples *

X3. Christians escape corruption *

X4. Believers are set free *

X5. God renews us *

X6. We are children of light *

X7. God strengthens us *

X8. We are friends of Christ *

X9. Pure in heart will see God *

X10. None shall separate us from God’s love *

X11. The Lord disciplines or corrects us *

X13. Please the Lord *

X14. Glory in the Lord *

X15. Seek wisdom from God or His word *

X16. Be peaceful, kind, gentle, or good *

X17. Be strong / strengthened *

X18. God’s people mourn *

X19. Fear/reverence of the Lord/God *

X20. We adore/glory in the cross *

X21. God’s holy people *

X22. Speaking of shame *

X23. Put unrighteousness/adversary to shame *

X24. Do not be ashamed of the cross/Christ *

X25. Faith/kingdom of Heaven like a mustard seed *

X26. Flesh and spirit war against each other *

X27. The peace of God *

X28. There is sin unto death *

NOT OF THIS WORLD *

n1. We need to repent and come to God *

n2. Love God / the Lord *

n3. Obey God *

n4. Follow Jesus or His example *

n5. Bear/Take up the cross [and follow Christ] *

n6. Struggle to live a victorious life *

n7. Put on the armor of God/righteousness *

n8. Faithful Christians still get sick *

n9. Suffer persecution or martyrdom *

n10. No sorcery, witchcraft, or magic *

n11. Exorcism or casting out devils *

n12. Live a worthy life *

n13. Mortify earthly nature/deeds of the body *

n14. Be clothed with/in Christ *

n15. You cannot serve two masters *

n16. Martyrs are blessed *

n17. Losing your life and finding it *

n18. Believers are servants of God *

n19. We must persevere *

n20. We are the light of the world *

n21. We wrestle against the devil or sin *

n22. Confess your sins to others *

n23. Keep away from works of darkness *

n24. Don’t be bitter *

n25. Believers are transformed [now] *

n26. The Kingdom of God is within you *

n27. Walk in newness of life *

n28. Some are worthy of martyrdom *

n29. If we deny Christ He will deny us *

n30. We should be patient (1+) *

Teachings on Experience not on the list *

PRAYER AND FASTING *

Pr1. Prayer to God is important *

Pr2. Pray to the Father *

Pr3. Pray to Jesus *

Pr4. Pray at all times or in any place *

Pr5. Pray daily *

Pr6. Praise God *

Pr7. Thankfulness/gratitude to God *

Pr8. Confess to God *

Pr9. Forgive us as we forgive others *

Pr10. Not into temptation *

Pr11. Deliver us from evil *

Pr12. The Lord’s Prayer *

Pr13. Lift up hands to God *

Pr14. Bless or pray for your persecutors *

Pr15. Pray for rulers and those in authority *

Pr16. Incense of the prayers of the saints *

Pr17. Pray that God’s kingdom come *

Pr18. Pray for others / intercessory prayer *

Pr19. Pray for God’s mercy for us *

Pr20. Fasting to God is good *

Pr21. Pray in secret *

Teachings on the Prayer not on the list *

Individual Practice *

I1. Do not worship other gods *

I2. Stars have no influence on people *

I3. Have patience or self-control *

I4. Don’t let the sun go down on your anger *

I5. Have pure speech *

I6. Forsake lies *

I7. Do not get drunk *

I8. Eating meat is fine *

I9. Do not be a glutton or slave of your belly *

I10. Vanity, or avoid vain things *

I11. Virtue of prudence *

I12. Do not provoke God *

I13. Work hard, don’t be lazy *

I14. Be godly *

I15. Don’t use flattery (on others) *

I16. Eating meats forbidden to Jews OK *

I17. Depart from evil *

I18. Worship God in spirit and truth *

I19. Keep the commandments of Christ/God *

I20. It’s bad to be a hypocrite *

I21. Do not worship any images or idols *

I22. Rule of faith / truth *

Teachings on Individual Practice not on the list *

Loving Others *

L1. Love all / your neighbor as yourself *

L2. Forgive others/enemies; turn other cheek *

L3. Do not get revenge *

L4. Do not be a gossip or chatterer *

L5. Do to others as you would them do to you *

L6. Do not murder *

L7. Abortion is evil/murder *

L8. Care for the sick *

L9. Practice hospitality *

L10. Love covers a multitude of sins *

L11. Show mercy/pity to others *

L12. Slandering people is bad *

L13. Should be peacemakers or seek peace *

L14. Cruelty is bad *

L15. Visit those in prison *

L16. Do not hold a grudge *

L17. Don’t rejoice at your neighbor’s misfortune (1+) *

Teachings on Practice Not on the List *

MONEY AND CONTENTMENT *

M1. Do not love money *

M2. No stealing or financial dishonesty *

M3. Help the poor *

M4. Help widows or orphans *

M5. Heavenly treasure; don’t fear earthly loss *

M6. Do not envy or be jealous *

M7. Do not covet *

M8. Be humble or not proud *

M9. Be content with what you have *

M10. We rejoice when afflicted *

M11. We rejoice – besides being afflicted *

M12. No selfish ambition *

M13. No bribes *

M14. No usury / lending to needy with interest *

M15. Don’t be wise in your own eyes/conceit *

M16. Cannot serve both God and Mammon *

M17. Love of money root of all evils *

M18. Strive for godliness, not gain *

M19. Lazarus and the rich man *

M20. Offering money/possessions to God *

M21. God’s house not to be a den of robbers / thieves *

M22. Blessed are the poor *

M23. Give in secret *

M24. No rivalry *

M25. No strife / striving in the flesh *

M26. Don’t worry about tomorrow / lilies of the field *

Teachings on money and contentment not on the list *

Church Assembling Together *

Ca1. Christians met together on Sunday *

Ca2. Sing hymns to God, the Father, or Jesus *

Ca3. Practice water baptism *

Ca4. Observe the Lord’s Supper *

Ca5. No more animal or blood sacrifices *

Ca6. No need to celebrate the Sabbath (except can fast) *

Ca7. Learn from prior church writers/councils *

Ca8. Cheer up/encourage other believers *

Ca9. Correct other believers *

Ca10. Calling ourselves Christians *

Ca11. Mention of Easter/Pascha[l] *

Ca12. Calling the Lord’s Supper the Eucharist *

Ca13. Shun alleged believers persisting in sin *

Ca14. The Church is the body of Christ *

Ca15. Footwashing *

Ca16. Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, Holy Spirit *

Ca17. We are the flock of Christ *

Ca18. Musical choir *

Ca19. Church(es) of God *

Ca20. Church(es) of Christ *

Teachings on Church Assembling Together not on the list *

Church Leadership *

C1. Obey authority of godly church leaders *

C2. The Church/Christians should have unity *

C3. Excommunicate or separate from heretics *

C4. Bishop(s) *

C5. Church leaders should accept each other *

C6. Reject unchristian church leader authority *

C7. Remove leaders fallen in gross sin/heresy *

C8. Concept of one universal church *

C9. Churches should greet other churches *

C10. Tradition of the apostles or the church *

C11. Ordination [of bishops] *

C12. Priesthood of all believers *

C13. Christ the head of the church *

C14. Church leaders are shepherds *

C15. The episcopate [office of bishop] *

C16. Elders/presbyters *

C17. Deacons *

C18. Sub-deacons *

C19. Catechumens *

C20. Must be worthy of being a bishop/priest *

Teaching on the church leadership not on the list *

Family and Marriage *

F1. Honor marriage, no extra-marital relations *

F2. No divorce, except for unfaithfulness *

F3. We should be pure *

F4. Do not watch violent or lewd shows *

F5. No homosexuality *

F6. We should honor our parents *

F7. Cherish and nurture our family *

F8. Having kids is fine within marriage *

F9. Celibacy is better than marriage *

F10. Remarriage OK after death of spouse *

F11. No incestual relations *

F12. Do not love family more than Jesus *

F13. Do not kill/expose infants *

F14. Two become one flesh *

F15. No gladiators *

F16. We should be modest *

F17. Train your kids in the Lord *

F18. Eve was Adam’s bone and flesh *

F19. Do not lust (sexually) *

Teachings on Family not on the list *

King, Government, and LAws *

K1. Honor the king or government *

K2. Obey government [when not against God] *

K3. Do not aid in persecuting Christians *

K4. Pay taxes *

K7. Officials ought to be just *

K8. Disobey or change unjust laws *

K9. Providence, or God governing the world *

K10. Christ is king, or kingdom of Christ *

K11. Christians should not be in lawsuits *

K12. Citizens of Heaven *

Teachings on Government not on the list *

KERYGMATIC AND IRENIC EVANGELISM *

k1. Preach the gospel to others *

k2. Bold proclamation of truth *

k3. Quoting God’s word to unbelievers *

k4. Sharing personal testimonies *

k5. Creative allegories or metaphors *

k6. Quoting poetry to share truth *

k7. Promises of heaven or God’s love *

k8. Threats of Hell or God’s wrath *

k9. Mortal life is fleeting/short *

k10. Martyrs blood is a testimony *

k11. Use of Catena of 3 or more verses *

k12. Moses is older than Homer *

k13. Cross / Christ a stumbling block to Jews *

k14. Jesus or us speaking in parables *

k15. Parable of the sheep and the goats *

k16. Parable of the prodigal son *

k17. Parable of the wheat and tares *

k18. Parable of the persistent/importune widow *

k19. We want nonbelievers to get saved (1+) *

Teachings on kerygmatic and irenic evangelism not on the list *

APOLOGETIC EVANGELISM *

a1. Answering questions of others *

a2. Using questions *

a3. Showing misconceptions/contradictions *

a4. Psalm 110:1-2 can only refer to Christ *

a5. Nature witnesses to God *

a6. Appeal to science *

a7. First Cause (cosmological argument) *

a8. Only One is supreme *

a9. Morality vs. evil in other religions *

a10. Appeal to historians *

a11. Using chronology in apologetics *

a12. Isaiah 7:14 refers to Christ *

a13. Isaiah 53 refers to Christ *

a14. Daniels’ 70 weeks messianic prophecy *

a15. Zechariah 12:10-12 refers to Christ *

a16. Micah refers to Christ *

HARSHER EVANGELISTIC METHODS *

h1. Debate and argument in witnessing *

h2. Do not throw pearls before swine *

h3. Don’t give what is holy to the dogs *

h4. Calling other beliefs delusion(s) *

h5. Apologetic use of Plato’s Timaeus *

h6. Apologetic use of the tomb of Jupiter/Zeus *

h7. Pointing out adulteries of Greek gods *

h8. Humor or wit in witnessing *

h9. Harsh rebuke in witnessing *

h10. Calling people names *

h11. Ridicule or sarcasm *

h12. Thyestean [cannibalistic] banquet *

h13. Mention of Oedipus *

h14. Calling other beliefs fables *

h15. Calling other beliefs superstition *

h16. Cannibalism of Kronos/Saturn *

h17. Incest of Zeus/Jupiter *

Teachings on Harsher Evangelism methods not on the list *

Refute Heretical Groups *

r1. No mixing Christ and other religions *

r2. Be on guard against error *

r3. Beware of wolves/false prophets *

r4. Dispute against Sabellian Oneness *

r5. The heretic Cerinthus *

r6. Dispute with Ebionites / Hebion [from Cerinthus] *

r7. Nicolaitans *

r8. Simon Magus and his heresy/error *

r9. Against Carpocrates (from Simon) *

r10. Avoid Docetic belief – not suffer in flesh *

r11. Against the Gnostic Menander, disciple of Simon Magus *

r12. Against Marcion *

r13. Dispute against Valentinian Gnostics *

r14. Against the Valentinian Gnostic Heracleon *

r15. Dispute against Sethian/Ophite Gnostics *

r16. Against the Gnostic heretic Apelles *

r17. Against the Gnostic Heretic Basilides *

r18. Dispute against Encratite Gnostics *

r19. Against the Encratite Saturninus/Saturnilus *

r20. Dispute against other Gnostics *

Teachings on Heretical Groups not on the list *

Dispute Against Other Errors *

D1. Do not judge/condemn others *

D2. Dispute against Judaism *

D3. Against the Pharisees *

D4. Errors of the Sadducees *

D5. Sadducees wrong to deny resurrection *

D6. Dispute philosophy that denies one God *

D7. Against Pythagoras *

D8. Errors of Aristotle *

D9. Against Stoics *

D10. Dispute against Epicureans *

D11. Against Cynic philosophy *

D12. Religion can be bad *

D13. Dispute against Greco-Roman paganism *

D14. No Spiritism or the Occult *

D15. Dispute against the Magi / Zoroastrians *

D16. Against Mithras *

D17. Dispute Druid or other European myths *

D18. Dispute against Indian Bra[c]hmans *

D19. Dispute Chaldean/Babylonian religion *

D20. Against Egyptian religion *

D21. Against the religion of Scythians *

D22. Against Syrian or Arabian religions *

D23. Against Pyrrho the philosopher *

D24. Socrates even said he had a demon *

D25. Against [Phrygian] Great Mother *

D26. We are not ruled by fate *

Teachings on refuting other groups not on the list *

MANY Christians would Agree *

m1. God is timeless or before/ beyond time *

m2. Jesus appeared on earth prior to His birth *

m3. Mention of the laity or clergy *

m4. The church can be called the city of God *

m5. People have free will / choice *

m6. Babylon refers to Rome *

m7. There are greater/mortal and lesser sins *

m8. Christians can lose their salvation *

m9. God knows all things in the future *

m10. Jesus preached to the dead *

m11. Religion is/can be good *

m12. Drinking wine is OK *

m13. No food sacrificed to idols *

Disputed PArts *

d1. Miracle healings in post-Acts church *

d2. Seventy Septuagint translators *

d3. God is not composite *

d4. God is impassable (without passion) *

d5. Some fallen angels sinned with women *

d6. Against jewelry or false/dyed hair *

d7. Christians must fast on certain days *

d8. No drinking or eating blood *

d9. No worshipping true God with images *

d10. Prophets proclaimed 2 advents of Christ *

d11. Prophesy in church after Acts *

d12. Number of nations according to angels *

d13. Christ appeared as/can be called an angel *

d14. Tread on serpents and scorpions *

d15. God is ineffable or indescribable *

d16. The angel Raphael *

d17. People themselves can have a worthiness related to salvation *

d18. Tobias *

d19. Susannah *

ERRORS *

e1. Incorrect references to Bible verses *

e2. Misquoted or unknown Bible verses *

e3. Over-allegorical Bible interpretation *

e4. Four elements make up the world *

e5. Atoms do not really exist *

e6. Errors on hyena, phoenix, or other animals *

e7. Errors on geography or tribes *

e8. Collective guilt of the Jews *

e9. Errors on people *

 

Bible Importance

 

B1. Study or obey God’s Word as an authority

 

Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40; 2 Timothy 3:16, (partial) Hebrews 4:12

2 Peter 3:1-2 Peter puts his words and the other apostles’ words as the same authority as the Old Testament

John 2:22

2 John 5-6 the commandments that John wrote. The commandment heard from the beginning.

(partial) 1 Thessalonians 4:15 "according to the Lord’s own word"

 

Scripture is not just "suggestions for life", but we must take its authority in our lives as seriously as our Lord and Biblical writers meant. John 10:35; Matthew 4:1-11; John 14:23-24; 2 Peter 1:19-21;3:16; Romans 3:1-4; 2 Timothy 3:15-16; Proverbs 30:5-6; Amos 8:11-2; Isaiah 66:5

;Ps119:74,81,89, 92,105

The entire Bible is authoritative, trustworthy, primary, and complete. Proverbs 30:5-6; 2 Timothy 3:16; 2 Samuel 22:31; Psalm 33:4;119:72,97,105,120,151; Proverbs 30:5-6

Acts 1:16 (partial) Scripture had to be fulfilled and in Acts 1:20 quotes Psalm 109:8 as by David.

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (partial – for the word of God) Hebrews 4:12

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) (implied) John 2:22; 7:38

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 12:38-40

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Matthew 21:13,16; Acts 13:34-35 (Psalms, Isaiah)

p30 1 Thessalonians 4:12-13,16-17; 5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28; 2 Thessalonians 1:1-2; 2:1,9-11 (25 verses) (ca.225 A.D.) (partial) 1 Thessalonians 5:27 "I charge you beore the Lord to have this letter read to all the brothers."

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:1-13; 28-40 refers to many Old Testament stories as fact.

p17 Hebrews 9:12-19 (late 3rd century) (implied) refers to Numbers 19:9,17; Exodus 24:6-8 as an authority on sacrifices.

0232 2 John 1-9 (ca.300 A.D.) obey the commandments which John wrote, which was not a new commandment. 2 John 5-6

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; John 7:38; 12:38-40

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Look carefully into the Scriptures, which are the true utterances of the Holy Spirit. Observe that nothing of an unjust or counterfeit character is written in them." 1 Clement ch.45 p.16.

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Ye understand, beloved, ye understand well the Sacred Scriptures, and ye have looked very earnestly into the oracle of God. Call then these things to your remembrance. When Moses went…" and he quotes Exodus 32:7-10. 1 Clement ch.53 p.19

The Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) ch.15 p.277 mentions that we should worship God the Creator, give hear to His incorruptible words, to escape from condemnation and punishment, and be found as heirs of life everlasting.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.13 p.145 "Hear ye now what the Scripture saith concerning the people." And then refers to Genesis 25:21.

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.14 p.521 appeals to scripture as "Scripture says", and right after that, "the Books and the Apostles"

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) "For I trust that ye are well verses in the Sacred Scriptures, and that nothing is hid from you; but to me this privilege is not yet granted." Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.12 p.35

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) says, "Are you acquainted with them, Trypho? They are contained in your Scriptures, or rather not yours, but ours. For we believe them; but though you read them, do not catch the spirit that is in them." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.29 p.209

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "I [Justin] replied again, ‘If I could not have proved to you from the Scriptures that one of those three is God, and is called Angel, because, as I already said, He brings messages to those to whom God the Maker of all things wishes…’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.56 p.223

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) (partial) section 37 p.101 says that "it is not possible in the scripture that anything should be undone"

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) discusses those who attack God, God’s knowledge, His operation, and "those books which follow by a regular and strict sequence from these, and delineate for us the doctrines of piety." The Resurrection of the Dead ch.31 p.149

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) proves many things about Christ and His passion from the Old Testament. From the Oration on Our Lord’s Passion ch.9 p.760-761.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "We have collected together extracts from the Law and the Prophets relating to those things which have been declared concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, that we may prove to your love that this Being is perfect reason, the Word of God;" On Faith ch.4 vol.8 p.756

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "But do you also, if you please, give reverential attention to the prophetic Scriptures, and they will make your way plainer for escaping the eternal punishments and obtaining the eternal prizes of God." Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) uses proofs from Scripture in many places, including Against Heresies book 4 ch.24.1 p.495

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) proves his point by "as Scripture declares". Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.52. See also ch.68.

Polycrates of Ephesus (196 A.D.) "I … have read through all Holy Scripture, am not frightened at the things which are said to terrify us. For those who are greater than I have said, ‘We ought to obey God rather than men. [Acts 4:19, 5:29]’" Epistle to Victor and the Roman Church vol.8 p.774

Caius (190-217 A.D.) ch.2.1 p.601 "And perhaps what they allege might be credible, did not the Holy Scriptures contradict them." Then he mentions earlier church writers.

Apollonius of Ephesus (c.210 A.D.) "Do you not think that Scripture forbids a prophet to receive gifts and money?" Concerning Montanism ch.2 vol.8 p.776

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) scripture has "omnipotent authority" Stromata book 4 ch.1 p.409

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Now the Scripture kindles the living spark of the soul, and directs the eye suitably for contemplation; perchance inserting something, as the husbandman when he ingrafts, but, according to the opinion of the divine apostle [Paul] exciting what is in the soul." And then quotes 1 Corinthians 11:31,32. Stromata book 5 ch.1 p.301

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For what things the Scripture speaks were written for our instruction, that we, through patience and the consolation of the Scriptures, might have the hope of consolation." (Romans 15:4) Stromata book 4 ch.5 p.412

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And again: 'Study to show thyself approved unto God, a workman that needeth not to be ashamed, rightly dividing the word of truth.'" Stromata book 1 ch.1 p.299

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Now they who reject that Scripture can neither belong to the Holy Spirit, seeing that they cannot acknowledge that the Holy Ghost has been sent as yet to the disciples, nor can they presume to claim to be a church themselves,…" On Prescription Against Heretics ch.22 p.253.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "We assemble to read our sacred writings, … However it be in that respect, with the sacred words we nourish our faith, we animate our hope, we make our confidence more steadfast; and no less by inculcations of God’s precepts we confirm good habits." Apology ch.39 p.46

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament as an "authority". Tertullian on Modesty ch.2 p.76. He says to meditate on it in On Modestry ch.6 p.79.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Our denial of his existence will be all the more peremptory, because of the fact that the attribute which is alleged in proof of it belongs to that God who has been already revealed. Therefore the ‘New Testament’ will appertain to none other than Him who promised it - if not ‘its letter’, yet ‘its spirit;’ and herein will lie it newness." Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.452

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) appealed to scripture many times for his arguments, including Tertullian’s Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.4 p.437

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) was fearful in writing lest anyone think he was trying to "add some new word or precept to the doctrine of the gospel of the New Testament". The Exordium fragment 1 vol.7 p.335

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "There is, brethren, one God, the knowledge of whom we gain from the Holy Scriptures, and from no other source." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.9 p.227

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "Let us then look at the testimony of Scripture with respect to the announcement of the future manifestation of the Word." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.12 p.228’

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "I have thought it right to set these matters of inquiry clearly forth to your view, drawing largely from the Holy Scriptures themselves as from a holy fountain, in order that you may not only have the pleasure of hearing them on the testimony of men, but may also be able, by surveying them in the light of (divine) authority, to glorify God in all." Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.1 p.204

Theodotus the probably Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "so also, when Scripture is read, one is helped to faith, another to morality, and a third is freed from superstition by the knowledge of things." Excepts from Theodotus ch.28 p.47

Theodotus the probably Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "We must, then, search the Scriptures accurately, since they are admitted to be expressed in parables, and from the names run out the thoughts which the Holy Spirit, propounding respecting things, teaches by imprinting His mind, so to speak, on the expressions" Excepts from Theodotus ch.32 p.47

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) "In the law, the Lord of heaven, and earth, and sea has commanded, saying, Worship not vain gods made by your own hands" Instructions of Commodianus ch.2 p.203

Origen (230-235 A.D.) "3. Do you then, my son, diligently apply yourself to the reading of the sacred Scriptures. Apply yourself, I say." Letter from Origen to Gregory ch.3 p.394

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "…ancient Jewish writings, which we also use, but especially from those which were composed after the time of Jesus, and which are believed among the churches to be divine." Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.45 p.482

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "If we seek to bring these words up to the Savior according to the worthiness of the Word and according to the truth, it is necessary to take the Scriptures as witnesses. For without witnesses, our interpretations and exegeses are unfaithful." Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 1 ch.7.3 p.9

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) says that we should not hesitate to declare what the Scripture does not shrink from declaring. "The truth of faith should not hesitate where the authority of Scripture has never hesitated." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.621

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "But even as we hold, and read, and believe this, thus we ought to pass over no portion of the heavenly Scriptures, since indeed also we ought by no means to reject those marks of Christ’s divinity which are laid down in the Scriptures, that we may not, by corrupting the authority of the Scriptures, be held to have corrupted the integrity of our holy faith." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.30 p.642

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.3 p.658 accusing the Novatianists of only reading instead of understanding the heavenly scriptures. It then quotes from Isaiah 42:19 as by Isaiah and Numbers 5:2 as by Moses.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.9 p.659 says that Scripture cries to repent.

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.1 p.667 speaks of people who are irreverently against the precept of the law and of all the Scriptures.

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.1 p.668 says it will "as is needful collect into one mass whatever passages of the Holy Scriptures are pertinent to this subject."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "a large number of bishops, whom their faith and the divine protection had preserved in soundness and safety, we met together; and the divine Scriptures being brought forward on both sides, we balance the decision with wholesome moderation,…" Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.6 p.328

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Divine Scripture proves this, when it says, …" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.24 p.429

Moyses, Maximum, and Nicostratus (248-257 A.D.) say "Certainly their spirits are to be cheered and to be nourished up to the season of their maturity, and they are to be instructed from the Holy Scriptures how great and surpassing a sin they [the lapsed] have committed." Letter to Cyprian 25 ch.6 p.304.

Novatus of Thamguda at the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.566 under Cyprian says that "all the Scriptures give witness concerning the saving baptism"

Pontus (after 258 A.D.) (implied) "when he [Cyprian] had learned from the reading of Scripture certain things not according to the condition of his noviciate, but in proportion to the earliness of his faith, he immediately laid hold of what he had discovered, for his own advantage in deserving well of God." The Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.2 p.268

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions "the demonstration and teaching of the Holy Scriptures". Two books on the Promises ch.2 p.82

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) mentions "divine Scripture" in ch.1 and uses Moses in Deuteronomy [32:6] to "convict" these men. Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians (ANF vol.7) ch.2 p.365

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.) "are not only unable to make that good by the authority of Scripture, but turn also into the crime of sacrilege and contumacy, and incur the peril of their souls;" The Paschal Canon ch.7 p.148

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) "Let no day pass by without reading some portion of the Sacred Scriptures, at such convenient hour as offers, and giving some space to meditation. And never cast off the habit of reading in the Holy Scriptures; for nothing feeds the soul and enriches the mind so well as those sacred studies do." Letter of Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria, to Lucianus, the Chief Chamberlain ch.9 p.161

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "I accept all the canonical [scriptures]. Dialogue on the True Faith 5th part ch.e19 p.173. See also ibid fourth part ch.424a p.129 on Genesis 1:2.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) From what Scriptures do you propose to prove this?" Dialogue on the True Faith Second part ch.10 p.87

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Let us be guided by the Scriptures!" Dialogue on the True Faith Fifth part b 15 p.167

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) says this is what we gladly know by Scripture. Commentary on the Apocalypse from the second chapter no.18 p.347

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) mentions "the divine and holy Scriptures" Letter of Phileas to the People of Thmuis ch.1 p.162

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) (implied) refers to Jesus as "born of a virgin, according to the Scriptures, and became man," Creed of Lucian of Antioch in The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff vol.2 p.26-27

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Now the whole spiritual mediation of the Scriptures is given to us as salt which stings in order to benefit, and which disinfects, without which it is impossible for a soul, by means of reason, to be brought to the Almighty; for ‘ye are the salt of the earth,’ said the Lord to the apostles." [Matthew 5:13] The Banquet of the Ten Virgins book 1 discourse 1 ch.1 p.311

Theophilus (events c.315 A.D.) "Habib said: I worship not a man, because the Scripture teaches me, ‘Cursed is every one that putteth his trust in man;’ [Jeremiah 17:5] but God, who took upon Him a body and became a man, Him do I worship and glorify." Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon vol.8 p.693

Theophilus (events c.315 A.D.) "Now Habib, who was of the village of Telzeha and had been made a deacon, went secretly into the churches which were in the villages, and ministered and read the Scriptures, and encouraged and strengthened many by his words," Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon vol.8 p.690

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-310/311 A.D.) (implied) "and in this, according to the Word, when he speaks of the day of our holy festivity, which the election hath attained; but the rest have become hardened, as said the Scripture; and after other things." Fragment 5 : That up to the time of the destruction of Jerusalem… ch.1 p.281

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "But the godly teaching and the faith according to Christ brands their foolish language as godlessness. Then he quotes Genesis 1:1. Incarnation of the Word ch.3.1 p.37

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that those who conspired against Jesus were ignorant of the sacred scriptures which foretold these things many age before by His prophets. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.18 p.119.

 

Among corrupt or spurious books

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 236 A.D.) says that the scriptures were instruction for us. Discourse on the End of the World ch.21 p.247

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.41 p.237 appealed to scripture to judge truth.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.10 p.240 Peter says, "But we also can easily show many passages from them [the Scriptures] that He who made the world alone is God, and that there is none other besides Him. But if any one shall wish to speak otherwise, he also shall be able to produce proofs from them at his pleasure. For the Scriptures say all manner of things, that no one of those who inquire ungratefully may find the truth, but simply what he wishes to find, the truth being reserved for the grateful; now gratitude is to preserve our love to Him who is the cause of our being."

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.48 p.245 used scripture to prove his point.

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.1 p.215 says they should only believe according to the Scriptures and mentions the prophets. They do not let anyone teach unless they have first learned how the Scriptures must be used.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 10 ch.42 p.203 "authority of the Scriptures".

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.75 p.134 appeals to Scripture. See also book 1 ch.68 p.95

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) Epistle 1 ch.3 p.56 appeals to scripture.

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) Epistle 2 ch.4 p.62 appeals to scripture.

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius appeals to scripture. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.2 p.36 and ch.4 p.40

Marinus (c.300 A.D.) a Bardasene, in disputing with Adamantius, said to reject philosophical speculations and be guided only by the scriptures. Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part ch.b 15 p.167

Marinus (c.300 A.D.) a follower of Bardasanes, "The teaching of Christians stands by faith and the scriptures, so we must convince or be convinced from Scriptures." Dialogue on the True Faith in God fourth part d12 p.144

 

B2. Old Testament has God’s words; study it

 

Luke 4:18-19,21; Luke 6:10; 24:44

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 4:12

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 19:37

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 12:38-40

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Matthew 21:13,16; Acts 13:34-35 (Psalms, Isaiah)

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 11:1-13; 28-40 refers to many Old Testament stories as fact. Hebrews 3:7-11 quotes Numbers and Deuteronomy

p20 - James 2:19-3:2 (6 out of 96 letters of 3:3; 3:4-9 (3rd century A.D.) appeals to Genesis 22:9-12 in James 2:21-22

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) The law and the prophets "testify" in Romans 3:21. See also appeals to Isaiah in Romans 9:27.

p70 – Matthew 2:13-16; 2:22-3:1; 11:26-27; 12:4-5; 24:3-6,12-25 (3rd century A.D.) Jesus appeals to the law. Matthew 12:5

p17 Hebrews 9:12-19 (late 3rd century) (implied) refers to Numbers 19:9,17; Exodus 24:6-8 as an authority on sacrifices.

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 4:18-19,21; 24:44

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; 6:10; 24:44

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 4:18-19,21; 6:10; 24:44

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Ye understand, beloved, ye understand well the Sacred Scriptures, and ye have looked very earnestly into the oracle of God. Call then these things to your remembrance. When Moses went…" 1 Clement ch.53 vol.1 p.19 (See also vol.9 p.245)

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "For thus says God: ‘Let us make man in Our image, and after Our likeness.’" 1 Clement ch.33 vol.1 p.13-14 (vol.9 p.238-239). See also quotes Isaiah 6:3 as Scripture in ch.34 vol.1 p.14 (See also vol.9 p.239)

Ignatius of Antioch (100-107/116 A.D.) "And let us also love the prophets, because they too have proclaimed the Gospel, and placed their hope in Him, and waited for Him" Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.5 p.82

Didache (before 125 A.D.) ch.2 vol.7 p.377 discusses Exodus 20:13,14,15,16,17.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 p.139 "For to this end the Lord endured to deliver up His flesh to corruption, that we might be sanctified through the remission of sins, which is effected by His blood of sprinkling. For it is written concerning Him, partly with reference to Israel, and partly to us; and [The Scripture] saith thus: ‘He was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities: with His stripes we are healed…" (Isaiah 53:5,7)

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.4 p.138-139 quotes Exodus 31:18 and 34:28 as "Scripture says"

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.6 p.518 (See also vol.9 p.252) "For thus also saith the Scripture in Ezekiel, ‘If Noah, Job, and Daniel should rise up, they should not deliver their children in captivity.’"

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) quotes from Isaiah and other books in many places to establish truth in his dialogue. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.110 p.254 and many other places.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 22 p.78 says that if they believed Moses they should believe Jesus.

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) says that the Holy Spirit operated in the prophets. A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions the "Old Testament" and lists the books in fragment 4 from the Book of Extracts vol.8 p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) book 1 ch.14 p.93 "At the same time, I met with the sacred Scriptures of the holy prophets, who also by the Spirit of God foretold the things that have already happened,…" Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93. See also book 1 ch.14 p.93

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice. But what else is this voice but the Word of God, who is also His Son?" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.22 p.103

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.34.1 p.563, and the Old Testament on p.564

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 mentions the Old Testament.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Numbers 6:9 as by Moses. The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.210

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) discusses in detail Genesis 2:21,23; 3:5,19; 4:10 then says, "This is the answer I should give in defence of the Scriptures before us, for seeming here to set forth the formation of the heaven and the earth,..." Against Hermogenes ch.32 p.495. See also Against Praxeas (c.213 A.D.) ch.12 p.607 ( Genesis 1:3) ch.13 p.608 (Genesis 19:24).

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) says concerning the law, "blessed (is) the man who shall meditate by day and by night." Tertullian on Modesty ch.6 p.79

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "The form of it which He uses- ‘He that despiseth you, despiseth me’ -the Creator had also addressed to Moses: ‘Not against thee have they murmured, but against me.’" [Numbers 14:27] Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.24 p.388

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Tertullian’s Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.6 p.351.

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) mentions "the Old Testament prophets, or any of the New". from book 3 ch.9 p.337.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "But not to confine ourselves to these words and arguments alone, for the purpose of convincing those who love to study the oracles of God, we shall demonstrate the matter by many other proofs. For Daniel says, ‘And these shall escape out of his hand, even Edom, and Moab, and the chief of the children of Ammon.’" Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.51 p.215

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "The Spirit by Osee [Hosea] says," and quotes part of Hosea 5:2. Excerpts of Theodotus ch.5 p.43. He also quotes Hosea 1:2,7,10,11; 5:2,8

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) proves his point by quoting Deuteronomy 17:6. Excerpts of Theodotus ch.13 p.44.

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament claims concerning Christ. Instructions of Commodianus ch.25 p.207

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "…ancient Jewish writings, which we also use, but especially from those which were composed after the time of Jesus, and which are believed among the churches to be divine." Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.45 p.482

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) refers to the "Old Testament" in Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.24 p.620. He mentions the Old and New Testaments in Commentary on John (c.227-240 A.D.) book 5 ch.4 p.348.

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627 and ch.30 p.642-643.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.3 p.658 accuses the Novatians of only reading instead of understanding the heavenly scriptures. It then quotes from Isaiah 42:19 as by Isaiah and Numbers 5:2 as by Moses.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "plain that he is a heretic who believes on another God, or receives another Christ than Him whom the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament manifestly declare."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 ch.4 p.509

Pelaginaus of Luperciana at the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) quotes parts of 1 Kings 18:21 "It is written, ‘Either the Lord is God, or Baal is God.’" Spoken by p.570

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) says he was taught not to put his trust in philosophers, but in God and his prophets. Oration and Panegyric to Origen argument 15 p.36

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-256 A.D.) quotes part of Job 14:1 as scripture. From the Books on Nature fragment 3 p.86.

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "For the doctrine of the foolish Marcion, which cuts and divides the monarchy into three elements, is assuredly of the devil, and is not of Christ’s true disciples… For these [true disciples] indeed rightly know that the Trinity is declared in the divine Scripture, but that the doctrine that there are three gods is neither taught in the Old nor the New Testament." Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians ch.1 p.365

Anatolius of Alexandria (270-280 A.D.) quotes from the Old Testament to prove his case. "Accordingly, it is not the case, as certain calculators of Gaul allege, that this assertion is opposed by that passage in Exodus, where we read: ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the first month, at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread until the one-and-twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses.’ From this they maintain that it is quite permissible to celebrate the Passover on the twenty-first day of the moon; understanding that if the twenty-second day were added, there would be found eight days of unleavened bread. A thing which cannot be found with any probability, indeed, in the Old Testament, as the Lord, through Moses, gives this charge: ‘Seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread.’" ch.8 p.148

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) (partial, does not mention Old Testament) "Let no day pass by without reading some portion of the Sacred Scriptures, at such convenient hour as offers, and giving some space to meditation. And never cast off the habit of reading in the Holy Scriptures; for nothing feeds the soul and enriches the mind so well as those sacred studies do." Letter of Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria, to Lucianus, the Chief Chamberlain ch.9 p.161

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) quotes Isaiah 53:5 as an authority to prove his point. (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith First part 820a 27 p.72

Alexander of Lycopolis (301 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Scriptures in his refutation called Of the Manichaeans ch.5 p.243.

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "And the books of the Old Testament that are received are twenty-four" Commentary on the Apocalypse from the four chapter no.8 p.349

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John ch.15 (2nd time) p.345

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-310/311 A.D.) quotes Ecclesiastes 1:15 as "For in them is fulfilled what was spoken by the Preacher" The Canonical Epistle canon 4 p.270

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament in The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.2 p.348. He specifically mentions Leviticus in The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 6 ch.4 p.330

Theophilus (events c.315 A.D.) "Habib said: I worship not a man, because the Scripture teaches me, ‘Cursed is every one that putteth his trust in man;’ [Jeremiah 17:5] but God, who took upon Him a body and became a man, Him do I worship and glorify." Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon vol.8 p.693

Theophilus (events c.315 A.D.) (partial) "Now Habib, who was of the village of Telzeha and had been made a deacon, went secretly into the churches which were in the villages, and ministered and read the Scriptures, and encouraged and strengthened many by his words," Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon vol.8 p.690

Athanasius (318 A.D.) refers to Psalms 22:16 as one of many scriptures by "the prophets". Incarnation of the Word ch.35.4 p.55

Athanasius (318 A.D.) proves his point by quoting Deuteronomy 21:23 "cursed is he who hangs on a tree." Incarnation of the Word ch.25.2 p.49

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But all Scripture is divided into two Testaments. That which preceded the advent and passion of Christ-that is, the law and the prophets-is called the Old; but those things which were written after His resurrection are named the New Testament." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.122

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "And to confirm this insane doctrine, playing with Holy Scripture, they [Arians] bring forward what is said in the Psalms respecting Christ:" and quote Psalm 45:7. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.3 p.292

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.1 p.215 says they should only believe according to the Scriptures and mentions the prophets. They do not let anyone teach unless they have first learned how the Scriptures must be used.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.68 p.95 appeals to the autority of the law and prophets. See also book 2 ch.38 p.107

X most Gnostics

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

Bardesan/Bardesaines of Syria (154-224/232 A.D.) (allusion) "All the Jews, who received the law through Moses, circumcise their male children on the eighth day," He goes on to show this as another example that we should not wait on stars or astrology, but obey God. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.733

Elchasaite Ebionites (before 236 A.D.) accepted the Old Testament. They taught that believers ought to be circumcised and live according to the law. They taught that Christ had been born on earth a number of times. This is according to Hippolytus in Refutation of All Heresies book 9 ch.9 p.132

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) shows that the scriptures of the Jews are an authority. book 2 ch.38 p.107

Marinus (c.300 A.D.) a Bardesene, in disputing with Adamantius, appealed to the "Old Testament" and referred to David as a prophet. Dialogue on the True Faith ch.862a 20 p.173

Marinus (c.300 A.D.) a follower of Bardesanes, said that scripture said that the serpent deceived Eve, and Adamantius had no disagreement with that. Dialogue on the True Faith in God third part p.111-112.

Marinus (c.300 A.D.) a follower of Bardesanes, "Just as the Scripture says: ‘Let us make Man,’ it says, according to our image and likeness; and God took soil from the ground and fashioned Man’." Dialogue on the True Faith in God fourth part p.145

 

B3. The Old Testament prophesied about Jesus

 

Matthew 26:31; Luke 24:15; John 1:23; 12:37-40; 19:37; Hebrews 1:5-13; 2:6-8,12,13; 1 Peter 1:10-12

Isaiah 40:3

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 1:5-13; 2:6-8,12,13

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 12:37-40; 19:37

p4 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16 (c.150-175 A.D.) Matthew 26:31

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Acts 13:34-35

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. The prophets prophesied about Christ. 1 Peter 1:10-12

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 12:37-40

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) quotes Isaiah 40:3 as referring to Jesus in John 1:23.

 

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 24:15; John 12:37-40; 19:37

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) says that Isaiah 53 refers to Christ in 1 Clement ch.16 p.9.

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) tells of Joshua, Rahab and the spies to Jericho. The scarlet thread was a type of the blood of the Lord. 1 Clement ch.12 vol.1 p.8 (See also vol.9 p.233)

Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.5 p.82 (-107/116 A.D.) "And let us also love the prophets, because they too have proclaimed the Gospel, and placed their hope in Him, and waited for Him;" Also ch.9 p.84

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 p.139 "For to this end the Lord endured to deliver up His flesh to corruption, that we might be sanctified through the remission of sins, which is effected by His blood of sprinkling. For it is written concerning Him, partly with reference to Israel, and partly to us; and [The Scripture] saith thus: ‘He was wounded for our transgressions, and bruised for our iniquities: with His stripes we are healed…" (Isaiah 53:5,7)

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 p.139 says that the prophets prophesied concerning Jesus.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 p.139 quotes Isaiah 53:5,7 as showing that Jesus suffered for us as the lamb.

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) says the prophets predicted the coming of the Lord. Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.6 p.34

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "…Holy ghost, who through the prophets foretold all things about Jesus,…" First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.61 p.183

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "But you ought to believe Zechariah when he shows in parable the mystery of Christ, and announces it obscurely." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.115 p.256. See also The First Apology of Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) ch.32 p.173-174.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions how the Passover was a type of Christ who was sacrificed for our sins. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.111 p.254. See also ibid ch.68 p.232

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "future salvation for the human race through the blood of Christ. For the sign of the scarlet thread, which the spies, sent to Jericho by Joshua," Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.111 p.254

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 29 p.88 in Lazarus and the rich man, says if they will not listen to Moses and the prophets, then they will not believe someone who rose from the dead.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says that Isaac almost being sacrificed was a type of Christ. "not shrinking form shedding the blood of his son." From the Catena on Genesis ch.5 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says the Holy spirit spoke through the prophets of many things including the birth from a virgin, the passion, and resurrection from the dead and ascension to heaven. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.1 p.330

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes the messianic prophecy Zechariah 12:10 in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 24 ch.9 p.508.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes the messianic prophecy Zechariah 12:10 in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 24 ch.9 p.508.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says the prophets proclaimed Christ. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24, 40, 86.

Caius and the Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.1 p.601 (Against the Heresy of Artemon in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 5 ch.28) All the psalms, too, and hymns of brethren, which have been written from the beginning by the faithful, celebrate Christ the Word of God, ascribing divinity to Him."

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says Isaiah 9:6 refers to Christ. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.215.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that Isaac was a type of Christ as he carried the wood of his own passion, and Joseph was a type of Christ, whom though blessed by his father, suffered persecution at the hands of his brothers. Answer to the Jews ch.10 p.165

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) wrote on Zechariah 12:10,12 "...whom they pierced, and shall beat their breasts, tribe by tribe." An Answer to the Jews ch.14 p.172

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says that Isaac and Joseph are types of the death of Christ. Five Books Against Marcion ch.18 p.336

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says that Jesus was preached by the law and the prophets. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.17 p.230

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (implied) "The first law of God is the foundation of the subsequent law. Thee, indeed, it assigned to believe in the second law. Nor are threats from Himself, but from it, powerful over thee. Now astounded, swear that thou wilt believe in Christ; for the Old Testament proclaims concerning Him. For it is needful only to believe in Him who was dead, to be able to rise again to live for all time." Instructions of Commodianus ch.25 p.207

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) discusses the seventy weeks of Daniel and that prophecy was until John [the Baptist]. Five Books of the Chronology of Julius Africanus ch.16.1 p.134.

Martyrdom of the Holy Martyrs (before 250 A.D.) (ANF vol.1) ch.1 p.305 "Rusticus the prefect said, ‘Are those the doctrines that please you, you utterly wretched man?’ Justin said, ‘Yes, since I adhere to them with right dogma.’ Rusticus the prefect said, ‘What is the dogma?’ Justin said, ‘That according to which we worship the God of the Christians, whom we reckon to be one from the beginning, the maker and fashioner of the whole creation, visible and invisible; and the Jesus Christ, the Son of God, who had also been preached beforehand by the prophets as about to be present with the race of men,’"

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) gives the example of Philip and the eunuch of the Old Testament in Isaiah 53 prophesying about Christ. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.15 p.304. He also says that the Old Testament could be in one sense called "gospel" because it points to Christ. Commentary on John book 1 ch.14 p.303. See also book 2 ch.28 p.342

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) says the Old Testament does not point out the Coming One, but only foretells Him and heralds His coming at a future time. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Novatian 254-256 A.D. "But of this I remind you, that Christ was not to be expected in the Gospel in any other wise than as He was promised before by the Creator, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament; especially as the things that were predicted of Him were fulfilled, and those things that were fulfilled had been predicted." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.10 p.619. See also, He was promised before by the Creator, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament" Treatise on the Trinity ch.10 p.619

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) says that Deuteronomy 18:15 refers to Jesus. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.9 p.618

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14 as referring to Christ. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.621. See also Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.9 p.218.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "Christ who is announced by the law and the prophets"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says in the Old Testament it was written that Christ would suffer and rise again from the dead. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 1 ch.4 p.509. He also refers to Isaiah 7:14 in Letter 8 p.288

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes the following as prophesying the Jews would fasten the Savior to the cross. Isaiah 65:2; Jeremiah 11:19; Deuteronomy 28:66; Psalm 22:16-22; Psalm 119:120; Psalm 141:2; Zephaniah 1:7; Zechariah 12:10; Psalm 88:9.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in Isaiah: ‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; on account whereof He hath anointed me: He hath sent me to tell good tidings to the poor; to heal the bruised in heart, to preach deliverance to the captives, and sight to the blind, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of retribution.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.10 p.519

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 53:2-3 in Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68 and Isaiah 53:5 in the first part ch.820a 27 p.72

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "And he now gathers from Him [Jesus] what had been foretold in Similitudes by the law, and associates with this scripture all the former prophets, and opens up the Scriptures." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter no.1 p.348

Peter of Alexandria (after 311 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 9:6 as referring to Christ. Canonical Epistle canon 5 p.271

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) says the prophets referred to Jesus. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 7 ch.6 p.333.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "And so the prophets and apostles, who spoke more fully concerning the Son of God, … And this is quite clear, in the Song of Songs, to any one who is willing to see it, where Christ Himself, praising those who are firmly established in virginity says, ‘As the lily among thorns, so is my love among the daughters;" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 7 ch.1 p.331

Athanasius (318 A.D.) quotes Numbers 24:5-17 and Isaiah 53:3 as referring to Christ Incarnation of the Word ch.33 p.54

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) quotes the messianic prophecy Zechariah 12:10 as by Zechariah in Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.46 p.241

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) David prophesied about Jesus in Psalm16:10 as did Daniel 7:13. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.47 p.241.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) discusses Isaiah 7:14 in the Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.44 p.239.

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 53:8 about Christ as "according to the words of the prophet cited above" Epistles on the Arian Heresy letter 7 ch.12 p.295

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (225-235/6 A.D.) quotes half of Zechariah 12:10 as referring to Christ in fragment 40 p.252. This has Hippolytus’ style, but other than that we do not know whether or not it was by Hippolytus.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.32 p.89 says that Jesus is the one prophesied by Moses. See also book 1 ch.39 p.85; book 1 ch.40 p.88; book 1 ch.69 p.95; and book 5 ch.10 p.145.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.53 p.248 says that Deuteroomy 38:15-19 refers to Jesus.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.49 p.247 discusses Genesis 49:10 (Shiloh) and Peter and Simon Magus both agreed this refers to Jesus.

Mani (262-278 A.D.) mentions that the law was until John. Disputation with Manes ch.14 p.188

 

B4. Jesus superseded some Old Testament laws

 

Mark 7:19; (implied) Colossians 2:16; (implied) Hebrews 10:18

Romans 10:4; Galatians 3:25; Romans 8:1-4

 

The NT says some to commands have been fulfilled and are not to be done. (eating pork, sacrifices, etc.) Acts 10:9-16;15:1,5-29; Mark 7:19; Galatians 5:2-4; Hebrews 9:9-10;10:18

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (implied) Hebrews 10:18

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 10:18 says that Jesus abolished the Old Testament sacrifices

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 7:19

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Mark 7:19

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Mark 7:19

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) If we still live according to the old Jewish law, we have not received grace. Ignatius’ Letter to the Magnesians ch.8 p.62

Letter of Ignatius to the Philadelphians ch.6 p.82 (-107/116 A.D.) "But if any one preach the Jewish law unto you, listen not to him…. they are in my judgment but as monuments and sepulchers of the dead, upon which are written only the names of men."

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.4 p.26 mentions how we are not to follow Jewish meats, the Sabbaths, circumcision, new moons, etc.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) says that the circumcision the Jews trusted in is abolished. ch.8 p.142

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions how God promised a New Covenant, and that the Jews could not keep the Old Covenant. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.67 p.232.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) explains how the law was for sevants in bondage, not the children. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.13.4-5 p.477-478

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) discusses Peter’s vision in Acts 10:10-15 and says "The use of them is accordingly indifferent to us. ‘For not what entereth into the mouth defileth the man,’ but the vain opinion respecting uncleanness. For God, when He created man, said, ‘All things shall be to you for meat.’" The Instructor book 2 ch.1 p.241

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "I regret still to have to contend about the law – after I have so often proved that its replacement (by the gospel) affords no argument for another god, predicted as it was indeed in Christ, and in the Creator’s own plans ordained for His Christ.) Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.13 p.437

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that faith free in Christ permits eating the meats of the Jewish Law. On Fasting ch.2 vol.4 p.103

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) said that the law could not have been fulfilled or abrogated by Christ unless it was first given by the God who sent Christ. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.4 p.437

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) Jesus is the fulfiller of the law. The Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.5 p.236

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses how the Old Testament dietary laws are not applicable to those under the gospel. Origen’s Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.12 p.440-441

Novatian (turned schismatic) 254-256 A.D. discusses how it is fine to eat all the prohibited meats. On the Jewish Meats 2-3 p.646-647

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says "That the former law, which was given by Moses, was about to cease. That a new law was to be given." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 1 Heads p.508

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) taught that all meat was OK to eat. Canonical Epistle 1 p.18

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) discusses how God Himself had formerly commanded Moses about circumcision and the Sabbath, but we now follow Christ, and do not want to appear to observe any Sabbath with the Jews. On the Creation of the World p.340-341

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) discusses the laws against eating pork, and says the Christ fulfilled these things. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.17-18 p.119.

 

Among heretics

X The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.2 p.215 emphasizes that not one jot or tittle of the law would pass away.

Mani (262-278 A.D.) (partial) says that Moses was from the devil and the law was destroyed and abandoned. Disputation with Manes ch.14 p.188

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) (*) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says that the gospel opposed the law. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.810a-9 p.49

 

B5. New Testament has God’s words; study it

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Take up the epistle [to you Philippians] of the blessed Apostle Paul. … Truly under the inspiration of the Spirit" 1 Clement vol.1 ch.47 p.18

Ignatius of Antioch (c.100-117 A.D.) (quote) quotes 1 Thessalonians 5:17 Ignatius’ Letter to Polycarp ch.1 p.93

Ignatius of Antioch quotes one-fourth of 1 Timothy 1:1 "Jesus Christ who is our hope" Ignatius’ Letter to the Magnesians ch.1 p.64

Ignatius of Antioch (c.100-117 A.D.) (partial) Paul wrote a letter to the Ephesians according to Ignatius’ Letter to the Ephesians ch.12 p.55

Didache (120-150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.1 p.377 (quote) quotes Luke 6:30 "Give to every one that asks you, and ask it not back;"

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) vol.7 ch.1 p.377 quotes one-fourth of 1 Peter 2:11.

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.2 p.517 "And another Scripture saith," and quotes Matthew 9:13.

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.3 p.252 quotes Matthew 10:32 as by Jesus and also alludes to Matthew 22:37.

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.4 p.252 paraphrases Matthew 7:21.

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.5 p.252 quotes Matthew 5:28 as by Jesus.

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.9 p.253 paraphrases Matthew 12:50 as by Jesus

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.13 p.254 quotes loosely Luke 6:32 as the Lord is speaking. "No thank have ye, if ye love them which love you, but ye have thank, if ye love your enemies and them which hate you."

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.13 p.254 quotes part of Matthew 9:13 and Luke 6:32 as Scripture. "An another Scripture saith, ‘I came not to call the righteous, but sinners." 2 Clement also refers to quotes Matthew 6:24 and Luke 16:13, in ch.16 p.252.

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) "He [Paul], when among you, accurately and stedfastly taught the word of truth in the presence of those who were then alive. And when absent from you [Philippians], he wrote you a letter, which, if you carefully study, you will find to be the means of building you up in that faith which has been given you, and which, being followed by hope, and preceded by love towards God, and Christ, and our neighbour, ‘is the mother of us all.’" Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.3 p.33

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 4:26 "For I trust that ye are well versed in the Sacred Scriptures, …It is declared then in these Scriptures, ‘Be ye angry, and sin not,’ and , ‘Let not the sun go down upon your wrath.’" (12/12 words of the verse) Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.12 p.35

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) quotes half of 2 Thessalonians 3:15a (5 out of 9 Greek words) Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.11 p.35

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions "how the New Testament, which God formerly announced" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.51 p.221.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "For the Apostles, in the memoirs composed by them, which are called Gospels, have thus delivered unto us what was enjoined upon them;" First Apology of Justin ch.66 p.185

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) in this whole work accurately copies 79% of the verses in the gospels. That is 76% of Matthew, 59% of Mark, 78% of Luke, and 97% of John. He has references to no other gospels besides these four; the word Diatessaron means "the four".

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis (160-177/180 A.D.) "Wherefore their opinion is contrary to the law, and the Gospels seem to be at variance with them." From the Book Concerning the Passover p.772

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "We should leave things of that nature to God who created us, being most properly assured that the Scriptures are indeed perfect, since they were spoken by the Word of God and His Spirit;" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.28.2 p.399

+ Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Wherefore also it comes to pass, that the ‘most perfect’ among them addict themselves without fear to all those kinds of forbidden deeds of which the Scriptures assure us that ‘they who do such things shall not inherit the kingdom of God.’"Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.6.1 p.324

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says "the blessed Paul" wrote and quotes 1 Corinthians 14:20. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.217

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in An Answer to the Jews ch.6 p.157.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Tertullian’s Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.6 p.351.

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) mentions "the Old Testament prophets, or any of the New". from book 3 ch.9 p.337. He also mentions the New Testament in The Exordium p.335

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240) proves his points by quoting one right after the other 2 Corinthians 4:18; Matthew 6:33,32; 27; Luke 12:25; Matthew 12:44. Excerpts of Theodotus ch.11-12 p.44

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) mentions the New Testament of our Savior in Commentary on Genesis 49:12-15 p.165.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions the New Testament. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.6 p.300. He mentions the Old and New Testaments in Commentary on John book 5 ch.4 p.348.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) "Further, since every form of nourishment is called ‘bread’ in the Scirptures, as is clear from what is written concervningMoses, that for forty days he neither ate ‘bread’ nor drank water; and since the word that nourishes is manifold and vaired, for not everyone can receive the solid and strong nourishment of God’s teachings: therefore, wishing to give an athlete’s nourishment suitable to the more perfect, He says: ‘The bread that I will give is my flesh, which Iwill give for the life of the world.’ And a little later: ‘Except you eat the flesh fo the son of man and drink His blood, you shall not have life in you.’" Origen On Prayer ch.47.4 p.95

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627. He proves his points by quoting Romans 1:20 and 1 Timothy 1:26 in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.3 p.614.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "plain that he is a heretic who believes on another God, or receives another Christ than Him whom the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament manifestly declare."

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments ch.13 p.675. It mentions the New Testament in ch.2 p.668

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) refers to Matthew as an authority in The Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 1 ch.10-12 p.510-511.

Moyses, et al. to Cyprian (250 A.D.) proves his point by quoting in succession Matthew 10:37,38; 5:10-12; 10:18 or 21:22; Revelation 3:21; and Romans 8:35. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 25 ch.4 p.303

Nemesianus of Thubunae at the Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops) (258 A.D.) p.566 "That the baptism which heretics and schismatics bestow is not the true one, is everywhere declared in the Holy Scriptures, since their very leading men are false Christs and false prophets, as the Lord says by Solomon:" and quotes Proverbs 9:12 (Septuagint). Then he quotes Proverbs 9:19; John 3:5; Ephesians 4:3-6; John 3:6; and Galatians 5:19-21.

Caecilius of Bilta at the Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops) (258 A.D.) p.565 proves his point by quoting ¼ of Ephesians 4:5.

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "For the doctrine of the foolish Marcion, which cuts and divides the monarchy into three elements, is assuredly of the devil, and is not of Christ’s true disciples… For these [true disciples] indeed rightly know that the Trinity is declared in the divine Scripture, but that the doctrine that there are three gods is neither taught in the Old nor the New Testament." Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians ch.1 p.365

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "he who does not accept the Law and the Prophets does not accept the Gospel either." Adamantius is debating Megethius the Marcionite. Dialogue on the True Faith Second part ch.10 p.87. See also ibid part 2 867a 12 p.100.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "I accept all the canonical [scriptures]. Dialogue on the True Faith 5th part ch.e19 p.173. See also ibid fourth part ch.424a p.129 on Genesis 1:2.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Let us be guided by the Scriptures!" Dialogue on the True Faith Fifth part b 15 p.167

Alexander of Lycopolis (301 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Scriptures in his refutation called Of the Manichaeans ch.5 p.243.

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John ch.15 (2nd time) p.345 He listed the letters of Paul in ch.16 p.345. See also ibid ch.13 p.344

Theophilus (events c.315) answers the governor’s questions by quoting Matthew 10:39 and Matthew 7:6 as Scripture to prove his point. Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon p.694

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "more, seeing the power of the Word, we receive a knowledge also of His good Father, as the Saviour Himself says, "He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father. But this all inspired Scripture also teaches more plainly and with more authority, so that we in our turn write boldly to you as we do, and you, if you refer to them, will be able to verify what we say." Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.45 p.28

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But all Scripture is divided into two Testaments. That which preceded the advent and passion of Christ-that is, the law and the prophets-is called the Old; but those things which were written after His resurrection are named the New Testament." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.122

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) (implied) quotes John 10:15 to prove his argument. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 2 ch.4 p.298

 

B6. Some parts of the Bible are allegorical

 

Mark 2:22; Revelation 12

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Galatians 4:21-24 "figuratively"

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 3:14; 7:38

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Mark 2:22

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "The marriages of Jacob were types of that which Christ was about to accomplish." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.134 p.267. See also ibid ch.113 p.255

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) "And it was foretold what each should be according to rank and according to fore-knowledge. Jacob served Laban for speckled and many-spotted sheep; and Christ served, even to the slavery of the cross, for the various and many-formed races of mankind, acquiring them by the blood and mystery of the cross. Leah was weak-eyed; for the eyes of your souls are excessively weak. Rachel stole the gods of Laban, and has hid them to this day; and we have lost our paternal and material gods. Jacob was hated for all time by his brother; and we now, and our Lord Himself, are hated by you and by all men, though we are brothers by nature. Jacob was called Israel; and Israel has been demonstrated to be the Christ, who is, and is called, Jesus." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.134 p.267

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Justin well said: Before the advent of the Lord, Satan never ventured to blaspheme God, inasmuch as he was not yet sure of his own damnation, since that was announced concerning him by the prophets only in parables and allegories." fragment 3 in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.26.2 p.555

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "What is this strange mystery, that Egypt is struck down for destruction and Israel is guarded for salvation? Listen to the meaning of the mystery. Nothing, beloved, is spoken or made without an analogy and a sketch; for everything which is made and spoken has its analogy, what is spoken an analogy, what is made a prototype, so that whatever is made may be perceived through the prototype and whatever is spoken is clarified by the illustration." On Pascha p.46

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "On the fifth day the living creatures which proceed from the waters were produced, through: which also is revealed the manifold wisdom of God in these things; for who could count their multitude and very various kinds? Moreover, the things proceeding from the waters were blessed by God, that this also might be a sign of men’s being destined to receive repentance and remission of sins, through the water and laver of regeneration,-as many as come to the truth, and are born again, and receive blessing from God. But the monsters of the deep and the birds of prey are a similitude of covetous men and transgressors." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.16 p.101

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "For the prophet neither speaks concerning a day which includes the space of twelve hours, nor of a year the length of which is twelve months. For even they themselves acknowledge that the prophets have very often expressed themselves in parables and allegories, and [are] not [to be understood] according to the mere sound of the words." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.22.1 p.390

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) discusses how it is congruous that earthly things should be types of the celestial things. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.19.1 p.486-487

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that in Matthew 23 Jerusalem is interpreted as "a vision of peace". Stromata book 1 ch.4 p.306

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that Egypt and Canaan are symbols of the world. Stromata book 2 ch.10 p.358

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) some people are figuratively wolves. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.172

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) in the parable of the prodigal son says the elder brother represented the Jews and the younger borther the Christians. Tertullian on Modesty ch.8 p.81

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) discusses the allegory of Isaac and Ishmael in Galatians "the two narratives of the sons of Abraham had an allegorical meaning in their course;". Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.5 p.324. See also Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.9 p.357.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) discusses the allegory in Revelation 12 of the woman, child, and dragon. He says the woman represents the church, and the child represents the message of Christ. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.60-61 p.217

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "There be three things which I cannot understand, and the fourth I know not: the tracks of an eagle flying," i.e., Christ’s ascension; "and the ways of a serpent upon a rock," i.e., that the devil did not find a trace of sin in the body of Christ;" Commentary on Proverbs p.174

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For as in the ark of Noah the love of God toward man is signified by the dove, so also now the Spirit, descending in the form of a dove, bearing as it were the fruit of the olive, rested on Him to whom the witness was borne." Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.7 p.236

Theodotus the probably Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "We must, then, search the Scriptures accurately, since they are admitted to be expressed in parables, and from the names run out the thoughts which the Holy Spirit, propounding respecting things, teaches by imprinting His mind, so to speak, on the expressions" Excepts from Theodotus ch.32 p.47

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Some students do not take anything at all out of the statement that the Savior is the Word; and it is important for us to assure ourselves that we are not chargeable with caprice in fixing our attention on that notion. If it admits of being taken in a metaphorical sense we ought not to take it literally." Origen’s Comentary on John book 1 ch.24 p.312

Origen (240-254 A.D.) mentions how some things in the Bible, such as Galatians 4:21,22,24 are allegories. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.3 p.430

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (implied) says that the Old Testament command not to eat camel means that it condemns life crooked with crimes. On the Jewish Meats ch.3 p.647

Firmilian (250-251 A.D.) (implied) says that abstaining from strange water (in Proverbs 9:19 LXX) refers to baptism. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.23 p.396

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) over-allegorizes part of the gospel accounts in his Commentary on the Gospel According to Luke ch.44 p.115

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) (implied) "On the fourth day He made two lights in the heaven, the greater and the lesser, that the one might rule over the day, the other over the night," - the lights of the sun and moon and He placed the rest of the stars in heaven, that they might shine upon the earth, and by their positions distinguish the seasons, and years, and months, and days, and hours. Now is manifested the reason of the truth why the fourth day is called the Tetras, why we fast even to the ninth hour, or even to the evening, or why there should be a passing over even to the next day. Therefore this world of ours is composed of four elements-fire, water, heaven, earth. These four elements, therefore, form the quaternion of times or seasons. The sun, also, and the moon constitute throughout the space of the year four seasons-of spring, summer, autumn, winter; and these seasons make a quaternion. And to proceed further still from that principle, lo, there are four living creatures before God’s throne, four Gospels, four rivers flowing in paradise; four generations of people from Adam to Noah, from Noah to Abraham, from Abraham to Moses, from Moses to Christ the Lord, the Son of God; and four living creatures, viz., a man, a calf, a lion, an eagle; and four rivers, the Pison, the Gihon. the Tigris, and the Euphrates. The man Christ Jesus, the originator of these things whereof we have above spoken, was taken prisoner by wicked hands, by a quaternion of soldiers. Therefore on account of His captivity by a quaternion, on account of the majesty of His works,-that the seasons also, wholesome to humanity, joyful for the harvests, tranquil for the tempests, may roll on,-therefore we make the fourth day a station or a supernumerary fast. Victorinus On the Creation of the World p.341

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) discusses how Eve being "bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh" is an allegory of the Lord and His church. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.1 p.316-317. See also Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.1 p.345 for a discussion of the Passover and Christ.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says the Passover lamb "was an image of things to come. For Christ was the white lamb without spot" and mentions the slaying of the Passover lamb is a figure of the passion. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.26 p.129.

 

Among heretics

Mani (262-278 A.D.) said that a parable had a figure of souls. Disputation with Manes ch.25 p.198

m Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius first says that scripture should be understood in a literal, not spiritual sense. Then he says it should be in a spiritual sense. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.7 p.44, then ch.7 p.45

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.16 p.231 says that Noah’s raven and dove symbolized two forms of spirits.

 

B7. Old Testament has types of Christ

 

(Melchizedek is not included here)

 

John 1:51; 3:13; Romans 5:14; 1 Corinthians 10:1-4

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 10:1-4

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 3:14

p17 Hebrews 9:12-19 (late 3rd century) (implied) shows that Old Testament blood sacrifices in the first covenant paralleled Christ’s blood in the second covenant.

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 3:13

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) tells of Joshua, Rahab and the spies to Jericho. The scarlet thread was a type of the blood of the Lord. 1 Clement ch.12 vol.1 p.8 (See also vol.9 p.233)

Letter or Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.7 p.141 says that the goat in the Old Testament ritual is a type of Christ who was to suffer. See also ibid ch.12 p.145.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.12 p.145 "And Moses spake unto them, saying, ‘when any one of you is bitten, let him come to the serpent placed on the pole; and let him hope and believe that even though dead, it is able to give him life, and immediately he shall be restored." And they did so." Though hast in this also [an indication of] the glory of Jesus;"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "The marriages of Jacob were types of that which Christ was about to accomplish." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.134 p.267

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says that Isaac being offered on the altar was a type of Christ From the Catena on Genesis ch.5 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.759. See also On Pascha ch.34 p.38.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "What is this strange mystery, that Egypt is struck down for destruction and Israel is guarded for salvation? Listen to the meaning of the mystery. Nothing, beloved, is spoken or made without an analogy and a sketch; for everything which is made and spoken has its analogy, what is spoken an analogy, what is made a prototype, so that whatever is made may be perceived through the prototype and whatever is spoken is clarified by the illustration." On Pascha p.46 "For indeed the Lord’s salvation and his truth were prefigured in the people, and the decrees of the Gospel were proclaimed in advance by the law. Thus the people was a type, like a preliminary sketch, and the law was the writing of an analogy. The Gospel is the narrative and fulfillment of the law, and the church is the repository of reality." On Pascha ch.39 p.47

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) (implied) mentions the blood on the doorpost as Passover was symbolic of the passion. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that Isaac is a type of Christ Stromata book 1 ch.4 p.306

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says that Isaac was a type of Christ. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.215

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says that Isaac and Joseph are types of the death of Christ. Five Books Against Marcion ch.18 p.336. It also mentions Moses being a type of Christ in book 2 ch.26 p.318.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "But why is Christ our passover, if the passover be not a type of Christ, in the similitude of the blood which saves, and of the Lamb, which is Christ? Why does (the apostle) clothe us and Christ with symbols of the Creator’s solemn rites, unless they had relation to ourselves?" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.7 p.443

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "And for this reason three seasons of the year prefigured the Saviour Himself, so that He should fulfill the mysteries prophesied of Him. In the Passover season, so as to exhibit Himself as one destined to be sacrificed like a sheep, and to prove Himself the true Paschal-lamb, even as the apostle says, ‘Even Christ,’ who is God, ‘our Passover was sacrificed for us.’" homily on the Paschal Supper ch.5.3 p.236

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Thus the son of David, who builds this house, is a type of Christ." Commentary on John ch.10 p.404

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions types of Christ. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 1 ch.4.1 p.32

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Thus also to Abraham, when his former son was born of a bond-woman, Sarah remained long barren; and late in old age bare her son Isaac, of promise, who was the type of Christ. Thus also Jacob received two wives: the elder Leah, with weak eyes, a type of the synagogue; the younger the beautiful Rachel, a type of the Church, who also remained long barren, and afterwards brought forth Joseph, who also was himself a type of Christ." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.20 p.512-513

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) says that the law was a foreshadowing or type of the gospel. Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.c18 p.98. See also the first part ch.5 p.153

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) discusses the Passover lamb, the type of the Passover and then says that Jesus is the lamb. fragment 7 p.282

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "some of them [the Scriptures] give the likeness of past events, some of them a type of the future, the miserable men, going back, deal with the figures of the future as if they were already things of the past. As in the instance of the immolation of the Lamb, the mystery of which they regard as solely in remembrance of the deliverance of their fathers from Egypt, when, although the first-born of Egypt were smitten, they themselves were preserved by marking the door-posts of their houses with blood. Nor do they understand that by it also the death of Christ is personified, by whose blood souls made safe and sealed shall be preserved from wrath in the burning of the world; whilst the first-born, the sons of Satan, shall be destroyed with an utter destruction by the avenging angels, who shall reverence the seal of the Blood impressed upon the former." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.1 p.345

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says the Passover lamb "was an image of things to come. For Christ was the white lamb without spot" and mentions the slaying of the Passover lamb is a figure of the passion. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.26 p.129.

 

Among heretics

Marinus the Bardasene (c.300 A.D.) says that the angels were types of Christ, such as when they ate and drank with Abraham. Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part ch.5 p.153

 

B8. Melchizedek was a type of Christ

 

Genesis 14:18; Psalm 110:4: Hebrews 5:6-10; 6:20 7:1-17

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 7:1-17

 

1 Clement (96/98 A.D.) ch.36 vol.1 p.15 (partial, not a type) quotes Psalm 110:1 as referring to Jesus Christ the High Priest of all our offerings. See also vol.9.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.12 p.145 (partial, is Melchizedek, not a type) "Behold again: Jesus who was manifested, both by type and in the flesh, is not the Son of man, but the Son of God. Since, therefore, they were to say that Christ was the son of David, fearing and understanding the error of the wicked, he saith," and then quotes Psalm 110:1

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "In the splendour of the saints before the morning star have I begotten Thee. The Lord hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek.’ Who does not admit, then, that Hezekiah is no priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek? And who does not know that he is not the redeemer of Jerusalem?" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.83 p.240

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) (partial) says Christ was like Melchizedek. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.48.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For Salem is, by interpretation, peace; of which our Saviour is enrolled King, as Moses says, Melchizedek king of Salem, priest of the most high God, who gave bread and wine, furnishing consecrated food for a type of the Eucharist. And Melchizedek is interpreted ‘righteous king;’ and the name is a synonym for righteousness and peace." Stromata book 4 ch.25 p.439

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Hezekiah was no priest; and even if he had been one, he would not have been a priest for ever. ‘After the order,’ says He, ‘of Melchizedek.’ Now what had Hezekiah to do with Melchizedek, the priest of the most High God, and him uncircumcised too, who the blessed the circumcised Abraham after receiving from him the offerings of tithes? To Christ, however, ‘the order of Melchizedek’ will be very suitable; for Christ is the proper and legitimate High Priest of God. He is the Pontiff of the priesthood of the uncircumcision,…" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.9 p.468. See also ibid book 5 ch.9 p.448.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (partial) mentions Melchizedek without linking him to Christ. An Answer to the Jews ch.2,3 p.152-153

Origen (233-234 A.D.) quotes Psalm 109:4 (= Hebrews 7:21) "...But I am a man of prayer." Origen On Prayer part 1 ch.15.1 p.58

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (partial) "Our LORD and Savior was greater than Melchizedek, whose ancestry scripture does not trace." Homilies on Luke homily 28 ch.1 p.115

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in the priest Melchizedek we see prefigured the sacrament of the sacrifice of the Lord, according to what divine Scripture testifies, and says, ‘And Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought forth bread and wine.’ Now he was a priest of the most high God, and blessed Abraham. And that Melchizedek bore a type of Christ, the Holy Spirit declares in the Psalms" Epistles of Cyprian letter 62.4 p.359.

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (partial) quotes from John 3:3,5. "He [Jesus] says Himself in the Gospels: ‘I came to find and to save the lost.’" Incarnation of the Word ch.14 p.43

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) discusses Melchizedek in The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.14 p.113.

 

B9. Joshua was a type of Christ

 

-

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And that it was declared by symbol, even in the time of Moses, that there would be two advents of this Christ, as I have mentioned previously, [is manifest] from the symbol of the goats presented for sacrifice during the fast. And again, by what Moses and Joshua did, the same thing was symbolically announced and told beforehand. For the one of them, stretching out his hands, remained till evening on the hill, his hands being supported; and this reveals a type of no other thing than of the cross: and the other, whose name was altered to Jesus (Joshua), led the fight, and Israel conquered." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.111 p.254

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (implied) "Presently, therefore, Moses prophetically, giving place to the perfect Instructor the Word, predicts both the name and the office of Instructor, and committing to the people the commands of obedience, sets before them the Instructor. ‘A prophet,’ says he, ‘like Me shall God raise up to you of your brethren,’ pointing out Jesus the Son of God, by an allusion to Jesus the son of Nun; for the name of Jesus predicted in the law was a shadow of Christ." The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.224

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) said that Joshua was a type of Christ. An Answer to the Jews ch.9 p.163 .

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Of it, also, Paul would have said, ‘I would not, brethren, have you ignorant, that all our fathers went through Jordan, and were all baptized into Jesus in the spirit and in the river.’ And Joshua, who succeeded Moses, was a type of Jesus Christ, who succeeds the dispensation through the law, and replaces it by the preaching of the Gospel." Commentary on John ch.6.26

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Thus also to Abraham, when his former son was born of a bond-woman, Sarah remained long barren; and late in old age bare her son Isaac, of promise, who was the type of Christ. Thus also Jacob received two wives: the elder Leah, with weak eyes, a type of the synagogue; the younger the beautiful Rachel, a type of the Church, who also remained long barren, and afterwards brought forth Joseph, who also was himself a type of Christ. … and Samuel being born, was a type of Christ." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.20 p.512-513

 

B10. The prophets were until John

 

Matthew 11:13; Luke 16:16

 

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) Luke 16:16

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 11:13

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "so that you then had one who presented offerings according to the law of Moses, and observed the other legal ceremonies; also [you had] prophets in succession until John," Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.52 p.221

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Since, then, the law originated with Moses, it terminated with John as a necessary consequence. Christ had come to fulfil it: wherefore ‘the law and the prophets were’ with them ‘until John.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.4.2 p.466

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says the law and the prophets were until John. Stromata book 5 ch.8 p.457

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "And justly does the evangelist write, ‘The law and the prophets (were) until John the Baptist." Answer to the Jews ch.8 p.160

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) says that the law and the prophets ended with John. Tertullian on Modesty ch.8 p.82

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) discusses the seventy weeks of Daniel and that prophecy was until John [the Baptist]. Five Books of the Chronology of Julius Africanus ch.16.1 p.134.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "If the law and the prophets were until John,…" Commentary on John book 6 no.8 p.358

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "All the prophets and the law prophesied until John." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 Part 1 ch.9 p.510

 

B11. Veil on many when read Moses/OT

 

2 Corinthians 3:14

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "‘You know,’ said I, ‘that what the prophets said and did they veiled by parables and types, as you admitted to us; so that it was not easy for all to understand the most [of what they said], since they concealed the truth by these means, that those who are eager to find out and learn it might do so with much labour.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.90 p.244

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says in 2 Corinthians, "For unto this day the same veil remains on many in the reading of the Old Testament, not being uncovered by turning to the Lord." Stromata book 4 ch.16 p.427

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial, veiled for all) "For many reasons, then, the Scriptures hide the sense. First, that we may become inquisitive, and be ever on the watch for the discovery of the words of salvation. Then it was not suitable for all to understand, so that they might not receive harm in consequence of taking in another sense the things declared for salvation by the Holy Spirit." Stromata book 6 ch.15 p.509

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (implied) "as I have said, of glory and eloquence alone, if they fell upon anything in the collection of sacred Scriptures which displeased them, in their own peculiar style of research, they perverted it to serve their purpose: for they had no adequate faith in their divinity to keep them from changing them, nor had they any sufficient understanding of them, either, as being still at the time under veil-even obscure to the Jews themselves, whose peculiar possession they seemed to be." Apology ch.47 p.52

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) discusses the face of Moses as a figure of the veil that is on the nation still. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.453

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions the veil when Jews read the Old Testament. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.8.3 p.50. See also Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.7 p.49

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "And we maintain, that ‘when Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart,’ because the meaning of the law of Moses has been concealed from those who have not welcomed the way which is by Jesus Christ." Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.60 p.569

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions the veil when reading Moses. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 13 ch.2.3 p.167

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes as the epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: "and even to this day, if at any time Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 First part Testimonies ch.4 p.509

 

Among heretics

Mani (262-278 A.D.) (partial) said that Moses was from the devil. Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202

 

B12. We can understand Scripture

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Ye understand, beloved, ye understand well the Sacred Scriptures, and ye have looked very earnestly into the oracles of God." 1 Clement ch.53 vol.1 p.19

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Then I said again, ‘Would you suppose, sirs, that we could ever have understood these matters in the Scriptures, if we had not received grace to discern by the will of Him whose pleasure it was?’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.119 p.258

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "For one of the prophets whom we already mentioned, Hosea by name, said, ‘Who is wise, and he shall understand these things? prudent, and he shall know them? for the ways of the Lord are right, and the just shall walk in them: but the transgressors shall fall therein.’ He, then, who is desirous of learning, should learn much." Theophilus to Autolycus part 2 ch.38 p.110

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "From the words of Peter, therefore, which he addressed in Caesarea to Cornelius the centurion, and those Gentiles with him, to whom the word of God was first preached, we can understand what the apostles used to preach, the nature of their preaching, and their idea with regard to God." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.7 p.432

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial, Old Testament) "and therefore it was said to the Hebrews, ‘If ye believe not, neither shall you understand;’ that is, unless you believe what is prophesied in the law, and oracularly delivered by the law, you will not understand the Old Testament, which He by His coming expounded." Stromata book 4 ch.21 p.434

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Moreover, that you may not suppose the apostle to have any other meaning, in his care to teach you, and that you may understand him seriously to apply his statement to the flesh, when he says ‘this corruptible’ and ‘this mortal,’ he utters the words while touching the surface of his own body." On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.51 p.584-585

Hippolytus of Portus (225-234/235 A.D.) "Wherefore he says: ‘To understand the difficulties of words; for things spoken in strange language by the Holy Spirit become intelligible to those who have their hearts right with God.’" On Proverbs p.172

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) (partial) "As, then, the magnet, repelling other matter, attracts iron alone by reason of affinity; so also books, though many read them, attract those alone who are capable of comprehending them. For the word of truth is to some ‘foolishness,’ and to others a ‘stumbling block;’ but to a few ‘wisdom.’" Excerpts of Theodotus ch.27 p.46

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "The student who desires to understand the Scripture must always proceed in this careful way; he must ask with regard to each speech, who is the speaker and on what occasion it was spoken. Thus only can we discern how speech harmonizes with the character of the speaker, as it does all through the sacred books." Origen’s Commentary on John ch.6.5 p.354

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Thus we see that he who aims at a complete understanding of the Holy Scriptures must not neglect the careful examination of the proper names in it." Origen’s Commentary on John ch.6.24 p.371

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied) "That the Jews could understand nothing of the Scriptures unless they first believed in Christ. In Isaiah: ‘And if ye will not believe, neither will ye understand.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 ch.5 p.509

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "However, it will be acknowledged cordially by all, that from the date of the resurrection of our Lord, those who up to that time have been humbling their souls with fastings, ought at once to begin their festal joy and gladness. But in what you have written to me you have made out very clearly, and with an intelligent understanding of the Holy Scriptures, that no very exact account seems to be offered in them of the hour at which He rose." Letter to bishop Basilides p.94

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "Therefore it behooves us diligently, and with the utmost care, to follow the prophetic announcement, and to understand what the Spirit from the Father both announces and anticipates, and how, when He has gone forward to the last times, He again repeats the former ones. And now, what He will do once for all, He sometimes sets forth as if it were done; and unless you understand this, as sometimes done, and sometimes as about to be done, you will fall into a great confusion. Therefore the interpretation of the following sayings has shown therein, that not the order of the reading, but the order of the discourse, must be understood." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the eleventh chapter ch.8 p.355

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "I must now use, which I have refrained from doing in the former books. Above all things, he who desires to comprehend the truth ought not only to apply his mind to understand the utterances of the prophets, but also most diligently to inquire into the times during which each one of them existed, that he may know what future events they predicted, and after how many years their predictions were fulfilled." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.5 p.104

 

B13. Acknowledge Bible textual variants

 

(Issues of canonicity are not included here)

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) says that the Jews misquoted Psalm 96 because the left out the phrase "from the wood". Actually it is Justin who is mistaken here, and the Hebrew Masoretic text does not have "from the wood". Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.73 p.235

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "My friends, I now refer to the Scriptures as the Seventy have interpreted them; for when I quoted them formerly as you possess them, I made proof of you [to ascertain] how you were disposed." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.87 p.268

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "this interpretation [of the seventy] of these Scriptures was made prior to our Lord’s descent [to earth], and came into being before the Christians appeared-for our Lord was born about the forty-first year of the reign of Augustus; but Ptolemy was much earlier, under whom the Scriptures were interpreted;-[since these things are so, I say, ] truly these men are proved to be impudent and presumptuous, who would now show a desire to make different translations, when we refute them out of these Scriptures, and shut them up to a belief in the advent of the Son of God." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.3 p.452

Caius (190-217 A.D.) says that heretics boldly falsified scripture. ch.3 p.602 "But as to those men who abuse the arts of the unbelievers to establish their own heretical doctrine, and by the craft of the impious adulterate the simple faith of the divine Scriptures, what need is there to say that these are not near the faith? For this reason is it they have boldly laid their hands upon the divine Scriptures, alleging that they have corrected them. And that I do not state this against them falsely, any one who pleases may ascertain. For if any one should choose to collect and compare all their copies together, he would find many discrepancies among them. The copies of Asclepiades, at any rate, will be found at variance with those of Theodotus. And many such copies are to be had, because their disciples were very zealous in inserting the corrections, as they call them, i.e., the corruptions made by each of them. And again, the copies of Hermophilus do not agree with these; and as for those of Apollonius, they are not consistent even with themselves. For one may compare those which were formerly prepared by them with those which have been afterwards corrupted with a special object, and many discrepancies will be found. And as to the great audacity implied in this offence, it is not likely that even they themselves can be ignorant of that. For either they do not believe that the divine Scriptures were dictated by the Holy Spirit, and are thus infidels; or they think themselves wiser than the Holy Spirit, and what are they then but demoniacs? Nor can they deny that the crime is theirs, when the copies have been written with their own hand; nor did they receive such copies of the Scriptures from those by whom they were first instructed in the faith, and they cannot produce copies from which these were transcribed. And some of them did not even think it worth while to corrupt them; but simply denying the law and the prophets for the sake of their lawless and impious doctrine, trader pretexts of grace, they sunk down to the lowest abyss of perdition."

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that heretics corrupted scripture. On Prescription Against Heretics ch.17 p.251.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/245 A.D.) Eusebius’s Ecclesiastical History book 6 ch.22 says that Hippolytus wrote on the Hexaemeron. ANF vol.5 p.163 footnote.

Origen (235-245 A.D.) discusses manuscript variants in Homilies on Jeremiah homily 14 ch.3.1 p.137 and homily 16 ch.10.1. p.177

Origen (235-235 A.D.) dicusses a variant in the Septuagint on Jeremiah 16:17. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 16 ch.5.2 p.172

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "as we have been at pains to learn from the Hebrews, comparing our own copies with theirs which have the confirmation of the versions, never subjected to corruption, or Aquila and Theodotion and Symmachus. We add a few instances to encourage students to pay more attention to such points. One of the sons of Levi, the first, is called Geson in most copies, instead of Gerson….. The second son of Juda [Judah], again, has with us the name Annan, but with the Hebrews Onan, ‘their labour.’ Once more, in the departures of the children of Israel in Numbers, we find, ‘They departed from Sochoth and pitched in Buthan’; but the Hebrew, instead of Buthan, reads Aiman. And why should I add more points like these, when any one who desires it can examine into the proper names and find out for himself how they stand? The place-names of Scripture are specially to be suspected where many of them occur in a catalogue, as in the account of the partition of the country in Joshua, and in the first Book of Chronicles from the beginning down to, say, the passage about Dan, and similarly in Ezra." Origen’s Commentary on John ch.6.24 p.371

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "In the matter of proper names the Greek copies are often incorrect, and in the Gospels one might be misled by their authority. The transaction about the swine, which were driven down a steep place by the demons and drowned in the sea, is said to have taken place in the country of the Gerasenes. Now, Gerasa is a town of Arabia, and has near it neither sea nor lake. And the Evangelists would not have made a statement so obviously and demonstrably false; for they were men who informed themselves carefully of all matters connected with Judaea. But in a few copies we have found, ‘into the country of the Gadarenes; ‘and, on this reading, it is to be stated that Gadara is a town of Judaea, in the neighbourhood of which are the well-known hot springs, and that there is no lake there with overhanging banks, nor any sea." Commentary on John book 6 ch.24 p.371

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Since, then, it is clear, and all testify, that those who are born of adultery do come to perfection, we must not imagine that the Spirit was teaching respecting conceptions and births, but rather perhaps concerning those who adulterate the truth, who, corrupting the Scriptures by false doctrines, bring forth an imperfect and immature wisdom, mixing their error with piety.’" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 2 ch.3 p.314

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 235 A.D.) (doubtful authorship) "But again, as we found in the Seventy, and in Theodotion, and in Symmachus, in some psalms, and these not a few, the word diaphalmu inserted, we endeavoured to make out whether those who placed it there meant to mark a change at those places in rhythm or melody, or any alteration in the mode of instruction, or in thought, or in force of language. Commentary on Psalms ch.8 p.201

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.5 p.216 says some have corrupted books

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D. - uncertain date) homily 2 ch.38 vo.8 p.236 says that heretics falsified scripture.

 

B14. We are to believe Scripture

 

John 2:22

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 2:22

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 2:22

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 2:12

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) "But if I [Justin] quote frequently Scriptures, and so many of them, referring to this point, and ask you to comprehend them, you are hard-hearted in the recognition of the mind and will of God. But if you wish to remain for ever so, I would not be injured at all; and for ever retaining the same [opinions] which I had before I met with you, I shall leave you.’ And Trypho said,’ Look, my friend, you made yourself master of these [truths] with much labour and toil. And we accordingly must diligently scrutinize all that we meet with, in order to give our assent to those things which the Scriptures compel us [to believe].’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.68 p.232

Caius (190-217 A.D.) (implied) "For either they do not believe that the divine Scriptures were dictated by the Holy Spirit, and are thus infidels; or they think themselves wiser than the Holy Spirit, and what are they then but demoniacs?" ch.3 p.602

Clement of Alexandria (183-202 A.D.) He who believeth then the divine Scriptures with sure judgment, receives in the voice of God, who bestowed the Scripture, a demonstration that cannot be impugned. Stromata book 2 ch.2 p.349

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Believe, then, your own books, and as to our Scriptures so much the more believe writings which are divine, but in the witness of the soul itself give like confidence to Nature." The Soul’s Testimony ch.6 p.179

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (implied) "There is, brethren, one God, the knowledge of whom we gain from the Holy Scriptures, and from no other source." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.9 p.227

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial, word of truth, not scripture) "9. ‘The words are closed up and sealed.’ For as a man cannot tell what God has prepared for the saints; for neither has eye seen nor ear heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man (to conceive) these things, into which even the saints, too, shall then eagerly desire to look; so He said to him, ‘For the words are sealed until the time of the end; until many shall be chosen and tried with fire.’ And who are they who are chosen, but those who believe the word of truth, so as to be made white thereby, and to cast off the filth of sin, and put on the heavenly, pure, and glorious Holy Spirit, in order that, when the Bridegroom comes, they may go in straightway with Him?" Scholia on Daniel book 12 from chapter 12 verse 9 p.191

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "For let him believe from our own Scriptures that Peter obtained his freedom after having been bound in prison, an angel having loosed his chains; and that Paul, having been bound in the stocks along with Silas in Philippi of Macedonia, was liberated by divine power, when the gates of the prison were opened." Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.34 p.445

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.4 p.669 (partial) "Because the Holy Scripture has affirmed that they who should believe in Christ, must needs be baptized in the Spirit; so that these also may not seem to have anything less than those who are perfectly Christians;"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Moreover, belief in divine Scripture declares to us," Epistles of Cyprian letter 58 ch.3 p.354

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (implied) "for there is no contradiction nor absurdity in the Holy Scripture." Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.9 p.366

 

B15. The O.T. said the Messiah had to suffer/die

 

Luke 24:44-46

 

Acts 17:3 [Paul was] "explaining and proving that the Christ had to suffer and rise from the dead."

Acts 26:22b-23 "I [Paul] am saying nothing beyond what the prophets and Moses said would happen – that the Christ would suffer and, as the first to rise from the dead, would proclaim light to his own people and to the Gentiles."

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) quotes all of Isaiah 53 as referring to Christ. "In His humiliation His judgment was taken away; who shall declare His generation? ForHis life is taken from the earth. For the transgressions of my people he was brought down to death." 1 Clement ch.16 p.9.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "But whether Christ should be so shamefully crucified, this we are in doubt about. For whosoever is crucified is said in the law to be accursed, so that I am exceedingly incredulous on this point. It is quite clear, indeed, that the Scriptures announce that Christ had to suffer; but we wish to learn if you can prove it to us whether it was by the suffering cursed in the law." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.89 p.244.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) says, "For the Holy Spirit sometimes brought about that something, which was the type of the future, should be done clearly; sometimes He uttered words about what was to take place, as if it was then taking place, or had taken place." He gives examples from Isaiah 53. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.114 p.256

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 54.2-13 quotes Luke 24:36-29.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "He [Jesus] had to suffer, but not through you [Israel]." On Pascha part 75 p.58

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Luke 24:44-47a 3.75 verses Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.5 p.442

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) ""That all prophets ever announced of Him that He wa to come, and had to suffer. Therefore, since the prophecy was fulfilled through His advent,…" An Answer to the Jews ch.8 p.160

Tertullian (204/205 A.D.) "Our proofs we have drawn from His doctrines, maxims, affections, feelings, miracles, sufferings, and even resurrection – as foretold by the prophets." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.43 p.423.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) gives the example of Philip and the eunuch of the Old Testament in Isaiah 53 prophesying about Christ. ";He was led as a lamb to the slaughter, and as a lamb before his shearer is dumb,’ and so preached to him the Lord Jesus." Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.15 p.304.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes Luke 24:44-47 as by Jesus. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 1 ch.4 p.509

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 53:5 as an authority to prove his point. "He was wounded because of our sins; by His bruises we were healed." Dialogue on the True Faith First part 820a 27 (Adamantius is speaking) p.72

Athanasius (318 A.D.) quotes Numbers 24:5-17and Isaiah 53:3 as referring to Christ The Incarnation ch.33 p.54

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "And there He opened to His disciples again assembled the writings of Holy Scripture, that is, the secrets of the prophets; which before His suffering could by no means be understood, for they told of Him and of His passion. Therefore Moses, and the prophets also themselves, call the law which was given to the Jews a testament: for unless the testator shall have died, a testament cannot be confirmed; nor can that which is written in it be known, because it is closed and sealed. And thus, unless Christ had undergone death the testament could not have been opened; that is, the mystery of God could not have been unveiled and understood." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.122

 

B16. Dual meaning of some prophecies

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) says, "For the Holy Spirit sometimes brought about that something, which was the type of the future, should be done clearly; sometimes He uttered words about what was to take place, as if it was then taking place, or had taken place." He gives examples from Isaiah 53. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.114 p.256

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) says that Scripture sometimes uses metaphors, as in Psalm 8:3. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.114 p.256

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "For the Lord was a lamb, like the ram which Abraham saw caught in the bush Sabec. But this bush represented the cross, and that place Jerusalem, and the lamb the Lord bound for slaughter. … For as a ram was He bound, says he concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, and as a lamb was He shorn, and as a sheep was He led to the slaughter, and as a lamb was He crucified; and He carried the cross on His shoulders when He was led up to the hill to be slain, as was Isaac by his father. But Christ suffered, and Isaac did not suffer: for he was but a type of Him who should suffer. Yet, even when serving only for a type of Christ, he smote men with astonishment and fear." Catena on Genesis p.759

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/5 A.D.) "That it is in reality out of the tribe of Dan, then, that that tyrant and king, that dread judge, that son of the devil, is destined to spring and arise, the prophet testifies when he says, ‘Dan shall judge his people, as (he is) also one tribe in Israel.’ But some one may say that this refers to Samson, who sprang from the tribe of Dan, and judged the people twenty years. Well, the prophecy had its partial fulfilment in Samson, but its complete fulfilment is reserved for Antichrist." Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.15 p.207

Theodotus the probable Montanist (c.240 A.D.) "Our Pantenaus used to say, that prophecy utters its expressions indefinitely for the most part, and uses the present for the future, and again the present for the past. Which is also seen here. For ‘He hath set’ is put both for the past and the future. For the future, because, on the completion of this period, which is to run according to its present constitution, the Lord will come to restore the righteous, the faithful, in whom He rests, as in a tent, to one and the same unit; for all are one body, of the same race, and have chosen the fame faith and righteousness." Excerpts of Theodotus ch.55 p.49

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "Therefore it behooves us diligently, and with the utmost care, to follow the prophetic announcement, and to understand what the Spirit from the Father both announces and anticipates, and how, when He has gone forward to the last times, He again repeats the former ones. And now, what He will do once for all, He sometimes sets forth as if it were done; and unless you understand this, as sometimes done, and sometimes as about to be done, you will fall into a great confusion. Therefore the interpretation of the following sayings has shown therein, that not the order of the reading, but the order of the discourse, must be understood." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the Eleventh Chapter ch.8 p.355

 

B17. Don’t twist/corrupt meaning of scripture

 

2 Peter 3:16

 

Just false knowledge or false teaching are not counted here.

twist

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Now, if you know certain amongst us to be of this sort, do not for their sakes blaspheme the Scriptures and Christ, and do not assiduously strive to give falsified interpretations." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.82 p.240

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Then, again, collecting a set of expressions and names scattered here and there [in Scripture], they twist them, as we have already said, from a natural to a non-natural sense. In so doing, they act like those who bring forward any kind of hypothesis they fancy, and then endeavour to support them out of the poems of Homer, so that the ignorant imagine that Homer actually composed the verses bearing upon that hypothesis, which has, in fact, been but newly constructed; and many others are led so far by the regularly-formed sequence of the verses, as to doubt whether Homer may not have composed them." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.9.4 p.330

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "In this strain also the Apostle Paul, inasmuch as he had a good conscience, said to the Corinthians: ‘For we are not as many, who corrupt the Word of God: but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ;’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.26.4 p.498

Caius (190-217 A.D.) "The sacred Scriptures they have boldly falsified, and the canons of the ancient faith they have rejected, and Christ they have ignored, not inquiring what the sacred Scriptures say, but laboriously seeking to discover what form of syllogism might be contrived to establish their impiety. And should any one lay before them a word of divine Scripture, they examine whether it will make a connected or disjoined form of syllogism;" ch.3 p.602

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And if those also who follow heresies venture to avail themselves of the prophetic Scriptures; in the first place they will not make use of all the Scriptures, and then they will not quote them entire, nor as the body and texture of prophecy prescribe. But, selecting ambiguous expressions, they wrest them to their own opinions, gathering a few expressions here and there; not looking to the sense, but making use of the mere words. For in almost all the quotations they make, you will find that they attend to the names alone, while they alter the meanings; neither knowing, as they affirm, nor using the quotations they adduce, according to their true nature." Stromata book 7 ch.16 p.551

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Then, again, questions very often are suggested by occasional and isolated terms, just as much as they are by connected sentences. Thus, because of the apostle’s expression, ‘that mortality may be swallowed up of life’ -in reference to the flesh-they wrest the word swallowed up into the sense of the actual destruction of the flesh; as if we might not speak of ourselves as swallowing bile, or swallowing grief, meaning that we conceal and hide it, and keep it within ourselves." On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.54 p.587-588

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) says that unlike some they do not twist scripture. Tertullian on Modesty ch.8 p.82

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "And as it is no ground of accusation against philosophy, that there exist Sophists, or Epicureans, or Peripatetics, or any others, whoever they may be, who hold false opinions; so neither is it against genuine Christianity that there are some who corrupt the Gospel histories, and who introduce heresies opposed to the meaning of the doctrine of Jesus." Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.27 p.443

Novatian (250-257/258 A.D.) "Whence they who presume Christ the Son of God and man to be only man, and not God also, do so in opposition to both Old and New Testaments, in that they corrupt the authority and the truth both of the Old and New Testaments." Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.2 p.658 "Hear, therefore, O Novatians, among whom the heavenly Scriptures are read rather than understood; well, if they are not interpolated. For your ears are closed, and your hearts darkened, seeing that ye admit no light from spiritual and saving warnings; as Isaiah says, 'The servants of God are blinded.' And deservedly blinded, because the desire of schismatics is not in the law;"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (partial, he does not mention scripture) "He has invented heresies and schisms, whereby he might subvert the faith, might corrupt the truth, might divide the unity." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.3 p.422

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For men who are incontinent in consequence of the uncontrolled impulses of sensuality in them, dare to force the Scriptures beyond their true meaning, so as to twist into a defence of their incontinence the saying, ‘Increase and multiply;’ and the other, ‘Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother;’ and they are not ashamed to run counter to the Spirit, but, as though born for this purpose, they kindle up the smouldering and lurking passion, fanning and provoking it; and therefore he, cutting off very sharply these dishonest follies and invented excuses, and having arrived at the subject of instructing them how men should behave to their wives, showing that it should be as Christ did to the Church, ‘who gave Himself for it, that He might sanctify and cleanse it by the washing of water by the Word,’" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.10 p.320

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "those who adulterate the truth, who, corrupting the Scriptures by false doctrines, bring forth an imperfect and immature wisdom, mixing their error with piety.’" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 2 ch.3 p.314

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) says the Jews misinterpreted scriptures about the Messiah. Banquet of the Ten Virgins Discourse 9 ch.1 p.344

 

B18. The Law was excellent or good

 

Psalm 119:39

Romans 7:12-13,16 The Law was holy and good.

1 Timothy 1:8

1 Timothy 4:4 (partial, everything God created is good)

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "I said also, that those who regulated their lives by the law of Moses would in like manner be saved. For what in the law of Moses is naturally good, and pious, and righteous, and has been prescribed to be done by those who obey it; and what was appointed to be performed by reason of the hardness of the people’s hearts; was similarly recorded, and done also by those who were under the law." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.45 p.217

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "God, being mindful of them, and doing marvellous and strange miracles by the hand of Moses, delivered them, and led them out of Egypt, leading them through what is called the desert; whom He also settled again in the land of Canaan, which afterwards was called Judaea, and gave them a law, and taught them these things. Of this great and wonderful law, which tends to all righteousness, the ten heads are such as we have already rehearsed." Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.9 p.114

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "to do it,-some do justly receive praise even among men who are under the control of good laws (and much more from God), and obtain deserved testimony of their choice of good in general, and of persevering therein; but the others are blamed, and receive a just condemnation, because of their rejection of what is fair and good." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.37.2 p.519

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "‘And we know that the law is good, if a man use it lawfully.’ ‘Desiring to be teachers of the law, they understand,’ says the apostle, ‘neither what they say, nor whereof they affirm.’" Stromata book 1 ch.27 p.340

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) the law came from God. Stromata book 2 ch.7 p.354

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) says the law was unblameable. Tertullian on Modesty ch.6 p.76

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "However, by the support which he gave to the law, he affirmed that the law was good. For no one permits himself in the support of an evil thing." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.9 p.357

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "Paul in like manner, when he wishes to disparage the law taken literally, says, ‘If the ministration of death, written and engraven in stones, was glorious, so that the children of Israel could not stedfastly behold the face of Moses for the glory of his countenance, which glory was to be done away; how shall not the ministration of the Spirit be rather glorious?’ But when in another place he wishes to praise and recommend the law, he calls it ‘spiritual,’ and says, ‘We know that the law is spiritual;’ and, ‘Wherefore the law is holy, and the commandment holy, and just, and good.’" Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.20 p.619

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Then too that the law was given to the children of Israel for this purpose, that they might profit by it, and return to those virtuous manners which, although they had received them from their fathers," On Jewish Meats ch.3 p.647

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Yes, and it is clear and indisputable that he [the apostle] knew the law and its ordinances, for he says, ‘Therefore the Law indeed is holy; and the commandment holy, just and good." (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith Second part ch.20 p.105

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.1 p.215 (implied) "For his countrymen keep the same rule of monarchy and polity everywhere, being unable in any way to think otherwise, or to be led out of the way of the much-indicating Scriptures. For, according to the rule delivered to them, they endeavour to correct the discordances of the Scriptures, if any one, haply not knowing the traditions, is confounded at the various utterances of the prophets. Wherefore they charge no one to teach, unless he has first learned how the Scriptures must be used. And thus they have amongst them one God, one law, one hope."

 

B19. Scripture is called the word of God

 

Mention of the Word of God referring to Jesus is not included here.

 

1 Samuel 3:1,7,21

 

2 Samuel 22:31

1 Kings 2:27

1 Kings 12:24

1 Kings 13:1

2 Kings 23:16; 24:2

1 Chronicles 10:13; 11:3; 12:23; 15:15; 16:15; 35:6; 36:21,22;

 

Psalm 18:30; 33:4,6

Psalm 105:28

Psalm 119:9,11,16,17,25,28,38,-172

Psalm 138:2

 

Proverbs 30:5 "Do not add to his [God’s] Words, lest he rebuke you and you be found a liar."

 

Word of God means just Scripture here

Mark 7:13 in speaking about Corban says, "Thus you nullify the word of God by your tradition that you have handed down. And you do many things like that."

John 10:34-35 "Is it not written in your Law, ‘I have said you are gods’? If he called them ‘gods,’ to whom the word of God came – and the Scripture cannot be broken"

Acts 17:11,13 "Now the Bereans were of more noble character than the Thessalonians, for they received the message with great eagerness and examined the Scriptures every day to see if what Paul said was true. (13) When the Jews in Thessalonica learned that Paul was preaching the word of God at Berea, they went there too,…"

Romans 9:6 "It is not as though God’s word had failed. For not all who are descended from Israel are Israel. Nor because they are his descendants are they all Abraham’s children. On the contrary, ‘It is through Isaac that your offspring will be reckoned."

Galatians 6:6 "Anyone who receives instruction in the word must share all good things with his instructor"

 

Word of God means Scripture and/or truth

Isaiah 1:10 "Hear the word of the LORD, you rulers of Sodom; listen to the law of our God, your people of Gomorrah!"

Luke 11:28 "He [Jesus] replied, ‘Blessed rather are those who hear the word of God and obey it.’"

2 Corinthians 2:17 "Unlike so many, we do not peddle the word of God for profit. On the contrary, in Christ we speak before God with sincerity, like men sent from God."

2 Corinthians 4:2 "Rather, we have renounced secret and shameful ways; we do not use deception, nor do we distort the word of God. On the contrary, by setting forth the truth plainly we commend ourselves in every man’s conscience in the sight of God."

Colossians 1:25 "to present to you the word of God in its fullness"

Titus 2:5 ... so that no one will malign the word of God"

1 Peter 4:11 "If anyone speaks, he should do it as one speaking the very words of God."

1 Thessalonians 2:13 "And we also thank God continually because, when you received the word of God, which you heard from us, you accepted it not as the word of men, but as it actually is, the word of God, which is at work in you who believe."

Hebrews 4:12 "For the word of God is sharper than any two-edged sword…" (scripture, truth)

1 Peter 1:23,25 "for you have been born again not of seed which is perishable but imperishable that is, through the living and abiding word of God. (25) But the Word of the Lord abides forever. And this is the word which was preached to you." (NASB) (scripture, truth)

 

Word of God means Jesus Christ, scripture, and/or truth

1 John 2:14 (Christ, scripture, truth)

 

Word of God means just Jesus Christ (not included here)

Revelation 19:13 His [Jesus’] name is the Word of God.

 

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 10:34-35

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) John 10:34-35

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) 2 Corinthians 4:2

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 10:34-35

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A,D.) (partial since used as a play on words) Both these appointments, then, were made in an orderly way, according to the will of God. Having therefore received their orders, and being fully assured by the resurrection of our Lord Jesus Christ, and established in the word of God, with full assurance of the Holy Ghost, they went forth proclaiming that the kingdom of God was at hand." 1 Clement ch.42 p.16

Ignatius of Antioch (100-107/116 A.D.) (partial) "Now, as to Philo the deacon, of Cilicia, a man of reputation, who still ministers to me in the word of God, along with Rheus Agathopus, an elect man, who has followed me from Syria, not regarding his life," Letter to the Philadelphians ch.11 p.85

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.10 p.144 "That we ought to join ourselves to those that fear the Lord, those who meditate in their heart on the commandment which they have received, those who both utter the judgments of the Lord and observe them, those who know that meditation is a work of gladness, and who ruminate upon the word of the Lord. But what means the cloven-footed? That the righteous man also walks in this world, yet looks forward to the holy state [to come]. Behold how well Moses legislated. But how was it possible for them to understand or comprehend these things? We then, rightly understanding his commandments, explain them as the Lord intended. For this purpose He circumcised our ears and our hearts, that we might understand these things."

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Then I answered, "I know that, as the word of God says, this great wisdom of God, the Maker of all things, and the Almighty, is hid from you." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.38 p.213

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "And Moses, who lived many years before Solomon, or, rather, the Word of God by him as by an instrument, says, ‘In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.10 p.98

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (partial) For the divine writing itself teaches us that Adam said that he had heard the voice." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.22 p.103

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "In this strain also the Apostle Paul, inasmuch as he had a good conscience, said to the Corinthians: ‘For we are not as many, who corrupt the Word of God: but as of sincerity, but as of God, in the sight of God speak we in Christ;’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.26.4 p.498

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) (implied) "For a boon so great, the greatest ever given by God to the human race, would never have been hated and rejected, had not you been carried away by custom, and then shut your ears against us; and just as unmanageable horses throw off the reins, and take the bit between their teeth, you rush away from the arguments addressed to you, in your eager desire to shake yourselves clear of us, who seek to guide the chariot of your life, and, impelled by your folly, dash towards the precipices of destruction, and regard the holy word of God as an accursed thing." Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.197

Tertullian (200-220 A.D.) "For herein is figuratively described the difference of doctrines, since in other passages also the word of God is likened unto seed." Prescription Against Heretics ch.31 p.258

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "but the Lord said, ‘Yea, rather, blessed are they that hear the word of God, and keep it.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.26 p.393

 

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (partial, does not say scripture) "Dost thou wish to see the former things which thou hast renounced? Art thou again conversant with them? What shall the Anointed One profit thee? Or if it is permitted, on account of weakness, that thou foolishly profane ... Love not the world, nor its contents. Such is God’s word, and it seems good to thee. Thou observest man’s command, and shunnest God’s." Instructions of Commodianus ch.57 p.214

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "We acknowledge, however, although Celsus will not have it so, that we do desire to instruct all men in the word of God, so as to give to young men the exhortations which are appropriate to them, and to show to slaves how they may recover freedom of thought, and be ennobled by the word." Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.54 p.485

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "let us show from the holy Scriptures that the word of God also encourages" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.7 p.576

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "For he labours thus because he believes-because he knows that what is foretold by God’s word is true, and that the Holy Scripture cannot lie-that unfruitful trees, that is, unproductive men, are cut off and cast into the fire, but that the merciful are called into the kingdom." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 8 ch.8 p.478

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in Deuteronomy, the word of God to Moses: ‘Call the people together to me, ...’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third part ch.20 p.540

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "For I have heard that some who preach and teach the word of God among you are teachers of this opinion, who indeed diametrically, so to speak, are opposed to the opinion of Sabellius." Against the Sabellians ch.1 p.365

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "For even the very word spoken to him testifies to him, saying, ‘Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee; and before thou camest forth out of the womb I sanctified thee, and I ordained thee a prophet unto the nations.’ But he was not a prophet unto the nations; and thus the truthful word of God makes it necessary, which it has promised to set forth, that he should be a prophet to the nations." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the eleventh chapter verse 5 p.354

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "and at Damascus he was let down by night in a basket by the wall, and escaped the hands of him who sought to take him. For what they set before themselves, first and foremost, was to do the work of an evangelist, and to teach the Word of God, in which, confirming the brethren, that they might continue in the faith, they said this also, "that we must out of much tribulation enter into the kingdom of God.’ For they sought not what was profitable for them, but that which was profitable for the many, that they might be saved, and that they might be enabled to say unto them many things conducing to this, that they might act suitably to the Word of God, ‘unless,’ as says the apostle, ‘the time should fail me in speaking.’" Canonical Epistle Canon 9 p.273

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (implied) "For it is to be observed that the word of God says, that after the cry all the virgins arose, that is, that the dead shall be raised after the voice which comes from heaven, as also Paul intimates, that ‘the Lord Himself shall descend from heaven with a shout, with the voice of the archangel, and with the trump of God: and the dead in Christ shall rise first;’ that is the tabernacles, for they died, being put off by their souls. ‘Then we which are alive shall be caught up together with them,’ meaning our souls." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 6 ch.4 p.330

 

B20. Scripture is holy/sacred

Romans 1:2; 2 Timothy 3:15

 

(The terms "Divine Scripture" and "Holy Covenant" are not included here.)

 

Justin Martyr (c.148-165 A.D.) "Pay attention, therefore, to what I shall record out of the holy Scriptures, which do not need to be expounded, but only listened to." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.55 p.222

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "But now, by means of the contents of those Scriptures esteemed holy and prophetic amongst you, I attempt to prove all..." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.32 p.210.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "Then holy Scripture gives a summary in these words: ‘This is the book of the generation of the heavens and the earth, when they were created, in the day that the Lord made the heavens and the earth, and every green thing of the field, before it was made, and every herb of the field before it grew. For God had not caused it to rain upon the earth, and there was not a man to till the ground.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.19 p.102. See also book 2 ch.13 p.100.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "I met with the sacred Scriptures of the holy prophets, who also by the Spirit of God foretold the things that have already happened, just as they came to pass" Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.93

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "promised by His prophets in the holy Scriptures, concerning His Son," Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.3 p.441

Polycrates of Ephesus (196 A.D.) "I … have read through all Holy Scripture, am not frightened at the things which are said to terrify us. For those who are greater than I have said, ‘We ought to obey God rather than men.’" Epistle to Victor and the Roman Church vol.8 p.774

Caius (190-217 A.D.) ch.2.1 p.601 "And perhaps what they allege might be credible, did not the Holy Scriptures contradict them." Then he mentions earlier church writers. "I mean Justin and Miltiades, and Tatian and Clement, and many others, in all which divinity is ascribed to Christ. For who is ignorant of the books of Irenaeus and Melito, and the rest, which declare Christ to be God and man?"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "let me act and speak In all things as Thy Holy Scriptures teach;" The Instructor book 3 To the Paedagogus p.296

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) goes into great detail about early Christian worship. "After manual ablution, and the bringing in of lights, each is asked to stand forth and sing, as he can, a hymn to God, either one from the holy Scriptures or one of his own composing," Apology ch.39 p.47

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) "The law of piety, sanctity, humanity, truth, chastity, justice, mercy, benevolence, modesty, remains in its entirety; in which law 'blessed (is) the man who shall meditate by day and by night.’ About that (law) the same David (says) again: 'The law of the Lord (is) unblameable converting souls; the statutes of the Lord (are) direct, delighting hearts; the precept of the Lord far-shining, enlightening eyes.’ Thus, too, the apostle: 'And so the law indeed is holy, and the precept holy and most good' -'Thou shalt not commit adultery,' of course." Tertullian on Modesty ch.6 p.79

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "There is, brethren, one God, the knowledge of whom we gain from the Holy Scriptures, and from no other source." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.9 p.227

Hippolytus of Portus (after 236 A.D.) speaks of Holy Scripture. Refutation of All Heresies book 1 Proemium p.10

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Thus we see that he who aims at a complete understanding of the Holy Scriptures must not neglect the careful examination of the proper names in it." Origen’s Commentary on John ch.6.24 p.371

Origen (c.240 A.D.) speaks of "sacred scriptures" and then quotes Jeremiah 332:16 and Psalm 75:8. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 12 ch.2 p.112

Origen (230-235 A.D.) "3. Do you then, my son, diligently apply yourself to the reading of the sacred Scriptures. Apply yourself, I say." Letter from Origen to Gregory ch.3 p.394

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "let us show from the holy Scriptures that the word of God also encourages" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.7 p.576

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "‘I am the resurrection.’ Jesus preaches to the poor those things which are laid up for the saints, calling them to the divine promises. And the holy Scriptures bear witness to the Gospel announcements made by the Apostles and to that made by our Saviour." Commentary on John ch.1 no.10 p.302

Origen (233/234 A.D.) "And now we must prove from Sacred Scripture what we have said," Origen On Prayer ch.9 p.38

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.4 p.669 "Because the Holy Scripture has affirmed that they who should believe in Christ, must needs be baptized in the Spirit; so that these also may not seem to have anything less than those who are perfectly Christians;"

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.1 p.668 says it will "as is needful collect into one mass whatever passages of the Holy Scriptures are pertinent to this subject."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "For he labours thus because he believes-because he knows that what is foretold by God’s word is true, and that the Holy Scripture cannot lie-that unfruitful trees, that is, unproductive men, are cut off and cast into the fire, but that the merciful are called into the kingdom." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 8 ch.8 p.478. See also ibid Treatise 12 part 1 Heads no.4 p.507.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "when Holy Scripture speaks by the mouth of the prophet Ezekiel, and says, "Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness and from all your idols will I cleanse you." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 75 ch.12 p.401

Moyses, Maximum, and Nicostratus (248-257 A.D.) say "Certainly their spirits are to be cheered and to be nourished up to the season of their maturity, and they are to be instructed from the Holy Scriptures how great and surpassing a sin they [the lapsed] have committed." Letter to Cyprian 25 ch.6 p.304.

Nemesianus of Thubunae at the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) "That the baptism which heretics and schismatic bestow is not the true one, is everywhere declared in the Holy Scriptures, since there very leading men are false Christs and false prophets,…" (p.566)

Felix of Gurgites at the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) "I judge that, according to the precepts of the holy Scriptures, he who is unlawfully baptized by heretics outside the Church, when he wishes to take refuge in the Church, should obtain the grace of baptism where it is lawfully given." (p.571)

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) quotes half of Revelation 3:7, which is like Isaiah 22:22. "And this same principle is expressed indeed in the Holy Scriptures themselves, when it is said that only He who shutteth openeth, and no other one whatever; and what is shut is opened when the word of inspiration explains mysteries." Oration and Panegyric to Origen argument 15 p.36

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions "the demonstration and teaching of the Holy Scriptures". Two books on the Promises ch.2 p.82. See also Epistle to Bishop Basilides Canon 1 p.94.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "However, it will be acknowledged cordially by all, that from the date of the resurrection of our Lord, those who up to that time have been humbling their souls with fastings, ought at once to begin their festal joy and gladness. But in what you have written to me you have made out very clearly, and with an intelligent understanding of the Holy Scriptures, that no very exact account seems to be offered in them of the hour at which He rose." Letter to Bishop Basilides p.94

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.) ch.3 p.147 "who was one of the Seventy who translated the sacred and holy Scriptures of the Hebrews for Ptolemy Philadelphus and his father, and dedicated his exegetical books on the law of Moses to the same kings. These writers, in solving some questions which are raised with respect to Exodus, say that all alike ought to sacrifice the Passover"

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) "Let no day pass by without reading some portion of the Sacred Scriptures, at such convenient hour as offers, and giving some space to meditation. And never cast off the habit of reading in the Holy Scriptures; for nothing feeds the soul and enriches the mind so well as those sacred studies do." Letter of Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria, to Lucianus, the Chief Chamberlain ch.9 p.161

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "You maintain, then that figurative language has been used in regard to the term "Son of Man"? … By your [heretical] theory, either Christ is found to be a liar because He calls Himself ‘Son of Man’, although He is not man; or all the Holy Scriptures are to be understood in the spiritual sense, even if figurative language has not been used." [Adamantius is speaking here, arguing against Megethius the Marcionite] Dialogue on the True Faith First part 808a.7 p.45. See also ibid the fifth part 12 p.164.

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) "Having before them all these examples and signs and illustrious tokens which are given us in the divine and holy Scriptures, the blessed martyrs who lived with us did not hesitate, but directing the eye of their soul in sincerity to that God who is over all, and embracing with willing mind the death which their piety cost them, they adhered steadfastly to their vocation." Letter of Phileas to Thmuis ch.1 p.162

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) quotes Exodus 22:20 and 20:3 as "by the Holy Scriptures" Letter of Phileas to the People of Thmuis p.163

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "for there is no contradiction nor absurdity in the Holy Scripture." Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.9 p.366

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Virginity is something supernaturally great, wonderful, and glorious; and, to speak plainly and in accordance with the Holy Scriptures, this best and noblest manner of life alone is the root of immortality" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 1 ch.1 p.310

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "one who was named Adam in Hebrew, is described in the Holy Scriptures" Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.2 p.5

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "God completed the world and this admirable work of nature in the space of six days, as is contained in the secrets of Holy Scripture, and consecrated the seventh day, on which He had rested from His works." The Divine Institutes book 7 ch.14 p.211

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "the writings of Holy Scripture" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.122

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "Since the body of the Catholic Church is one, and it is commanded in Holy Scripture that we should keep the bond of unanimity and peace" Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 2 ch.1 p.296

 

B21. Divine Scripture

 

Caius (190-217 A.D.) says that heretics boldly falsified scripture. ch.3 p.602 "But as to those men who abuse the arts of the unbelievers to establish their own heretical doctrine, and by the craft of the impious adulterate the simple faith of the divine Scriptures, what need is there to say that these are not near the faith?"

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "and I shall plainly set forth from these divine Scriptures proofs to [satisfy] all the lovers of truth." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.35.4 p.413

Clement of Aleaxandria (199-217/220 A.D.) "And by and by I will fortify them with the divine Scriptures." The Instructor book 3 ch.2 p.273

Clement of Alexandria (183-202 A.D.) He who believeth then the divine Scriptures with sure judgment, receives in the voice of God, who bestowed the Scripture, a demonstration that cannot be impugned. Stromata book 2 ch.2 p.349

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) said that the chamberlain [Ethiopian eunuch] was reading "divine Scripture" On Baptism ch.18 p.678

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) "By (the standard of) Idolatry we are measured; by her disjunctive intervention we are conjoined; to her, outjutting from our midst, we are united; the Divine Scripture has made us concorporate;" On Modesty ch.5 p.78

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "'And he [Daniel] wrote the dream.' The things, therefore, which were revealed to the blessed prophet by the Spirit in visions, these he also recounted fully for others, that he might not appear to prophesy of the future to himself alone, but might be proved a prophet to others also, who wish to search the divine Scriptures." Scholia on Daniel ch.7 verse 1 p.188

Origen (240 A.D.) quotes Micah 2:9 as "this is what the divine Scripture expresses". Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 28 ch.5 p.264 (translated by Jerome)

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Consider however, whether the divine Scriptures do not in many places teach this; as where the Saviour says, ‘Or have ye not read that which was spoken at the bush, I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. He is not God of the dead but of the living.’" [Mark 12:26] Commentary on John book 2 ch.10 p.333

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Scripture has frequently declared Him [Christ] both Angel and God, so the same divine Scripture declares Him also both man and God." Then Novatian quotes Genesis 32:24-27 to prove his point. Novatian Concerning the Trinity ch.19 p.630

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "a large number of bishops, whom their faith and the divine protection had preserved in soundness and safety, we met together; and the divine Scriptures being brought forward on both sides, we balance the decision with wholesome moderation,…" Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.6 p.328

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Divine Scripture proves this, when it says, …" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.24 p.429

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (256 A.D.) "so that of none more than of you does divine Scripture say, 'A wrathful man stirreth up strifes, and a furious man heapeth up sins." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.24 p.396

Felix of Amacora At the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.659 "Also another Felix of Amaccora said: And I myself, following the authority of the divine Scriptures,"

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "Moreover, divine Scripture calls us makers of those motions which proceed from the heart, when it calls us doers of the law of judgment and of justice." Epistles of Dionysius Letter 4 ch.11 p.93

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "For these indeed rightly know that the Trinity is declared in the divine Scripture," in ch.1 and uses Moses in Deuteronomy [32:6] to "convict" these men. Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians (ANF vol.7) ch.2 p.365

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.) "And therefore we have said that those parties have committed no trivial offence who have ventured either on anticipating or on going beyond this number, which is given us in the divine Scriptures themselves." ch.16 p.151

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) "On occasion also he will endeavour to laud the divine Scriptures, which, with marvellous care and most liberal expenditure, Ptolemy Philadelphus caused to be translated into our language;" ch.7 p.160

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) refers to "divine Scriptures" Creed of Lucian of Antioch in The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff vol.2 p.28

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "For the soul is made after the image and likeness of God, as divine Scripture also shews, when it says in the person of God ‘Let us make man after our Image and likeness.’" Athanasius Against the Heathen part 2 ch.34 p.22

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "By saying these things, and by unfolding the divine Scriptures, we have often refuted them [Arians]." Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 2 ch.5 p.298

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 10 ch.42 p.&&& "For there are many sayings in the divine Scriptures which can be drawn to that sense which every one has preconceived for himself; and this ought not to be done."

 

B22. Some corrupted [copies of] scripture

 

This includes both changed the Christian scriptures and those who made their own books taking pieces of Christian scriptures.

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And there was nothing astonishing in God having done this,-He who, when, during the captivity of the people under Nebuchadnezzar, the Scriptures had been corrupted, and when, after seventy years, the Jews had returned to their own land, then, in the times of Artaxerxes king of the Persians, inspired Esdras the priest, of the tribe of Levi, to recast all the words of the former prophets, and to re-establish with the people the Mosaic legislation." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.2 p.451

Caius (190-217 A.D.) says that heretics boldly falsified scripture. ch.3 p.602 "But as to those men who abuse the arts of the unbelievers to establish their own heretical doctrine, and by the craft of the impious adulterate the simple faith of the divine Scriptures, what need is there to say that these are not near the faith? For this reason is it they have boldly laid their hands upon the divine Scriptures, alleging that they have corrected them. And that I do not state this against them falsely, any one who pleases may ascertain. For if any one should choose to collect and compare all their copies together, he would find many discrepancies among them. The copies of Asclepiades, at any rate, will be found at variance with those of Theodotus. And many such copies are to be had, because their disciples were very zealous in inserting the corrections, as they call them, i.e., the corruptions made by each of them. And again, the copies of Hermophilus do not agree with these; and as for those of Apollonius, they are not consistent even with themselves. For one may compare those which were formerly prepared by them with those which have been afterwards corrupted with a special object, and many discrepancies will be found. And as to the great audacity implied in this offence, it is not likely that even they themselves can be ignorant of that. For either they do not believe that the divine Scriptures were dictated by the Holy Spirit, and are thus infidels; or they think themselves wiser than the Holy Spirit, and what are they then but demoniacs? Nor can they deny that the crime is theirs, when the copies have been written with their own hand; nor did they receive such copies of the Scriptures from those by whom they were first instructed in the faith, and they cannot produce copies from which these were transcribed. And some of them did not even think it worth while to corrupt them; but simply denying the law and the prophets for the sake of their lawless and impious doctrine, trader pretexts of grace, they sunk down to the lowest abyss of perdition."

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial, interpret it wrong, but do not change the words) "And if those also who follow heresies venture to avail themselves of the prophetic Scriptures; in the first place they will not make use of all the Scriptures, and then they will not quote them entire, nor as the body and texture of prophecy prescribe. But, selecting ambiguous expressions, they wrest them to their own opinions, gathering a few expressions here and there; not looking to the sense, but making use of the mere words. For in almost all the quotations they make, you will find that they attend to the names alone, while they alter the meanings; neither knowing, as they affirm, nor using the quotations they adduce, according to their true nature.". Stromata book 7 ch.16 p.531

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that heretics corrupted scripture. On Prescription Against Heretics ch.17 p.251

Origen (.225-253/254 A.D.) "Now I know of no others who have altered the Gospel, save the. followers of Marcion, and those of Valentinus, and, I think, also those of Lucian.But such an allegation is no charge against the Christian system, but against those who dared so to trifle with the Gospels. And as it is no ground of accusation against philosophy, that there exist Sophists, or Epicureans, or Peripatetics, or any others, whoever they may be, who hold false opinions; so neither is it against genuine Christianity that there are some who corrupt the Gospel histories, and who introduce heresies opposed to the meaning of the doctrine of Jesus." Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.27 p.443

Origen (239-242 A.D.) "those who have corrupted the apostolic Scriptures" Homilies on Ezekiel homily 1 ch.7.2 p.37

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) says that Marcion has corrupted scripture. Dialogue on the True Faith second part 829a.12 p.89.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D. - uncertain date) homily 2 ch.38 vo.8 p.236 says that heretics falsified scripture.

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) ch.12.112 p.91 says some accepted scripture in an altered way.

 

B23. Law was a shadow of the gospel / things to come

 

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (implied) "Presently, therefore, Moses prophetically, giving place to the perfect Instructor the Word, predicts both the name and the office of Instructor, and committing to the people the commands of obedience, sets before them the Instructor. ‘A prophet,’ says he, ‘like Me shall God raise up to you of your brethren,’ pointing out Jesus the Son of God, by an allusion to Jesus the son of Nun; for the name of Jesus predicted in the law was a shadow of Christ." The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.224

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "The shadow, therefore, is His to whom belongs the body also; in other words, the law is His, and so is Christ. If you separate the law and Christ, assigning one to one god and the other to another, it is the same as if you were to attempt to separate the shadow from the body of which it is the shadow. Manifestly Christ has relation to the law, if the body has to its shadow." Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.19 p.471-472

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "which things those of old worshipped the type and the shadow, and what things were real of the things narrated in the histories which ‘happened to them in the way of type,’ but these things ‘were written for our sakes, upon whom the ends of the ages have come.’ With whomsoever, then, Christ has sojourned, he worships God neither at Jerusalem nor on the mountain of the Samaritans; he knows that God is a spirit, and worships Him spiritually, in spirit and in truth; no longer by type does he worship the Father and Maker of all." Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.8 p.301

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "‘For our Passover also was sacrificed for us, namely, Christ; ‘he does not say, ‘The Passover of the Lord was sacrificed, even Christ.’ To this we must say, either that the Apostle simply calls the passover our passover because it was sacrificed for us, or that every sacrifice which is really the Lord’s, and the passover is one of these, awaits its consummation not in this age nor upon earth, but in the coming age and in heaven when the kingdom of heaven appears. As for those feasts, one of the twelve prophets says, ‘What will ye do in the days of assembly, and in the days of the feast of the Lord? ‘But Paul says in the Epistle to the Hebrews: ‘But ye are come unto Mount Zion, and to the city of the living God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to ten thousands of angels, the assembly and church of the firstborn, who are written in heaven.’ And in the Epistle to the Colossians: ‘Let no one judge you in meat and in drink, or in respect of a feast-day or a new moon, or a sabbath-day; which are a shadow of the things to come." ‘Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 ch.11 p.388

Origen (243/243 A.D.) "If the Law has a shadow of the things to come, it must be that many Sabbaths are the "shadow" of a great many days, and the new moon will be realized at definite intervals of time." Origen On Prayer ch.27.14 p.103

Origen (230-235 A.D.) (partial) "2. Perhaps something of this kind is shadowed forth in what is written in Exodus from the mouth of God, that the children of Israel were commanded to ask..." Letter from Origen to Gregory ch.2 p.393

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (implied) "For this Jesus Christ, I will once more say, the Son of this God, we read of as having been promised in the Old Testament, and we observe to be manifested in the New, fulfilling the shadows and figures of all the sacraments, with the presence of the truth embodied. For as well the ancient prophecies as the Gospels testify Him to be the son of Abraham and the son of David." Concerning the Trinity ch.9 p.618

Cyprian of Carthage (c.253-258 A.D.) "For in respect of the observance of the eighth day in the Jewish circumcision of the flesh, a sacrament was given beforehand in shadow and in usage; but when Christ came, it was fulfilled in truth. For because the eighth day, that is, the first day after the Sabbath, was to be that on which the Lord should rise again, and should quicken us, and give us circumcision of the spirit, the eighth day, that is, the first day after the Sabbath, and the Lord’s day, went before in the figure; which figure ceased when by and by the truth came, and spiritual circumcision was given to us." Epistles of Cyprian letter 58 ch.4 p.354

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) says that the law was a foreshadowing or type of the gospel. Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.c18 p.98. See also the first part ch.5 p.153

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "And let these things be said for the sake of example, showing that the Jews have wonderfully fallen from the hope of future good, because they consider things present to be only signs of things already accomplished; whilst they do not perceive that the figures represent images, and images are the representatives of truth. For the law is indeed the figure and the shadow of an image, that is, of the Gospel; but the image, namely, the Gospel, is the representative of truth itself. For the men of olden time and the law foretold to us the characteristics of the Church, and the Church represents those of the new dispensation which is to come. Whence we, having received Christ, saying, ‘I am the truth,’ know that shadows and figures have ceased; and we hasten on to the truth, proclaiming its glorious images." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.2 p.345

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "that I might be taught, by the types and figures which went before, to approach with reverence and trembling to do honour to the sacred mystery which is connected with thee; and that by means of this prior shadow-painting of the law I might be restrained from boldly and irreverently contemplating with fixed gaze Him who, in His incomprehensibility, is seated far above all." Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.5 p.386

 

B24. Scripture was/is fulfilled

 

"fulfilling" a passage is not included here. It has to have the word "scripture" as well as fulfilled.

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 51.28-29 p.122 "Let us not rend it, but cast lots for it, whose it shall be: and the scripture was fulfilled, which saith, They divided my garments among them, And cast the lot for my vesture."

Letter of Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) p.783 "For they felt no shame that they had been overcome, for they were not possessed of human reason; but their defeat only the more inflamed their rage, and governor and people, like a wild beast, showed a like unjust hatred of us, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, `He that is unjust, let him be unjust still; and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still.’"

Hegesippus (177-180 A.D.) "Thus they fulfilled the Scripture written in Isaiah: ‘Let us away with the just man, because he is troublesome to us: therefore shall they eat the fruit of their doings.’" p.763

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "[Philip declared] that this was Jesus, and that the Scripture was fulfilled in Him; as did also the believing eunuch himself: and, immediately requesting to be baptized, he said, ‘I believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God.’" Irenaeus against Heresies book 3 ch.12.8 p.433. See also book 3 ch.12.1 p.429

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "I could adduce ten thousand Scriptures of which not ‘one tittle shall pass away,’ without being fulfilled; for the mouth of the Lord the Holy Spirit hath spoken these things." Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.195

Tertullian (204/205 A.D.) "Now, although Zacchaeus was probably a Gentile, he yet from his intercourse with Jews had obtained a smattering of their Scriptures, and, more than this, had, without knowing it, fulfilled the precepts of Isaiah: ‘Deal thy bread,’ said the prophet, ‘to the hungry, and bring the poor that are cast out into thine house.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.37.1 p.412

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "This has been fulfilled. For after Cyrus arose Darius, and then Artaxerxes. These were the three kings; (and) the Scripture is fulfilled." Visions of Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar ch.30 p.183

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "‘But how then should the Scriptures be fulfilled, that thus it must be?’ And if any one imagines these statements to be inventions of the writers of the Gospels, why should not those statements rather be regarded as inventions which proceeded from a spirit of hatred and hostility against Jesus and the Christians?" Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.10 p.434-435

Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) "But of this I remind you, that Christ was not to be expected in the Gospel in any other wise than as He was promised before by the Creator, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament; especially as the things that were predicted of Him were fulfilled, and those things that were fulfilled had been predicted." Concerning the Trinity ch.10 p.619

 

B25. Unbelievers don’t understand OT/scripture

 

Matthew 22:29; Mark 12:24 (Sadducees)

 

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Mark 12:24

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.6 p.140 (implied) "What, then, says Knowledge? Learn: ‘Trust,' she says, 'in Him who is to be manifested to you in the flesh-that is, Jesus.’ For man is earth in a suffering state, for the formation of Adam was from the face of the earth. What, then, meaneth this: 'into the good land, a land flowing with milk and honey?’ Blessed be our Lord, who has placed in us wisdom and understanding of secret things. For the prophet says, 'Who shall understand the parable of the Lord, except him who is wise and prudent, and who loves his Lord?’"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Then I said again, ‘Would you suppose, sirs, that we could ever have understood these matters in the Scriptures, if we had not received grace to discern by the will of Him whose pleasure it was?" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.119 p.258

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "and therefore it was said to the Hebrews, ‘If ye believe not, neither shall you understand;’ that is, unless you believe what is prophesied in the law, and oracularly delivered by the law, you will not understand the Old Testament, which He by His coming expounded." Stromata book 4 ch.21 p.434

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (implied) "and as now we must by means of sound reasoning refute the fallacies of Celsus, who neither understands the meaning of our Scripture, nor has the capacity of judging that the meaning of our wise men is not to be determined by those individuals who make no profession of anything more than of a (simple) faith in the Christian system, let us show that men, not to be lightly esteemed on account of their reasoning powers and dialectic subtleties, have given expression to very absurd opinions." Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.20 p.552

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "In Isaiah: ‘And if ye will not believe, neither will ye understand.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first book ch.5 p.509

 

B26. Lion both good and bad in scripture

 

Good: Revelation 5:5

Bad: 1 Peter 5:8

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Judah is a lion's whelp; from the germ, my son, thou art sprung up. Reclining, he lay down like a lion, and like [a lion's] whelp: who shall raise him up? A ruler shall not depart from Judah, or a leader from his thighs, until that which is laid up in store for him shall come; and he shall be the desire of nations, binding his foal to the vine, and the foal of his ass to the tendril of the vine." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.52 p.221

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Or He meant the devil by the lion roaring against Him: whom Moses calls the serpent, but in Job and Zechariah he is called the devil, and by Jesus is addressed as Satan, showing that a compounded name was acquired by him from the deeds which he performed." Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.103 p.251

Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) "Now, as our Lord Jesus Christ, who is also God, was prophesied of under the figure of a lion, on account of His royalty and glory, in the same way have the Scriptures also aforetime spoken of Antichrist as a lion, on account of his tyranny and violence." Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.6 p.206

Origen (239-242 A.D.) says the lion is both good and bad in scripture. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 11 ch.3.2 p.141 and 12.4.1 p.152

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "and that He Himself is the Lion of the tribe of Judah, and should couch sleeping in His passion, and should rise up, and should Himself be the hope of the Gentiles." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 62 ch.6 p.360

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258) "And one of the elders said unto me, Weep not; behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the Root of David, hath prevailed to open the book, and to loose its seven seals." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second book ch.11 p.520.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Apostle Peter, in his epistle, forewarns and teaches, saying, ‘Be sober, and watch; because your adversary the devil, as a roaring lion, goeth about seeking any one to devour.’ [1 Peter 5:8]" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 10 ch.1 p.491

 

 

OLD TESTAMENT canon

 

OTc1. The Law and the prophets

 

Matthew 11:12-15; Romans 3:21b

Haggai 2:10 (partial, the law)

Hebrews 1:1 (partial, prophets) "God spoke to our forefathers throguh the prophets"

 

p12 Hebrews 1:1 (285-300 A.D.)

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) quotes Romans 3:21 which mentions the "law and the prophets"

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Quotes Matthew 11:12-15

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "The law and the prophets were until John the Baptist; from that time the kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the violent take it by force." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.51 p.221

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) Justin says that we now follow Christ instead of the Law. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.11 p.199-200.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "‘Of these and such like words written by the prophets, O Trypho,’ said I, ‘some have reference to the first advent of Christ, in which He is preached as inglorious, obscure, and of mortal appearance: but others had reference to His second advent, when He shall appear in glory and above the clouds; and your nation shall see and know Him whom they have pierced, as Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, and Daniel, foretold.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.14 p.202

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) (implied) section 8.46 p.57 mentions not against the law or the prophets.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "We have collected together extracts from the Law and the Prophets relating to those things which have been declared concerning our Lord Jesus Christ, that we may prove to your love that this Being is perfect reason, the Word of God;" On Faith ch.4 vol.8 p.756

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions the law and the prophets in On Pascha stanza 104 p.66. See also stanza 57 p.52

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "And concerning the conflagration of the world, they have, willingly or unwillingly, spoken in Conformity with the prophets, though they were much more recent, and stole these things from the law and the prophets. The poets corroborate the testimony of the prophets." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.37 p.110

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "He thus clearly indicates, that He whom Cornelius had previously feared as God, of whom he had heard through the law and the prophets, for whose sake also he used to give alms, is, in truth, God." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.7 p.432

Caius (190-217 A.D.) "but simply denying the law and the prophets for the sake of their lawless and impious doctrine," vol.5 ch.3 p.602

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) Then from these He infers, ‘on this hang the law and the prophets.’" The Instructor book 3 ch.12 p.292

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "But as the proclamation [of the Gospel] has come now at the fit time, so also at the fit time were the Law and the Prophets given to the Barbarians, and Philosophy to the Greeks, to fit their ears for the Gospel." Stromata book 6 ch.6 p.490. See also the prophets and the law in Stomata book 5 ch.6 p.452.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) And justly does the evangelist write, ‘The law and the prophets (were) until John’ the Baptist." Answer to the Jews ch.8 p.160. See also On Fasting ch.2 vol.4 p.103

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "And so in this manner the law and the prophets were until John" Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.23 p.341

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) refers to the law and the prophets. Tertulian on Modesty ch.6 p.78

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says that Jesus was preached by the law and the prophets. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.17 p.230

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (partial) mentions just the law, and then a little later mentions the prophets. Instructions of Commodianus ch.56 p.214

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "It is shown from the declarations concerning Jesus, contained in the law and the prophets, that both Moses and the prophets were truly prophets of God." Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.45 p.415

Origen (233/234 A.D.) refers to the law and the prophets. Prayer ch.2.3 p.18

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (partial, law only) "He [God] gave Moses for a leader unto the people; He delivered the groaning children of Israel from the yoke of slavery; He wrote the law;" Concerning the Trinity ch.8 p.617

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "Christ who is announced by the law and the prophets"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "In the Gospel also: ‘All the prophets and the law prophesied until John.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first book testimonies ch.9 p.511

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "and there are unquestionably some teachers, who hold that the law and the prophets are of no importance, and who decline to follow the Gospels, and who depreciate the epistles of the apostles, and who have also made large promises regarding the doctrine of this composition, as though it were some great and hidden mystery, and who, at the same time, do not allow that our simpler brethren have any sublime and elevated conceptions either of our Lord’s appearing in His glory and His true divinity, or of our own resurrection from the dead, and of our being gathered together to Him, and assimilated to Him, but, on the contrary, endeavour to lead them to hope for things which are trivial and corruptible, and only such as what we find at present in the kingdom of God. And since this is the case, it becomes necessary for us to discuss this subject with our brother Nepos just as if he were present." From the Two Books on the Promises ch.1 p.81

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "he who does not accept the Law and the Prophets does not accept the Gospel either." Adamantius is debating Megethius the Marcionite. Dialogue on the True Faith Second part ch.10 p.87. See also ibid part 2 867a 12 p.100.

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "-the new, the evangelical words of the apostles; the old, the precepts of the law and the prophets:" Commentary on the Apocalypse from the First Chapter no.16 (first time) p.345

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Wherefore let it shame the Jews that they do not perceive the deep things of the Scriptures, thinking that nothing else than outward things are contained in the law and the prophets;" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.1 p.345

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-310/311 A.D.) "I came not to destroy the law, or the prophets, but to fulfil them’ the Saviour Himself said in the Gospel." Fragment 5 : That up to the time of the destruction of Jerusalem… ch.7 p.282

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But all Scripture is divided into two Testaments. That which preceded the advent and passion of Christ-that is, the law and the prophets-is called the Old; but those things which were written after His resurrection are named the New Testament." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.122

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) "If any one preaches the one God of the law and the prophets," Epistle to the Philadelphians ch.6 p.82

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "It became indeed the Lord of the law and the prophets to do all things in accordance with His own law, and not to make void the law, but to fulfil it, and rather to connect with the fulfilment of the law the beginning of His grace." Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.3 p.385

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) (partial) homily 2 ch.20 p.332 refers to the law.

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) (partial) ch.2 p.215 mentions the Law of Moses.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.68 p.95 mentions the law and afterws the prophets. See also book 2 ch.50 p.111.

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) (partial) ch.12.112 p.90-91 said that the Hebrew prophets were good.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc2. Genesis is scripture

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) (partial) "when the blessed Moses also, ‘a faithful servant in all his house,’ noted down in the sacred books all the injunctions which were given him," 1 Clement ch.43 p.16

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.6 p.140 "For the Scripture says concerning us, while He speaks to the Son, "Let Us make man after Our image, and after Our likeness; and let them have dominion over the beasts of the earth, and the fowls of heaven, and the fishes of the sea."

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.13 p.145 "Hear ye now what the Scripture saith concerning the people." And then refers to Genesis 25:21.

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.14 p.255 "the body of Christ (for the Scripture, saith, ‘God created man male and female;’"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "But the whole earth, as the Scripture says, was inundated, and the water rose in height fifteen cubits above all the mountains: so that it is evident this was not spoken to the land, but to the people who obeyed Him:" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.138 p.268. See also ibid ch.56 p.223.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "Scripture teaches us, saying: ‘And a fountain went up out of the earth, and watered the face of the whole earth; and God made man of the dust of the earth, and breathed into his face the breath of life, and man became a living soul.’" [Genesis 2:7] Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.19 p.102. See also book 2 ch.10 p.98

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Moreover, we learn from the Scripture itself" and then soon after quotes Genesis 17:9-11. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.26.1 p.480

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) mentions Genesis as scripture. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.32.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "And when God saw the undoubting and unwavering certainty of his spirit, He bare witness unto him by the Holy Spirit, saying in the Scripture: ‘And Abraham believed, and it was counted unto him for righteousness.’" Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.24.

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (implied) "And some, in worshipping God, make a representation of heaven containing the stars; and so worship, although Scripture says, ‘Let Us make man in Our image and likeness.’" Stromata book 5 ch.5 p.451

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For with perfect propriety Scripture has said that woman is given by God as ‘a help’ to man." Stromata book 4 ch.20 p.432

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) discusses in detail Genesis 2:21,23; 3:5,19; 4:10 then says, "This is the answer I should give in defence of the Scriptures before us, for seeming here to set forth the formation of the heaven and the earth,..." Against Hermogenes ch.32 p.495. See also Against Praxeas ch.12 p.607 ( Genesis 1:3) ch.13 p.608 (Genesis 19:24).

Tertullian (213 A.D.) says that Genesis 2 is scripture. On Monogamy ch.2 p.61

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) "When the Lord says that man should eat bread with groaning, here what art thou now doing, who desirest to live with joy? Thou seekest to rescind the judgment uttered by the highest God when He first formed man; thou wishest to abandon the curb of the law." Instructions of Commodianus ch.58 p.214

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "The second son of Juda, again, has with us the name Annan, but with the Hebrews Onan, "their labour." Once more, in the departures of the children of Israel in Numbers, we find, "They departed from Sochoth and pitched in Buthan; "but the Hebrew, instead of Buthan, reads Aiman. And why should I add more points like these, when any one who desires it can examine into the proper names and find out for himself how they stand? The place-names of Scripture are specially to be suspected where many of them occur in a catalogue," Commentary on John Sixth book ch.24 p.371

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Scripture has frequently declared Him [Christ] both Angel and God, so the same divine Scripture declares Him also both man and God." Then Novatian quotes Genesis 32:24-27 to prove his point. Novatian Concerning the Trinity ch.19 p.630

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "And although the heavenly Scripture often turns the divine appearance into a human form, as when it says," and quotes Psalm 34:15 "or when it says," and quotes Genesis 8:21. "or where there are give to Moses the tables" and quotes Exodus 31:18. "or when the people of the children of Israel are set free from the land of Egypt" and quotes Psalm 136:12 "or when it says," and quotes Isaiah 1:20. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.615

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "But the Scripture, foreseeing that God justifieth the heathens by faith, foretold to Abraham that all nations should be blessed in him. Therefore they who are of faith are blessed with faithful Abraham." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.5 p.510

Cyprian of Carthage (c.256 A.D.) "But how dangerous it is in divine matters, that any one should depart from his right and power, Holy Scripture declares when, in Genesis , Esau thence lost his birthright, nor was able afterwards to regain that which he had once given up." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 72 ch.26 p.386

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 1:24 as "The Apostle says"; John 1:3 as by "John the Evangelist"; Jeremiah 1:15 (Septuagint) as by Jeremiah, Psalm 118:73 (Septuagint) as by David, Genesis 2:7 as Genesis , and then says, "If then the Scriptures show that the Word of God moulded Man into a living creature, how is it that God accepts what is considered shameful (For you people claim that the Godhead can feel a sense of shame!), while you on your side disparage something higher and even more glorious?" Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part d 15 p.147. See also ibid first part ch.610c p.80, and ibid fifth part ch.20 b p.175 and ibid fourth part ch.424a p.129 on Genesis 1:2.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Let us begin with Genesis, that we may give its place of antiquity and supremacy to this scripture." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 2 ch.1 p.313. See also ibid Discourse 3 ch.2 p.317.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) discusses Genesis 3:21; 2:23-24 and says, "For I cannot endure the trifling of some who shamelessly do violence to Scripture, in order that their opinion, that the resurrection is without flesh, may find support;" Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.1 p.364

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "For the soul is made after the image and likeness of God, as divine Scripture also shews, when it says in the person of God ‘Let us make man after our Image and likeness.’" Athanasius Against the Heathen part 2 ch.34 p.22

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (partial) "But the godly teaching and the faith according to Christ brands their foolish language as godlessness. Then he quotes Genesis 1:1. Incarnation of the Word ch.3.1 p.37

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "4. exactly as the first of men created, the one who was named Adam in Hebrew, is described in the Holy Scriptures as having at the beginning had his mind to God-ward in a freedom unembarrassed by shame, and as associating with the holy ones in that contemplation of things perceived by the mind which he enjoyed in the place where he was—the place which the holy Moses called in figure a Garden." Athanasius Against the Heathen part 1 ch.2.4 p.5

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "Wherefore He also persuades us and says ‘He spake and they were made, He commanded and they were created;" as the illustrious Moses also at the beginning of his account of Creation confirms what we say by his narrative saying: and God said, "let us make man in our image and after our likeness:’" Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.46.4 p.29

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "And it is mutable as the Scripture recognises: ‘For when the sons of God saw the daughters of men, they took them wives,’" Letters on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.8 p.294

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 16 ch.11 p.315 quotes Genesis 1:26 as scripture.

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) Epistle 1 ch.5 p.58 mentions Genesis 6:3 as scripture.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

The Bardasene Marinus (c.300 A.D.) "Just as the Scripture says: ‘Let us make Man,’ it says, ‘according to our image and likeness and God took soil from the ground and fashioned Man’" Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part d 14 p.145.

 

OTc3. Exodus is scripture or God says

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Ye understand, beloved, ye understand well the Sacred Scriptures, and ye have looked very earnestly into the oracle of God. Call then these things to your remembrance. When Moses went…" and he quotes Exodus 32:7-10. 1 Clement ch.53 p.19

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.4 p.138-139 "For the Scripture saith, ‘And Moses was fasting in the mount forty days and forty nights, [Exodus 24:18, except no fasting] and received the covenant from the Lord, tables of stone written with the finger of the hand of the Lord;’ but turning away to idols, they lost it. For the Lord speaks thus to Moses: ‘Moses go down quickly; for the people whom thou hast brought out of the land of Egypt have transgressed.’" [Exodus 32:7]

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "For the Scripture says thus:" then Justin quotes Exodus 3:2-4. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.49 p.220

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "The Scripture of the exodus of the Hebrews has been read, and the words of the mystery have been declared; how the sheep was sacrificed, and how the people was saved, and how Pharaoh was flogged by the mystery." On Pascha stanza 1 p.37

Meleto/Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "I shall narrate the scriptural story, how he gave command to Moses in Egypt," On Pascha stanza 11 p.40

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Wherefore also He [God] says to Moses in Exodus: ‘I will send forth My angel before thee; for I will not go up with thee, because thou art a stiff-necked people.’ (2..) And not only so, but the Lord also showed that certain precepts were enacted for them by Moses, on account of their hardness [of heart]," Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.15.1,2 p.480

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Whence the Scripture divinely says, ‘And the Lord spake to Moses, saying, Speak to the children of Israel, and thou shalt say to them, I am the Lord your God." Stromata book 2 ch.10 p.358. See also Stromata book 2 ch.11 p.359 for his discussion of "scripture" and Exodus 16:36.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And when the Scripture says, ‘Moses entered into the thick darkness where God was,’ this shows to those capable of understanding, that God is invisible and beyond expression by words, And ‘the darkness’ -which is, in truth, the unbelief and ignorance of the multitude-obstructs the gleam of truth." Stromata book 5 ch.7 p.454

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "It is He also who teaches Moses to act as instructor. For the Lord says, ‘If any one sin before Me, him will I blot out of My book; but now, go and lead this people into the place which I told thee.’" (Exodus 32:33,34) The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.224

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Thou shalt have no other gods besides me. Thou shalt not make unto thee a likeness of those things which are in heaven, and which are in the earth beneath, and which are in the sea under the earth. Thou shalt not worship them, nor serve them. For I am the Lord thy God." Likewise in the same book of Exodus: ‘Ye yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven. Ye shall not make unto you gods of silver, neither shall ye make unto you gods of gold.’" Scorpiace ch.2 p.634

Origen (230-235 A.D.) "2. Perhaps something of this kind is shadowed forth in what is written in Exodus from the mouth of God, that the children of Israel were commanded to ask..." Letter from Origen to Gregory ch.2 p.393

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "We may also notice how evil men, on account of their wickedness, are said not to be, from the name ascribed to God in Exodus: ‘For the Lord said to Moses, I am, that is My name.’ The good God says this with respect of us also who pray that we may be part of His congregation." Commentary on John book 2 ch.7 p.330

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "But let us return to the subject before us, in which the Saviour abridged and expounded two commandments from the law, the one from the decalogue from Exodus, and the other from Leviticus, or the other from some one of the books of the Pentateuch. Then since we have explained in what way they made void the word of God which said, ‘Honor thy father and thy mother,’" Commentary on Matthew from the 11th chapter verse 10 p.439

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (Greek) "Having spoken thus briefly on the subject of the divine inspiration of the holy Scriptures, it is necessary to proceed to the (consideration of the) manner in which they are to be read and understood,..." then he refers to Zechariah 9:10; Isaiah 7:15; Isaiah 11:6,7; Jeremiah 15:14; Exodus 20:5. He quotes 1 Samuel 15:11; Isaiah 45:7; Amos 3:6 Micah 1:12, and part of 1 Samuel 16:14; 18:10. Then Origen says, "and countless other passages like these - they have not ventured to disbelieve these as the Scriptures of God;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "We should attend to the passover law and observe what the Lord says of it when it is first mentioned in Scripture." [Exodus 12:1-2] Commentary on John book 10 no.11 p.387

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "And although the heavenly Scripture often turns the divine appearance into a human form, as when it says," and quotes Psalm 34:15 "or when it says," and quotes Genesis 8:21. "or where there are give to Moses the tables" and quotes Exodus 31:18. "or when the people of the children of Israel are set free from the land of Egypt" and quotes Psalm 136:12 "or when it says," and quotes Isaiah 1:20. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.615

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in Exodus, the Holy Scripture declares that we are rather multiplied and increased by afflictions, saying: ‘And the more they afflicted them, so much the more they became greater, and waxed stronger.’ ... As in Exodus God speaks to Moses when he delayed and trembled to go to the people, saying: ‘Who hath given a mouth to man? and who hath made the stammerer?’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.10 p.502. See also ibid ch.10 p.501.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "since the Lord God speaks in Leviticus, and says, ‘No man that hath a stain or a blemish shall come nigh to offer gifts to the Lord.’ Moreover, in Exodus, He prescribes this same thing, and says, ‘And let the priests which come near to the Lord God sanctify themselves, lest the Lord forsake them.’" Epistles of Cyprian Letter 71 ch.2 p.379

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in Exodus God says to Moses" and quotes Exodus 12:13. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 2 ch.22 p.525

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.) "and the eminent Aristobulus, who was one of the Seventy who translated the sacred and holy Scriptures of the Hebrews for Ptolemy Philadelphus and his father, and dedicated his exegetical books on the law of Moses to the same kings. These writers, in solving some questions which are raised with respect to Exodus, say that all alike ought to sacrifice the Passover after the vernal equinox in the middle of the first month." Paschal Canon of Anatolius of Alexandria (ANF vol.6) ch.3 p.147

Phileas of Thmuis (martyred 306/307 A.D.) quotes Exodus 22:20 and 20:3 as "by the Holy Scriptures" Letter of Phileas to the People of Thmuis p.163

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes Exodus 30:1-9 as He [God] says Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 5 ch.7 p.328

 

Among corrupt or surious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) quotes Exodus 25:22 as God says to Moses. Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.3 p.386

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) Epistle 2 ch.14 p.65 quotes Exodus 15:6 as scripture.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc4. Leviticus is scripture or God says

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And God himself proclaimed by Moses, speaking thus: ‘And circumcise the hardness of your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For the Lord your God is both Lord of lords, and a great, mighty, and terrible God, who regardeth not persons, and taketh not rewards.’ And in Leviticus: ‘Because they have transgressed against Me, and despised Me, and because they have walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to them, and I shall cut them off in the land of their enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised heart be turned.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.16 p.202

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 15:29; 12:8 as God says by Moses. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.212

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) "as is written in Leviticus" and quotes Leviticus 26:30. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "But that surely, is a small matter; for with the Creator there is a larger grace, when He sets no limits to forgiveness, indefinitely charging you ‘not to bear any malice against your brother,’" [Leviticus 19:28] Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.35 p.407

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But in Leviticus He says: ‘Go not ye after idols, nor make to yourselves molten gods: I am the Lord your God.’" [Leviticus 19:4] Scorpiace ch.2 p.635

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Now (Marcion), since you have expunged so much from the Scriptures, why did you retain these words, as if they too were not the Creator’s words?" Then Tertullian quotes in order Romans 12:9; Psalm 34:14; Romans 12:10; Leviticus 19:18; Romans 12:12; Psalm 20:1; Romans 12:12; Romans 12:16; Isaiah 5:21; Romans 12:17; Leviticus 19:17,18; Romans 12:19; Romans 12:19 quoted from Deuteronomy 32:25; Romans 12:18; Romans 13:9. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.14 p.460-461

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (partial) "When, however, He answers the man, who alleged as an excuse his father’s burial, ‘Let the dead bury their dead, but go thou and preach the kingdom of God,’ He [Jesus] gave a clear confirmation to those two laws of the Creator-that in Leviticus, which concerns the sacerdotal office, and forbids the priests to be present at the funerals even of their parents." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.23 p.386

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "But let us return to the subject before us, in which the Saviour abridged and expounded two commandments from the law, the one from the decalogue from Exodus, and the other from Leviticus, or the other from some one of the books of the Pentateuch. Then since we have explained in what way they made void the word of God which said, ‘Honor thy father and thy mother,’" Commentary on Matthew from the 11th chapter verse 10 p.439

Origen (233/234 A.D.) refers to Leviticius 27:1-3 as The Lord says. Prayer ch.3.4 p.24

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "since the Lord God speaks in Leviticus, and says, ‘No man that hath a stain or a blemish shall come nigh to offer gifts to the Lord.’ Moreover, in Exodus, He prescribes this same thing, and says, ‘And let the priests which come near to the Lord God sanctify themselves, lest the Lord forsake them.’" Epistles of Cyprian Letter 71 ch.2 p.379

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.) "For the Lord ascribes no less praise to the twentieth day than to the fourteenth. For in the book of Leviticus the injunction is expressed thus: ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of this month, at even, is the Lord’s Passover. And on the fifteenth day of this month is the feast of unleavened bread unto the Lord. Seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread. The first day shall be to you one most diligently attended and holy. Ye shall do no servile work thereon.’" Paschal Canon ch.11 p.149

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "God, when He appointed to the true Israelites the legal rite of the true feast of the tabernacles, directed, in Leviticus, how they should keep and do honour to the feast; above all things, saying that each one should adorn his tabernacle with chastity. I will add the words themselves of Scripture, from which, without any doubt, it will be shown how agreeable to God, and acceptable to Him, is this ordinance of virginity: ‘In the fifteenth day of the seventh month, when ye have gathered in the fruit of the land, ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days: on the first day shall be a Sabbath, and on the eighth day shall be a Sabbath. And ye shall take you on the first day the boughs of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and the boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook; and ye shall rejoice before the Lord your God seven days.’" [Leviticus 23:39-42] Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.1 p.344

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc5. Numbers is scripture or God says

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "‘You perceive that God by Moses laid all such ordinances upon you..." then Justin quotes Numbers 15:38 and Deuteronomy 6:6. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.47 p.218.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Numbers 6:9,12 as scripture. The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.210

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "The form of it which He uses- ‘He that despiseth you, despiseth me’ -the Creator had also addressed to Moses: ‘Not against thee have they murmured, but against me.’" [Numbers 14:27] Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.24 p.388

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "The numbers which are recorded in the book of that name obtained a place in Scripture in accordance with some principle which determines their proportion to each thing. We ought therefore to enquire whether the book of Moses which is called Numbers teaches us, should we be able to trace it out, in some special way, the principle with regard to this matter." Commentary on John from the Tenth book ch.1 p.381

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "The second son of Juda, again, has with us the name Annan, but with the Hebrews Onan, ‘their labour’. Once more, in the departures of the children of Israel in Numbers, we find, ‘They departed from Sochoth and pitched in Buthan’; but the Hebrew, instead of Buthan, reads Aiman. And why should I add more points like these, when any one who desires it can examine into the proper names and find out for himself how they stand? The place-names of Scripture are specially to be suspected where many of them occur in a catalogue, as in the account of the partition of the country in Joshua, and in the first Book of Chronicles from the beginning down to, say, the passage about Dan, and similarly in Ezra. Names are not to be neglected, since indications may be gathered from them which help in the interpretation of the passages where they occur." Commentary on John Sixth book ch.24 p.371

Origen (233/234 A.D.) refers to Numbers 6:1-3 as the Lord says. Prayer ch.3.4 p.24

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Since the Lord says in the book of Numbers, ‘And whatsoever the unclean person touches shall be unclean.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 69 ch.1 p.376

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Concerning Moses, moreover, we find it said in the Scriptures, ‘Now the man Moses was very meek;’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.16 p.331

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "as in the book of Numbers the Lord commanded Moses, saying," and quotes Numbers 20:25-26. Epistles of Cyprian letter 67 ch.4 p.370

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes Numbers 6:1-2 as The Lord speaking to Moses. In chapter 2 he refers to that quote as Scripture. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 5 ch.1-2 p.325

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc6. Deuteronomy is scripture or God says

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "To this I replied, ‘Do you not think that the same thing happened in the case of Joshua the son of Nave (Nun), who succeeded to the command of the people after Moses, when Moses was commanded to lay his hands on Joshua, and God said to him, ‘I will take of the spirit which is in thee, and put it on him?’ And he said, ‘Certainly.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.49 p.220

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "‘You perceive that God by Moses laid all such ordinances upon you..." then Justin quotes Numbers 15:38 and Deuteronomy 6:6. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.47 p.218.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 32:13-14 as "Wherefore also the Scripture says" The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.222

Tertullian (213 A.D.) "After the ancient examples of the patriarchs, let us equally pass on to the ancient documents of the legal Scriptures, that we may treat in order of all our canon. ... If, then, forasmuch as there is in the law a precept that a man is to take in marriage the wife of his brother if he have died without children, for the purpose of raising up seed to his brother; and this may happen repeatedly to the same person, according to that crafty question of the Sadducees; men for that reason think that frequency of marriage is permitted in other cases as well: it will be their duty to understand first the reason of the precept itself; and thus they will come to know that that reason, now ceasing, is among those parts of the law which have been cancelled." (Deuteronomy 25:5-6) On Monogamy ch.7 p.63-64

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "...it is not credible that God should have exposed His own Son ... But the reason of the case antecedently explains the sense of this malediction; He [God] says in Deuteronomy:" and quotes Deuteronomy 21:22,23 from the Septuagint. An Answer to the Jews ch.10 p.164. See also Scorpiace ch.2 p.635 "He [the Lord] says"

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Now (Marcion), since you have expunged so much from the Scriptures, why did you retain these words, as if they too were not the Creator’s words?" Then Tertullian quotes in order Romans 12:9; Psalm 34:14; Romans 12:10; Leviticus 19:18; Romans 12:12; Psalm 20:1; Romans 12:12; Romans 12:16; Isaiah 5:21; Romans 12:17; Leviticus 19:17,18; Romans 12:19; Romans 12:19 quoted from Deuteronomy 32:25; Romans 12:18; Romans 13:9. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.14 p.460-461

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "Thus did the Scriptures preach beforehand of this lion and lion’s whelp. Then he quotes Deuteronomy 33:22 as by Moses." Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.14 p.207

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. He says that Moses left only five books. Commentary on John book 5 ch.2 p.346.

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Now the Lord Jehovah, according to Moses, is Faithful and True." [Deuteronomy 32:4] Commentary on John book 2 no.4 p.326

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "In short, in the self-same Deuteronomy, when bidding precaution to be taken against the self-same cause, He [the Lord] says:" and quotes Deuteronomy 8:12-14. Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Origen (243/243 A.D.) "the Lord says in the book of Job and what is written in Deuteronomy". Origen On Prayer ch.17 p.125

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "And yet in Deuteronomy we observe that God told these things, and that God said, where it is written, ‘When He scattered abroad the children of Adam, He determined the bounds of the nations according to the number of the angels of God.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "In Deuteronomy the Lord God speaks, saying, ‘And the man that will do presumptuously, and will not hearken unto the priest or to the judge, whosoever he shall be in those days, that man shall die; and all the people, when they hear, shall fear, and shall do no more wickedly.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.4 p.340

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "In Deuteronomy God said to Moses: ‘And the Lord said to me, A Prophet will I raise up to them from among their brethren, such as thee, and I will give my word in His mouth; and He shall speak unto them that which I shall command Him. And whosoever shall not hear whatsoever things that Prophet shall speak in my name, I will avenge it.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part no.18 p.512

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "I will show in many cases where the Apostle speaks and uses the scriptures of old. He says in the first epistle to the Corinthians [1 Corinthians 1:29-31]: ‘To no glory is all flesh in the presence of him. From him are ye in Christ Jesus, who is made unto us wisdom by God and justice and sanctification and redemption. That, as it has been written, He that glories, in the Lord let him glory’. And again I show from the same epistle, where he says [1Cor.9:7-10]: ‘Who grazes the herd and of the milk does not eat? Now according to man do I speak, or does not also the law say these things? In the law of Moses it has been written: You shall not bridle the mouth of the ox which treads the corn." [Deuteronomy 25:4]" Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.22b p.65

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "the ‘how’ is not a denial but an inquiry. In fact, this word occurs in the Scriptures, not once, but often to express not denial but an inquiry. For instance: ‘How can one chase a thousand [Deuteronomy 32:30 LXX]. Again, ‘How has the faithful city Sion [Zion] become a prostitute?’ [Isaiah 1:21 LXX]. And, ‘How has Lucifer fallen from heaven, who used to rise in the morning?’ [Isaiah 14:12]. Christ did not say ‘how’ to deny but to make an inquiry." Dialogue on the True Faith Fifth part F13 p.164.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 16 ch.7 p.314 quotes Deuteronomy 6:4 as scripture.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.1 p.107 says Detueronomy 4:2 is scripture.

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) book 2 ch.43 p.109says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc7. 1 or 2 Samuel is scripture or God says

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "of which God hath spoken by His holy prophets. For Moses truly said unto our fathers, ‘Your Lord God Shall raise up to you a Prophet from your brethren, like unto me; Him shall ye hear in all things whatsoever He shall say unto you. And it shall come to pass, that every soul, whosoever will not hear that Prophet, shall be destroyed from among the people. And all [the prophets] from Samuel, and henceforth, as many as have spoken, have likewise foretold of these days. Ye are the children of the prophets, and of the covenant which God made with our fathers,’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.3 p.430-431

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (Implied, Word is Christ) says The Word by way of Samual says and quotes 1 Samuel 8:23. The Instructor book 3 ch.4 p.278

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) "as is contained in the second book of kings. [meaning 2 Samuel]" Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.326

Tertullian (ca.208 A.D.) quotes 1 Samuel 16:14, calling it scripture. On Flight in Persecution p.117

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Now this point is determined for you even in the scripture which we have quoted. Samuel says to Saul, ‘The Lord hath rent the kingdom of Israel from thee this day, and hath given it to a neighbour of thine that is better than thou;’" Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.24 p.316

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (Greek) "Having spoken thus briefly on the subject of the divine inspiration of the holy Scriptures, it is necessary to proceed to the (consideration of the) manner in which they are to be read and understood,..." then he refers to Zechariah 9:10; Isaiah 7:15; Isaiah 11:6,7; Jeremiah 15:14; Exodus 20:5. He quotes 1 Samuel 15:11; Isaiah 45:7; Amos 3:6 Micah 1:12, and part of 1 Samuel 16:14; 18:10. Then Origen says, "and countless other passages like these - they have not ventured to disbelieve these as the Scriptures of God;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (partial) refers to Anna [Hannah] in 1 Kings (to us 1 Samuel). Prayer ch.2.5 p.21

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Moreover, to Samuel when he was despised by the Jews, God says; ‘They have not despised thee, but they have despised me.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.4 p.340

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Samuel 18:1 as scripture. Oration and Panegyric Addressed to Origen ch.6 p.28

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) Epistle 1 ch.8 p.58 quotes 1 Samuel 16:14 as scripture.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc8. Reference to 1 or 2 Kings as Kings

 

Philo the Jew of Alexandria (15/20 B.C.-50 A.D.) (partial) refers to 1 Kings 17:10,18 in his work, On the Unchangeableness of God p.169.

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) (partial) alludes to 1 Kings 18:8, etc. "Through envy, David underwent the hatred not only of foreigners, but was also persecuted by Saul King of Israel." 1 Clement ch.4 p.6

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 Kings 19:14,18 as "Elijah said". Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.39 p.214.

Meleto/Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) refers to the "Four books of Kingdoms" [1, 2 Samuel, 1,2 Kings] among the books of the Old Testament in his letter to Onesimus. On Pascha p.72. Preserved in Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 4 ch.26.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 Kings 18:36 in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.3 p.419

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) 1 Kings 8:27 "Solomon the son of David, in the books styled ‘The Reigns of the Kings,’ comprehending not only that the structure of the true temple was celestial and spiritual, but had also a reference to the flesh, which He who was both the son and Lord of David was to build up, … Will God in very deed dwell with men on the earth?" Fragment by Nicephorus of Constantinople quoting Clement of Alexandria against the Judaizers. p.584

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) refers to Elijah and the widow in 1 Kings 17:7-16 as "the third book of Kings" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.21 p.381

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 Kings 3:12 in Commentary on Proverbs p.172

Origen (240-254 A.D.) refers to 2 Kings 4:17, calling it "the fourth book of Kings" (1 and 2 Samuel were sometimes called 1 and 2 Kings.) This implies a third book of Kings. Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.46 p.656

Origen (c.240 A.D.) "Therefore the Holy Spirit says:" and quotes 1 Kings 28:11. Homily on 1 Kings 28 ch.4 p.322 (translated by Jerome)

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.248-258 A.D.) "Further, also in the book of Judges, and in the books of Kings too, we observe … Gothoniel [Othoniel], Gideon, Jephthah, Samson, Saul, David, and many others." ch.15 p.676

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes from 2 Kings 17:20,21 as "Holy Scripture declares in the books of Kings" Epistles of Cyprian Letter 75 ch.6 p.399

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:10 calling it third Kings. (1 and 2 Samuel are sometimes known as 1 and 2 Kings). The Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 First book ch.2 p.508

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Moreover, belief in divine Scripture declares to us, that among all, whether infants or those who are older, there is the same equality of the divine gift. Elisha, beseeching God, so laid himself upon the infant son of the widow, who was lying dead, that his head was applied to his head, and his face to his face, and the limbs of Elisha were spread over and joined to each of the limbs of the child, and his feet to his feet. If this thing be considered with respect to the inequality of our birth and our body, an infant could not be made equal with a person grown up and mature, nor could its little limbs fit and be equal to the larger limbs of a man." [2 Kings 4:34-35] Epistles of Cyprian letter 58 ch.3 p.354

Seventh Council of Carthage (85 bishops) (258 A.D.) (partial) quotes parts of 1 Kings 18:21 "It is written, ‘Either the Lord is God, or Baal is God.’" Spoken by Pelaginaus of Luperciana p.570

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) (partial) alludes to 1 Kings 4:32 in Exegetical Fragment 1 p.111

Methodius of Olympus and Patara (270-311/312 A.D.) "Hence the Scripture relates the Elijah, fleeing from the face of the woman Jezebel, at first came under a bramble" [1 Kings 19:4] The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.3 p.349.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) quotes 1 Kings 19:10 as "in the third book of Kings" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 Kings 9:7-9. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.46 p.41

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.69 p.95 references Kings.

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc9. Job is scripture or the Lord says

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Origen (243/243 A.D.) "the Lord says in the book of Job and what is written in Deuteronomy". Origen On Prayer ch.17 p.125

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (partial) quotes Job 1 and 2 as "in the Book of Job". Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.43 p.593

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "The Holy Scripture proves this, saying: ‘Job, a true and righteous man, had seven sons and three daughters, and cleansed them, offering for them victims to God according to the number of them, and for their sins one calf.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 8 ch.18 p.481

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-256 A.D.) quotes part of Job 14:1 as scripture. "And among these is man himself, as a certain holy scripture says of him: ‘Man that is born of woman is of few days.’" [Job 14:1] From the Books on Nature fragment 3 p.86.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "which the Almighty Himself is not ashamed to make use of in working with His undefiled hands; for He says to Jeremiah, ‘Before I formed thee in the belly I knew thee;’ and to Job, ‘Didst thou take clay and form a living creature, and make it speak upon the earth?’" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 2 ch.2 p.314

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc10. Psalms are scripture or God/Spirit spoke

 

Mark 12:10-11 quotes Psalm 118:22,23 as scripture.

John 10:34-35 Jesus quotes Psalm 82:6 as scripture.

John 13:18 Jesus quotes Psalm 41:9 as scripture.

Acts 1:16 Scripture had to be fulfilled and in Acts 1:20 quotes Psalm 109:8 as by David.

 

Jesus quoted Psalm 41:9 as scripture, in John 13:18.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "For the Scripture saith in a certain place, ‘Whither shall I go, and where shall I be hid from Thy presence? If I ascend into heaven, Thou art there; if I go away even to the uttermost parts of the earth, there is Thy right hand; if I make my bed in the abyss, there is Thy Spirit.’" (quote of Psalm 139) 1 Clement ch.28 vol.1 p.12

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "For the Scripture saith, ‘But to the sinner God said, Wherefore dost thou declare my statutes, and take my covenant into thy mouth, seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest my words behind thee? When thou sawest a thief, thou consentedst with him, and didst make thy portion with adulterers.’" [Psalm 50:16-23] 1 Clement ch.35 p.14

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "and inglorious, as Isaiah and David and all the Scriptures said; who is the Lord of hosts, by the will of the Father who conferred on Him [the dignity]; who also rose from the dead, and ascended to heaven, as the Psalm and the other Scriptures manifested when they announced Him to be Lord of hosts;" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.85 p.241.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Further, to persuade you that you have not understood anything of the Scriptures, I will remind you of another psalm, dictated to David by the Holy Spirit," then he quotes Psalm 72. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.85 p.241.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "These were spoken from the person of the Father, through Isaiah the prophet." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.37p.175

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "both by the prophet and by Paul, of whom the apostle, calling to mind the Scripture, says in the Epistle addressed to the Romans, "As it is written, for thy sake we are killed all the day long, we are counted as sheep for the slaughter.’" [Psalm 44:22] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.22.2 p.390

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes Psalm 1:1a as the Holy Spirit saying by David. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.2.

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "To such an one Scripture says, ‘Thou thoughtest that I would be like thee.’" (one-fourth of Psalm 50:21] Stromata book 4 ch.24 p.437.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Expressly then respecting all our Scripture, as if spoken in a parable, it is written in the Psalms, ‘Hear, O My people, My law: incline your ear to the words of My mouth.’" Stromata book 5 ch.4 p.450

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "For the Scripture somewhere says, ‘To-day, if ye will hear His voice, harden not your hearts, as in the provocation, in the day of temptation in the wilderness, when your fathers proved Me by trial.’" [Psalm 95:6-9] Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) quotes Psalm 58:4-5 as theLord says. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.201

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "But I find in Scripture the name Lord also applied to them Both: ‘The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou on my right hand.’" [Psalm 110:1] Against Praxeas ch.13 p.607. See also Against Praxeas ch.7 p.601.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) quotes Psalm 8:7 as "For in another passage the Spirit says to the Father concerning the Son" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.17 p.465.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "‘Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of His saints.’ [Psalm 116:15] ‘The Lord keepeth all their bones; not one of them shall be broken.’ [paraphrase of Psalm 34:20] … We have adduced these few quotations from a mass of the Creator’s Scriptures;" Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.19 p.312. He also quotes Psalm 2:78 as "Scripture clearly says" in ibid book 4 ch.25 p.390.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Christ is written about even in the Pentateuch; He is spoken of in each of the Prophets, and in the Psalms, and, in a word, as the Saviour Himself says, in all the Scriptures. He refers us to them all, when He says: ‘Search the Scriptures, for in them ye think ye have eternal life, and these are they which testify of Me.’" Commentary on John book 5 ch.4 p.347

Origen (c.240 A.D.) speaks of "sacred scriptures" and then quotes Jeremiah 332:16 and Psalm 75:8. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 12 ch.2 p.112

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "And although the heavenly Scripture often turns the divine appearance into a human form, as when it says," and quotes Psalm 34:15 "or when it says," and quotes Genesis 8:21. "or where there are give to Moses the tables" and quotes Exodus 31:18. "or when the people of the children of Israel are set free from the land of Egypt" and quotes Psalm 136:12 "or when it says," and quotes Isaiah 1:20. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.615

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) quotes Psalm 139:8-10 and says, "For we recognise the plan of the divine Scriptures according to the proportion of its arrangement." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.5 p.616

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.17 p.677 "which is the Spirit of the Angel, as saith the Scripture" and he quotes Psalm 104:4.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "This home, this household of unanimity, the Holy Spirit designates and points out in the Psalms, saying, ‘God, who maketh men to dwell with one mind in a house.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.8 p.424

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 1:24 as "The Apostle says"; John 1:3 as by "John the Evangelist"; Jeremiah 1:15 (Septuagint) as by Jeremiah, Psalm 118:73 (Septuagint) as by David, Genesis 2:7 as Genesis , and then says, "If then the Scriptures show that the Word of God moulded Man into a living creature, how is it that God accepts what is considered shameful (For you people claim that the Godhead can feel a sense of shame!), while you on your side disparage something higher and even more glorious?" Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part d 15 p.147.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (partial, sacred writings) "For we find in the Sacred Writings" and quotes parts of Jeremiah 24:3; Psalm 104:15; Deuteronomy 32:33.

Athanasius (318 A.D.) refers to Psalms 22:16 as one of many scriptures by "the prophets". Incarnation of the Word ch.35.4 p.55

Athanasius (318 A.D.) quotes Psalm 115:5 as "Holy Scripture". Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.14 p.11

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "And to confirm this insane doctrine, playing with Holy Scripture, they bring forward what is said in the Psalms respecting Christ: "Thou lovest righteousness, and hatest wickedness: therefore God, Thy God, both anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows," Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 to Alexander of Constantinople ch.3 p.292

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc11. Proverbs are scripture or the Lord says

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 p.139 "Now, the Scripture saith, ‘Not unjustly are nets spread out for birds.’ [Proverbs 1:17 Septuagint] This means that the man perishes justly, who, having a knowledge of the way of righteousness, rushes off into the way of darkness."

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "I could adduce ten thousand Scriptures of which not ‘one tittle shall pass away,’ without being fulfilled; for the mouth of the Lord the Holy Spirit hath spoken these things. ‘Do not any longer,’ he says, ‘my son, despise the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of Him.’" [Proverbs 3:11] Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.195

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "the Scripture cries, though they listen not, ‘He that heareth Me shall rest with confidence in peace, andshall be tranquil, fearless of all evil.’" [Proverbs 1:33] Stromata book 2 ch.8 p.356

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (implied) "This is the answer I should give in defence of the Scripture before us, ... It is therefore because of such persons, that Scripture in other passages teaches us of the creation of the individual parts." Then he starts on a long list of scriptural passages by first quoting Proverbs 8:24. Against Hermogenes ch.32 p.495. See also Against Praxeas (c.213 A.D.) ch.6 p.601.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "‘When He prepared the heavens,’ so says (the Scripture), ‘I was present with Him; and when He strengthened above the winds the lofty clouds, and when He secured the fountains which are under the heaven, I was present...I daily rejoiced in His presence; for He rejoiced when He had finished the world, and amongst the sons of men did He show" [Proverbs 8:27-31] Against Hermogenes ch.18 p.487

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "But he who examines such matters more profoundly will say, that there being, as the Scripture calls it, a kind of general divine perception which the blessed man alone knows how to discover, according to the saying of Solomon, ‘Thou shall find the knowledge of God;’" [Proverbs 2:5] Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.48 p.416

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And again, sacred Scripture warns, and says, ‘Keep thee from the strange water, and drink not form a fountain of strange water.’" (Proverbs 9:19 (Septuagint) Epistles of Cyprian letter 69 ch.1 p.376

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And the Holy Spirit speaks by Solomon, saying, ‘A perverse man carrieth perdition in his mouth; and in his lips he hideth a fire.’ Also again, he warneth us, and says, ‘Hedge in thy ears with thorns, and hearken not to a wicked tongue.’" [Proverbs 16:27; 17:4] Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.21 p.346

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (256 A.D.) quotes Proverbs 29:22 as scripture. (Letter 74 ch.23 p.396)

Nemesianus of Thubunae at the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.566 "That the baptism which heretics and schismatics bestow is not the true one, is everywhere declared in the Holy Scriptures, since their very leading men are false Christs and false prophets, as the Lord says by Solomon: ‘He who trusteth in that which is false, he feedeth the winds; and the very same, moreover, followeth the flight of birds. For he forsaketh the ways of his own vineyard, he has wandered from the paths of his own little field. But he walketh through pathless places, and dry, and a land destined for thirst; moreover, he gathereth together fruitless things in his hands.’"

Dionysius of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "The leaders of this view seem to me to have given very little heed to these things, and for that reason to have strayed absolutely, by explaining the passage otherwise than as the divine and prophetic Scripture demands. ‘The Lord created me the beginning of His ways.’" [Proverbs 8:22] Against the Sabellians (ANF vol.7) ch.2 p.365

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) says what God commanded in Leviticus and says, "we should consider the naked truth itself, for He saith," and quotes Proverbs 1:5-6. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.1 p.344-345.

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc12. Isaiah is scripture or Lord/Holy Ghost says

 

Mark 15:28 quotes Isaiah 53:12 as Scripture

Luke 4:18-21 quotes Isaiah 49:8-9; 61:1-2 as Scripure.

1 Peter 2:6-7 quotes Isaiah 28:16 as scripture.

Romans 10:11 quotes Isaiah 28:16 as scripture.

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.4 p.139 quotes Isaiah 5:21 as "Scripture says".

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) Justin quotes Daniel 7:9-29. "When I had ceased, Trypho said, ‘These and such like Scriptures, sir, compel us to wait for Him who, as Son of man, received from the Ancient of days the everlasting kingdom. But this so-called Christ of yours was dishonourable and inglorious, so much so that the last curse contained in the law of God fell on him, for he was crucified.’ Then I [Justin] replied to him, ‘If, sirs, it were not said by the Scriptures which I have already quoted, that His form was inglorious, and His generation not declared, and that for His death the rich would suffer death, and with His stripes we should be healed, [verses from Isaiah 53] ...’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.31 p.209-210.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "‘You know, then, sirs,’ I said, ‘that God has said in Isaiah to Jerusalem: ‘I saved thee in the deluge of Noah.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.138 p.268

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) (implied) But, since the voices of the prophets confirm our arguments-for I think that you also, with your great zeal for knowledge, and your great attainments in learning, cannot be ignorant of the writings either of Moses or of Isaiah and Jeremiah, and the other prophets, who, lifted in ecstasy above the natural operations of their minds by the impulses of the Divine Spirit, uttered the things with which they were inspired, the Spirit making use of them as a flute-player breathes into a flute;-what, then, do these men say? A Pleas for Christians ch.9 p.133

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Hegesippus (170-180 A.D.) "Thus they fulfilled the Scripture written in Isaiah: ‘Let us away with the just man, because he is troublesome to us: therefore shall they eat the fruit of their doings.’" (Hegesippus is mistaken about this being in Isaiah.) ch.1 Fragments of Five books of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church p.763

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (partial) "Moreover, concerning the righteousness which the law enjoined, confirmatory utterances are found both with the prophets and in the Gospels, because they all spoke inspired by one Spirit of God. Isaiah accordingly spoke thus: ‘Put away the evil of your doings from your souls; learn to do well, seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.’ And again the same prophet said: ‘Loose every band of wickedness, dissolve every oppressive contract, let the oppressed go free, and tear up every unrighteous bond. Deal out thy bread to the hungry, and bring the houseless poor to thy home. When thou seest the naked, cover him, and hide not thyself from thine own flesh. Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, and thine health shall spring forth speedily, and thy righteousness shall go before thee.’ In like manner also Jeremiah says: ‘Stand in the ways, and see, and ask which is the good way of the Lord your God, and walk in it and ye shall find rest for your souls. Judge just judgment, for in this is the will of the Lord your God.’ So also says Hosea: ‘Keep judgment, and draw near to your God, who established the heavens and created the earth.’ And another, Joel, spoke in agreement with these: ‘Gather the people, sanctify the congregation, assemble the elders, gather the children that are in arms; let the bridegroom go forth of his chamber, and the bride out of her closet, and pray to the Lord thy God urgently that he may have mercy upon you, and blot out your sins.’ In like manner also another, Zachariah: ‘Thus saith the Lord Almighty, Execute true judgment, and show mercy and compassion every man to his brother; and oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, nor the stranger; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart, saith the Lord Almighty.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.134

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:14 as Scripture. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.1 p.451

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 7:10-17 and says, "Carefully, then, has the Holy Ghost pointed out, by what has been said, His birth from a virgin, and His essence, that He is God (for the name Emmanuel indicates this)." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.4 p.452

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes from Isaiah 53 as scripture. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.71.

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And he paraphrases those prophetic Scripture-that in Isaiah, ‘I am He that fixes the thunder, and creates the wind; whose hands have rounded the host of heaven;’" Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.473

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (implied) "‘To whom have ye likened the Lord? or to what likeness have ye likened Him?’ says the Scripture." [Isaiah 40:18,25] Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.471

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) quotes from Isaiah as the Lord says. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.8 p.194

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "With equal stress does the Creator, by His prophet Isaiah, censure those who seek after human flattery and praise: ‘O my people, they who call you happy mislead you, and disturb the paths of your feet.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.15 p.369. See also Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.14 p.460 and book 5 ch.11 p.453.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (implied) "Similarly against the daughters of Sion does He [God] inveigh by Isaiah, when they were haughty through their pomp and the abundance of their riches," Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.15 p.369

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Of darkness, indeed, the Lord Himself by Isaiah says, ‘I formed the light, and I created darkness.’" Against Hermogenes ch.32 p.495. See also Against Praxeas (c.213 A.D.) ch.20 p.615.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Matthew 25:34; Revelation 22:15; Isaiah 66:24, and 1 Thessalonians 4:12 and then says, "These things, then I have set shortly before thee, O Theophilus, drawing them from Scripture itself, in order that, maintaining in faith what is written, and anticipating the things that are to be, thou mayest keep thyself void of offence both toward God and toward men," Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.67 p.219.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "As in the case of the fishes that fall into the net, some are found in one part of the net and some in another part, and each at the part at which it was caught, so in the case of those who have come into the net of the Scriptures you would find some caught in the prophetic net; for example, of Isaiah, according to this expression, or of Jeremiah or of Daniel; and others in the net of the law, and others in the Gospel net, and some in the apostolic net; for when one is first captured by the Word or seems to be captured, he is taken from some part of the whole net." Commentary on Matthew chapter 10 verse 12 p.420

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "is called the Word came to certain persons; as ‘The Word of the Lord which came to Hosea, the son of Beeri,’ and ‘The Word which came to Isaiah, the son of Amos, concerning Judah and concerning Jerusalem,’ and ‘The Word which came to Jeremiah concerning the drought.’ We must enquire how this Word came to Hosea, and how it came also to Isaiah the son of Amos, and again to Jeremiah concerning the drought;" Commentary on John book 2 verse 1 p.322

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (Greek) "Having spoken thus briefly on the subject of the divine inspiration of the holy Scriptures, it is necessary to proceed to the (consideration of the) manner in which they are to be read and understood,..." then he refers to Zechariah 9:10; Isaiah 7:15; Isaiah 11:6,7; Jeremiah 15:14; Exodus 20:5. He quotes 1 Samuel 15:11; Isaiah 45:7; Amos 3:6 Micah 1:12, and part of 1 Samuel 16:14; 18:10. Then Origen says, "and countless other passages like these - they have not ventured to disbelieve these as the Scriptures of God;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "for the Lord says, ‘He hath taken away from Judaea and from Jerusalem,’ according to the word of Isaiah, ‘Him that is mighty, and her that is mighty, a powerful giant,’ etc., down to the words, ‘a prudent hearer.’" Commentary on Matthew book 14 ch.19 p.508

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "And although the heavenly Scripture often turns the divine appearance into a human form, as when it says," and quotes Psalm 34:15 "or when it says," and quotes Genesis 8:21. "or where there are give to Moses the tables" and quotes Exodus 31:18. "or when the people of the children of Israel are set free from the land of Egypt" and quotes Psalm 136:12 "or when it says," and quotes Isaiah 1:20. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.615

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "But the day of judgment is still future which the Holy Scripture denounces, saying," and then quotes Isaiah 13:6-9.Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 5 ch.22 p.375-404

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 66:24. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 5 ch.24 p.404

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Your knowledge of Scripture is very small if you imagine that this was said only by the Saviour: Listen to Isaiah:" then he quotes Isaiah 1:3. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.23 p.66

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "the ‘how’ is not a denial but an inquiry. In fact, this word occurs in the Scriptures, not once, but often to express not denial but an inquiry. For instance: ‘How can one chase a thousand [Deuteronomy 32:30 LXX]. Again, ‘How has the faithful city Sion become a prostitute?’ [Isaiah 1:21 LXX]. And, ‘How has Lucifer fallen from heaven, who used to rise in the morning?’ [Isaiah 14:12]. Christ did not say ‘how’ to deny but to make an inquiry." Dialogue on the True Faith Fifth part F13 p.164. See also the First Part 23 p.66.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "What has been reasonably stated in the Scriptures you want to interpret unreasonably. The Prophets and the Gospel plainly speak of two Advents of Christ - the first in humility, and the one after this, in glory. Isaiah spoke in this way of the first: [Isaiah 53:2-3] ... This is just what has been clearly indicated in the Gospel: that He came into Jerusalem, seated upon an ass." [Matthew 21:7] (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith ch.25 p.68-69

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "But better testimony about all this is furnished by Holy Scripture, which tells us beforehand when it says "Their idols are silver and gold, the work of men’s hands. Eyes have they and will not see; a mouth have they and will not speak; ears have they and will not hear; noses have they and will not smell; hands have they and will not handle; feet have they and will not walk; they will not speak through their throat. Like unto them be they that make them." (Isaiah 44:9 Septuagint) Athanasius Against the Heathen part 1 ch.14 p.11 See also Incarantion of the Word ch.45 p.61 quoting Isaiah 11:9 as scripture.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Now that the Jews were disinherited, because they rejected Christ, and that we, who are of the Gentiles, were adopted into their place, is proved by the Scriptures. Jeremiah thus speaks: ‘I have forsaken mine house, I have given mine heritage into the hands of her enemies. Mine heritage is become unto me as a lion in the forest; it hath given forth its voice against me: therefore have I hated it.’ Also Malachi: ‘I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord, neither will I accept an offering at your hand. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down thereof, my name shall be great among the Gentiles.’ Isaiah also thus speaks: "I come to gather all nations and tongues: and they shall come and see my glory.’ The same says in another place, speaking in the person of the Father to the Son: ‘I the Lord have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thine hand, and will keep Thee, and give Thee for a covenant of my people, for a light of the Gentiles; to open the eyes of the blind, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house.’" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.48 p.242

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "And in another place: ‘I have nourished and brought up children, but they have rebelled against Me,’ as we find God speaking by the prophet Isaiah." Letters on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.8 p.294

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 16 ch.71 p.314 quotes Isaiah 49:28 as scripture.

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

Noetus according to Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 14:14 and says, "Do you see, he [Noetus] says, how the Scriptures proclaim one God." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.2 p.224

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc13. Jeremiah is scripture or the Lord says

 

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.14 p.254 "but if we shall not do the will of the Lord, we shall come under the Scripture which saith, ‘My house became a den of robbers.’" [Jeremiah 7:11]

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And we are such; but you cannot comprehend this, because you cannot drink of the living fountain of God, but of broken cisterns which can hold no water, as the Scripture says." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.140 p.269

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) (implied) But, since the voices of the prophets confirm our arguments-for I think that you also, with your great zeal for knowledge, and your great attainments in learning, cannot be ignorant of the writings either of Moses or of Isaiah and Jeremiah, and the other prophets, who, lifted in ecstasy above the natural operations of their minds by the impulses of the Divine Spirit, uttered the things with which they were inspired, the Spirit making use of them as a flute-player breathes into a flute;-what, then, do these men say? A Pleas for Christians ch.9 p.133

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (partial) "Moreover, concerning the righteousness which the law enjoined, confirmatory utterances are found both with the prophets and in the Gospels, because they all spoke inspired by one Spirit of God. Isaiah accordingly spoke thus: ‘Put away the evil of your doings from your souls; learn to do well, seek judgment, relieve the oppressed, judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.’ And again the same prophet said: ‘Loose every band of wickedness, dissolve every oppressive contract, let the oppressed go free, and tear up every unrighteous bond. Deal out thy bread to the hungry, and bring the houseless poor to thy home. When thou seest the naked, cover him, and hide not thyself from thine own flesh. Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, and thine health shall spring forth speedily, and thy righteousness shall go before thee.’ In like manner also Jeremiah says: ‘Stand in the ways, and see, and ask which is the good way of the Lord your God, and walk in it and ye shall find rest for your souls. Judge just judgment, for in this is the will of the Lord your God.’ So also says Hosea: ‘Keep judgment, and draw near to your God, who established the heavens and created the earth.’ And another, Joel, spoke in agreement with these: ‘Gather the people, sanctify the congregation, assemble the elders, gather the children that are in arms; let the bridegroom go forth of his chamber, and the bride out of her closet, and pray to the Lord thy God urgently that he may have mercy upon you, and blot out your sins.’ In like manner also another, Zachariah: ‘Thus saith the Lord Almighty, Execute true judgment, and show mercy and compassion every man to his brother; and oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, nor the stranger; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart, saith the Lord Almighty.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "But inasmuch as God is merciful, He did not cut them off from good counsel. For after He had said by Jeremiah, ‘To what purpose bring ye Me incense from Saba, and cinnamon from a far country? Your whole burnt-offerings and sacrifices are not acceptable to Me;’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.17.2 p.483

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And that Scripture calls the senseless and disobedient ‘earth,’ will be made clear by Jeremiah the prophet, saying, in reference to Joachim and his brethren ‘Earth, earth, hear the word of the Lord; Write this man, as man excommunicated.’" Stromata book 4 ch.26 p.440

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For we find in the Scriptures, as the Lord says: ‘Behold, I make with you a new covenant, not as I made with your fathers in Mount Horeb.’" [Jeremiah 31:31,32] Stromata book 6 ch.5 p.489. See also Stromata book 5 ch.5 p.450 where he quotes part of Jeremiah 8:6 as scripture.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "Jeremiah the prophet, gifted with consummate wisdom, or rather the Holy Spirit in Jeremiah, exhibits God." Then he quotes Jeremiah 23:23. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.8 p.194

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Accordingly you read the word of God which was spoken to Jeremiah, ‘Before I formed thee in the belly, I knew thee.’" [Jeremiah 1:5a] Treatise on the Soul ch.26 p.207

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (implied) "So by Jeremiah likewise did He [God] say: ‘Let not the rich man glory in his riches but let him that glorieth even glory in the Lord.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.15 p.369

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "In his case is fulfilled the prophecy of Jeremiah, saying, ‘(As) I live, saith the Lord, though Jeconiah son of Jehoiakim king of Judah should become the signet upon my right hand, yet will I pluck thee thence;...’" On Daniel p.178

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "quotes Jeremiah 23:18 and Acts 10:36 then immediately says, "These things then, brethren, are declared by the Scriptures." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.13-14 p.228

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "As in the case of the fishes that fall into the net, some are found in one part of the net and some in another part, and each at the part at which it was caught, so in the case of those who have come into the net of the Scriptures you would find some caught in the prophetic net; for example, of Isaiah, according to this expression, or of Jeremiah or of Daniel; and others in the net of the law, and others in the Gospel net, and some in the apostolic net; for when one is first captured by the Word or seems to be captured, he is taken from some part of the whole net." Commentary on Matthew chapter 10 verse 12 p.420

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "is called the Word came to certain persons; as ‘The Word of the Lord which came to Hosea, the son of Beeri,’ and ‘The Word which came to Isaiah, the son of Amos, concerning Judah and concerning Jerusalem,’ and ‘The Word which came to Jeremiah concerning the drought.’ We must enquire how this Word came to Hosea, and how it came also to Isaiah the son of Amos, and again to Jeremiah concerning the drought;" Commentary on John book 2 verse 1 p.322. See also Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 27 ch.3.5 p.253-254.

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (Greek) "Having spoken thus briefly on the subject of the divine inspiration of the holy Scriptures, it is necessary to proceed to the (consideration of the) manner in which they are to be read and understood,..." then he refers to Zechariah 9:10; Isaiah 7:15; Isaiah 11:6,7; Jeremiah 15:14; Exodus 20:5. He quotes 1 Samuel 15:11; Isaiah 45:7; Amos 3:6 Micah 1:12, and part of 1 Samuel 16:14; 18:10. Then Origen says, "and countless other passages like these - they have not ventured to disbelieve these as the Scriptures of God;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "And we pray that words may be given us, as it is written in the book of Jeremiah that the Lord said to the prophet: ‘Behold, I have put My words in thy mouth as fire.’" Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.1 p.497. See also Homilies on Jeremiah homily 12 ch.2 p.112 and homily 9 ch.1 p.85.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And it is written in the words of the Lord," and quotes Jeremiah 2:13. "And again, sacred Scripture warns," Epistles of Cyprian letter 69 ch.1 p.375-376

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Your knowledge of Scripture is very small if you imagine that this was said only by the Savior. Listen to Isaiah: ... [Isaiah 1:3] Jeremiah also states that of old He was not known: he says, ‘All shall know Me from the least even to the greatest of them.’" [Jeremiah 31:34 LXX 3834] Dialogue on the True Faith First part 23 p.66

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (partial, sacred writings) "For we find in the Sacred Writings that there are two kinds of fig-trees and vines," and quotes Jeremiah 24:3. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.5 p.349

Theophilus (events c.315 A.D.) quotes the first third of Jeremiah 17:5 as "Scripture teaches me" Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon vol.8 p.693

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "As the prophet Jeremiah testifies when he speaks such things: ‘Behold, the days come, saith the Lord, that I will make a new testament to the house of Israel and the house of Judah, not according to the testament which I made to their fathers, in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; for they continued not in my testament, and I disregarded them, saith the Lord.’" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.123

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Now that the Jews were disinherited, because they rejected Christ, and that we, who are of the Gentiles, were adopted into their place, is proved by the Scriptures. Jeremiah thus speaks: ‘I have forsaken mine house, I have given mine heritage into the hands of her enemies. Mine heritage is become unto me as a lion in the forest; it hath given forth its voice against me: therefore have I hated it.’ Also Malachi: ‘I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord, neither will I accept an offering at your hand. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down thereof, my name shall be great among the Gentiles.’ Isaiah also thus speaks: "I come to gather all nations and tongues: and they shall come and see my glory.’ The same says in another place, speaking in the person of the Father to the Son: ‘I the Lord have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thine hand, and will keep Thee, and give Thee for a covenant of my people, for a light of the Gentiles; to open the eyes of the blind, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house.’" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.48 p.242

 

Among heretics

Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) quotes Jeremiah 10:11 as scripture. Homily 16 ch.8 p.315

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

X most Gnostics the Old Testament, including the Law and the prophets were by an evil or confused Demiurge.

X Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Mani. Socrates’ Ecclesiastical History book 1 ch.22 p.26 (c.400-439 A.D.) says that Manes (founder of Manichaeism) rejected the law and the prophets.

X Valentinians and X Marcion in John Chrysostom (died 407 A.D.) "They who receive the wild doctrines of Valentinus and Marcion, and of all whose minds are similarly diseased, exclude the Law given by God to Moses from the catalogue of the Divine Scriptures." On the Priesthoods book 4 ch.4 p.65

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says "That all the kingdoms do exist shows that the Christ announced through the Law and the Prophets has not yet arrived." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

X Marcus the Marcionite debating Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle [Paul]." Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 828a p.89

 

OTc14. Ezekiel is scripture or the Lord says

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.6 p.141 quotes Ezekiel 11:19; 36:26 as he [the Lord] says by another prophet.

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.6 p.518 (See also vol.9 p.252) "For thus also saith the Scripture in Ezekiel, ‘If Noah, Job, and Daniel should rise up, they should not deliver their children in captivity.’"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "God testified by Ezekiel, when He [God] said, ‘I have made thee a watchman to the house of Judah....’" Justin quotes Ezekiel 3:17-19. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.82 p.240

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And that this is so, God makes known in Ezekiel, [when] He said concerning it: ‘If Noah and Jacob and Daniel should beg either sons or daughters, the request would not be granted them.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.44 p.217

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says "Scripture admonishes" and quotes Jeremiah 3:9, etc.). Then Clement writes, "He [God] notwithstanding exhorts them to repentance, and says by Ezekiel," and quotes Ezekiel 2:6-7. The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.228

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "and He signed them with that very seal of which Ezekiel spake: ‘The Lord said unto me, Go through the gate, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set the mark tau upon the foreheads of the men.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.22 p.340

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "But to most of us the mystery of the resurrection is a great one, and difficult of contemplation; it is spoken of in many other passages of Scripture, and is specially announced in the following passage of Ezekiel: ‘And the hand of the Lord was upon me, and He led me out in the Spirit of the Lord, and set me in the midst of the plain, and it was full of human bones.’" Commentary on John book 10 ch.20 p.400

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "And are there not revilings in Ezekiel directed against the people, when the Lord says to the prophet, ‘Thou dwellest in the midst of scorpions?’" [Ezekiel 2:6] Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.76 p.462

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.14 p.661 "according to the faith of the Scripture which says, ‘but if the wicked will turn from all his sins which he hath committed, and will do righteousness, he shall live in eternal life, and shall not die in his wickedness.’" (Ezekiel 18:21)

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "because the Lord says by Ezekiel the prophet: ‘Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be cleansed from all your filthiness; and from all your idols will I cleanse you: a new heart also will I give you, and a new spirit will I put within you.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 69 ch.1 p.376

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "when they obtain the Lord’s grace, when Holy Scripture speaks by the mouth of the prophet Ezekiel, and says, ‘Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness and from all your idols will I cleanse you.’" Epistles of Cyprian Letter 75 ch.13 p.401

Methodius of Olympus and Patara (270-311/312 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Ezekiel 17:3. "which the Word called the ‘wings of a great eagle.’" The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.12 p.339

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc15. Daniel is scripture or God showed

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) Justin quotes Daniel 7:9-29. "When I had ceased, Trypho said, ‘These and such like Scriptures, sir, compel us to wait for Him who, as Son of man, received from the Ancient of days the everlasting kingdom. But this so-called Christ of yours was dishonourable and inglorious, so much so that the last curse contained in the law of God fell on him, for he was crucified.’ Then I [Justin] replied to him, ‘If, sirs, it were not said by the Scriptures which I have already quoted, that His form was inglorious, and His generation not declared, and that for His death the rich would suffer death, and with His stripes we should be healed, [verses from Isaiah 53] ...’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.31 p.209-210.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "If therefore the great God showed future things by Daniel, and confirmed them by His Son; and if Christ is the stone which is cut out without hands, who shall destroy temporal kingdoms, and introduce an eternal one, which is the resurrection of the just; as he declares, ‘The God of heaven shall raise up a kingdom which shall never be destroyed,’ -let those thus confuted come to their senses, who reject the Creator (Demiurgum), and do not agree that the prophets were sent beforehand from the same Father from whom also the Lord came, but who assert that prophecies originated from diverse powers." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.26.2 p.555

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) "And Daniel the prophet says," and quotes Daniel 2:27-28. "Here he terms the Babylonians wise. And that Scripture calls every secular sience or art by one name wisdom... will be clear if we adduce the following" Stromata book 1 ch.4 p.304

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "He also was revealed to Daniel himself expressly as ‘the Son of man, coming in the clouds of heaven’ as a Judge, as also the Scripture shows." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.10 p.359

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "let us put a demurrer against them out of the Scriptures themselves, to the effect that the Christ who was the theme of prediction is come; albeit by the times of Daniel’s prediction we have proved that the Christ is come already who was the them of announcement." An Answer to the Jews ch.13 p.169

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "And the Scripture is fulfilled, as Daniel says: And he shall carry off into Egypt their gods, and their cast-works, and all their precious (vessels of) gold." Commentary on Daniel ch.36 p.183

Julius Africanus (232-245 A.D.) "As far, then, as is in our power, we have taken from Scripture, I think, correctly;" and refers to Daniel 8:1 and Daniel 8:13,14 to compute from Daniel when the Lord would be cut off. Fragment 18 ch.4 p.137

Origen (240-254 A.D.) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 as by Paul. Then he quotes Daniel 9:29. "So many, out of a greater number of passages, have I thought it right to adduce, that the hearer may understand in some slight degree the meaning of holy Scripture, which gives us information concerning the devil and Antichrist;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "As in the case of the fishes that fall into the net, some are found in one part of the net and some in another part, and each at the part at which it was caught, so in the case of those who have come into the net of the Scriptures you would find some caught in the prophetic net; for example, of Isaiah, according to this expression, or of Jeremiah or of Daniel; and others in the net of the law, and others in the Gospel net, and some in the apostolic net; for when one is first captured by the Word or seems to be captured, he is taken from some part of the whole net." Commentary on Matthew chapter 10 verse 12 p.420

Cyprian (c.246-258 A.D.) (partial) "And Daniel, devoted to God, and filled with the Holy Spirit, exclaims and says: ‘I worship nothing but the Lord my God, who founded the heaven and the earth.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 second part ch.11 p.503

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Which rightly in the holy scriptures is spoken, yet by no willingness rightly understood." (Daniel 2:34-35) Dialogue on the True Faith ch.25 p.68-69

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "Thence here he places, and by and by here he renews, that of which the Lord, admonishing His churches concerning the last times and their dangers, says: ‘But when ye shall see the contempt which is spoken of by Daniel the prophet standing in the holy place, let him who readeth understand.’" Commentary on the Apocalypse from the 13th chapter no.13 p.357

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc16. Hosea is scripture or God/the Word says

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (partial) "Moreover, concerning the righteousness which the law enjoined, confirmatory utterances are found both with the prophets and in the Gospels, because they all spoke inspired by one Spirit of God. ... So also says Hosea: ‘Keep judgment, and draw near to your God, who established the heavens and created the earth.’ And another, Joel, spoke in agreement with these: ‘Gather the people, sanctify the congregation, assemble the elders, gather the children that are in arms; let the bridegroom go forth of his chamber, and the bride out of her closet, and pray to the Lord thy God urgently that he may have mercy upon you, and blot out your sins.’ In like manner also another, Zachariah: ‘Thus saith the Lord Almighty, Execute true judgment, and show mercy and compassion every man to his brother; and oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, nor the stranger; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart, saith the Lord Almighty.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.114-115

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "As God, when teaching them His will in Hosea the prophet, said, ‘I desire mercy rather than sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than burnt-offerings.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.17.4 p.

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "With the greatest clearness, accordingly, the Word has spoken respecting Himself by Hosea: ‘I am your Instructor.’" The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.223

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "and again by Hosea, ‘I [God] will cause to cease all her mirth, and her feast-days, and her sabbaths, and her new moons, and all her solemn assemblies.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.4 p.436

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "The Spirit by Osee [Hosea] says," and quotes part of Hosea 5:2. Excerpts of Theodotus ch.5 p.43.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "is called the Word came to certain persons; as "The Word of the Lord which came to Hosea, the son of Beeri," and "The Word which came to Isaiah, the son of Amos, concerning Judah and concerning Jerusalem," and "The Word which came to Jeremiah concerning the drought." We must enquire how this Word came to Hosea, and how it came also to Isaiah the son of Amos, and again to Jeremiah concerning the drought;" Commentary on John book 2 verse 1 p.322

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Why shall the truth of faith hesitate in that wherein the authority of Scripture has never hesitated? For, behold, Hosea the prophet says in the person of the Father: "I will not now save them by bow, nor by horses, nor by horsemen; but I will save them by the Lord their God.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.621

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "God Himself manifests by Hosea the prophet, saying, ‘They have set up for themselves a king, but not by me.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 67 ch.4 p.353

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc17. Joel is scripture or God says

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (partial) "Moreover, concerning the righteousness which the law enjoined, confirmatory utterances are found both with the prophets and in the Gospels, because they all spoke inspired by one Spirit of God. ... So also says Hosea: ‘Keep judgment, and draw near to your God, who established the heavens and created the earth.’ And another, Joel, spoke in agreement with these: ‘Gather the people, sanctify the congregation, assemble the elders, gather the children that are in arms; let the bridegroom go forth of his chamber, and the bride out of her closet, and pray to the Lord thy God urgently that he may have mercy upon you, and blot out your sins.’ In like manner also another, Zachariah: ‘Thus saith the Lord Almighty, Execute true judgment, and show mercy and compassion every man to his brother; and oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, nor the stranger; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart, saith the Lord Almighty.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.114-115

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "You hold to the scriptures in which the flesh is disparaged; receive also those in which it is ennobled. You read whatever passage abases it; direct your eyes also to that which elevates it. ‘All flesh is grass.’ Well, but Isaiah was not content to say only this; but he also declared, ‘All flesh shall see the salvation of God.’ They notice God when He says in Genesis , ‘My Spirit shall not remain among these men, because they are flesh;’ but then He [God] is also heard saying by Joel, ‘I will pour I out of my Spirit upon all flesh.’" On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.10 p.552

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Indeed, He who had engraved its letter in stones is the same as He who had said of its spirit, ‘I will pour out of my Spirit upon all flesh.’" [Joel 2:28] Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.452

Novatian (250-257 A.D.) "Moreover, the order of reason, and the authority of the faith in the disposition of the words and in the Scriptures of the Lord, admonish us after these things to believe also on the Holy Spirit, once promised to the Church, and in the appointed occasions of times given. For He was promised by Joel the prophet, but given by Christ. ‘In the last days,’ says the prophet, ‘I will pour out of my Spirit upon my servants and my handmaids.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.640

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Thus also He [the Lord] cries by Joel the prophet, and says, ‘And now, thus saith the Lord your God, Turn ye even to me with all your heart, and with fasting, and with weeping, and with mourning; and rend your heart, and not your garments, and return unto the Lord your God; for He is gracious and merciful, slow to anger, and of great kindness, and repenteth Him of the evil appointed.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.22 p.333

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc18. Amos is scripture or God says

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And that you may learn that it was for the sins of your own nation, and for their idolatries and not because there was any necessity for such sacrifices, that they were likewise enjoined, listen to the manner in which He [God] speaks of these by Amos, one of the twelve, saying: ‘Woe unto you that desire the day of the Lord! to what end is this day of the Lord for you?" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.22 p.205

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "Very clearly, therefore, by the prophet Amos has the Lord unfolded His method of dealing, saying, ‘I have overthrown you, as God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah; and ye shall be as a brand plucked from the fire: and yet ye have not returned unto me, saith the Lord.’" The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.227

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "For that which happened at His passion, that mid-day grew dark, the prophet Amos announces, saying, ‘And it shall be,’ he says, ‘in that day, saith the Lord, the sun shall set at mid-day, and the day of light shall grow dark over the land: and I will convert your festive days into grief, and all your canticles into lamentation; and I will lay upon your loins sackcloth, and upon every head baldness; and I will make the grief like that for a beloved (son), and them that are with him like a day of mourning.’" An Answer to the Jews ch.10 p.167.

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (Greek) "Having spoken thus briefly on the subject of the divine inspiration of the holy Scriptures, it is necessary to proceed to the (consideration of the) manner in which they are to be read and understood,..." then he refers to Zechariah 9:10; Isaiah 7:15; Isaiah 11:6,7; Jeremiah 15:14; Exodus 20:5. He quotes 1 Samuel 15:11; Isaiah 45:7; Amos 3:6 Micah 1:12, and part of 1 Samuel 16:14; 18:10. Then Origen says, "and countless other passages like these - they have not ventured to disbelieve these as the Scriptures of God;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Origen (239-242 A.D.) quotes Amos 7:12-13 as scripture. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 2 ch.3.4 p.50

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Seek ye the Lord, even late; for long ago, God, forewarning by His prophet, exhorts and says, ‘Seek ye the Lord, and your soul shall live.’" [Amos 5:23] Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 5 ch.23 p.404

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc19. Micah is scripture

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Such are they of whom Micah the prophet says, "Hear the word of the Lord, ye peoples who dwell with pangs.’" Stromata book 4 ch.26 p.440

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Therefore, since the sons of Israel affirm that we err in receiving the Christ, who is already come, let us put in a demurrer against them out of the Scriptures themselves, to the effect that the Christ who was the theme of prediction is come; albeit by the times of Daniel’s prediction we have proved that the Christ is come already who was the theme of announcement. Now it behooved Him to be born in Bethlehem of Judah. For thus it is written in the prophet: ‘And thou, Bethlehem, are not the least in the leaders of Judah: for out of thee shall issue a Leader who shall feed my People Israel.’" [Micah 5:2] An Answer to the Jews ch.12 p.169

Origen (240 A.D.) quotes Micah 2:9 as "this is what the divine Scripture expresses". Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 28 ch.5 p.264 (translated by Jerome)

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (Greek) "Having spoken thus briefly on the subject of the divine inspiration of the holy Scriptures, it is necessary to proceed to the (consideration of the) manner in which they are to be read and understood,..." then he refers to Zechariah 9:10; Isaiah 7:15; Isaiah 11:6,7; Jeremiah 15:14; Exodus 20:5. He quotes 1 Samuel 15:11; Isaiah 45:7; Amos 3:6 Micah 1:12, and part of 1 Samuel 16:14; 18:10. Then Origen says, "and countless other passages like these - they have not ventured to disbelieve these as the Scriptures of God;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Now the Scripture speaks, respecting the place of the Saviour’s birth-that the Ruler was to come forth from Bethlehem-in the following manner: ‘And thou Bethlehem, house of Ephrata, art not the least among the thousands of Judah: for out of thee shall He come forth unto Me who is to be Ruler in Israel; and His goings forth have been of old, from everlasting.’" Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.51 p.418

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "the prophet Micah will prove when he says," and quotes Micah 6:8. de Principiis [Greek] book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

Origen (239-242 A.D.) quotes Micah 7:1-2 as God is speaking. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 1 ch.5.7 p.35

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.12 p.661 (implied) quotes Micah 7:8-10 as by the Holy Spirit.

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc20. Habakkuk is scripture or God says

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But even if the stimulus of her repentance proceeded from her faith, she heard her justification by faith through her repentance pronounced in the words, "Thy faith hath saved thee," by Him who had declared by Habakkuk, "The just shall live by his faith.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.18 p.376

Novatian (250-257 A.D.) "He [God] says by Habakkuk the prophet: ‘God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from the dark and dense mountain.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.621

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "even as the Holy Spirit speaks through the prophet,..." and quotes Habakkuk 3:17. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 5 ch.20 p.463

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc21. Zechariah is scripture or God says

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (partial) "Moreover, concerning the righteousness which the law enjoined, confirmatory utterances are found both with the prophets and in the Gospels, because they all spoke inspired by one Spirit of God. ...Isaiah accordingly spoke thus: .... In like manner also Jeremiah says: .... So also says Hosea: .... And another, Joel, spoke in agreement with these: .... In like manner also another, Zachariah: ‘Thus saith the Lord Almighty, Execute true judgment, and show mercy and compassion every man to his brother; and oppress not the widow, nor the fatherless, nor the stranger; and let none of you imagine evil against his brother in your heart, saith the Lord Almighty.’" [Zechariah 7:9,10] Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.115

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And Zechariah also, among the twelve prophets, pointing out to the people the will of God, says: ‘These things does the Lord Omnipotent declare: Execute true judgment, and show mercy and compassion each one to his brother. And oppress not the widow, and the orphan, and the proselyte, and the poor; and let none imagine evil against your brother in his heart.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.17.3 p.483

Origen (240-254 A.D.) (partial) "I am convinced, indeed, that much better arguments could be adduced than any I have been able to bring forward, to show the falsehood of these allegations of Celsus, and to set forth the divine inspiration of the prophecies; but we have according to our ability, in our commentaries on Isaiah, Ezekiel, and some of the twelve minor prophets, explained literally and in detail what he calls ‘those fanatical and utterly unintelligible passages.’" Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.11 p.615

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "When by Zechariah He [God] commanded" and quotes Zechariah 7:16 followed by Zechariah 8:17. Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.16 p.370

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in Zechariah God says: ‘And they shall cross over through the narrow sea, and they shall smite the waves in the sea, and they shall dry up all the depths of the rivers; and all the haughtiness of the Assyrians shall be confounded, and the sceptre of Egypt shall be taken away.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second book ch.6 p.518

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc22. Malachi is scripture or God/Spirit says

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Of a truth, soon and suddenly shall His will be accomplished, as the Scripture also bears witness, saying, ‘Speedily will He come, and will not tarry;’ and, ‘The Lord shall suddenly come to His temple, even the Holy One, for whom ye look.’" [Malachi 3:1] 1 Clement ch.23 p.11

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And then, as the Scriptures show, at the time when Malachi wrote this, your dispersion over all the earth, which now exists, had not taken place." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.117 p.258

Justin Martyr (c.137-165 A.D.) (partial) "Then I [Justin] inquired of him, ‘Does not Scripture, in the book of Zechariah, say that Elijah shall come before the great and terrible day of the Lord?’ [Malachi 4:5] And he answered, ‘Certainly.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.49 p.219

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And Malachi the prophet plainly exhibits God saying, ‘I will not accept sacrifice at your hands. For from the rising of the sun to its going down, My name is glorified among the Gentiles; and in every place sacrifice is offered to Me.’" (Malachi 1:10,11,14) Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.475

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "As He [God] says through the angel Malachi, one of the twelve prophets: ‘I will not receive sacrifice from your hands; for from the rising sun unto the setting my Name hath been made famous among all the nations, saith the Lord Almighty: and in every place they offer clean sacrifices to my Name.’" An Answer to the Jews ch.5 p.156

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For by the mouth of Malachi also He [the Lord] speaks thus: ‘And unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in His wings.’" Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.61 p.217

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "And if he had read the writings of the prophets, David on the one hand saying, ‘But Thou art the same,’ and Malachi on the other, ‘I am (the Lord), and change not,’" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.62 p.602

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "22. But when shall come the divine vengeance for the righteous blood, the Holy Spirit declares by Malachi the prophet, saying, ‘Behold, the day of the Lord cometh, burning as an oven; and all the aliens and all the wicked shall be stubble; and the day that cometh shall burn them up, saith the Lord.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.22 p.490. See also Treatise 4 ch.35 p.457.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Likewise in Malachi: ‘I have no pleasure concerning you, saith the Lord, and I will not have an accepted offering from your hands. Because from the rising of the sun, even unto the going down of the same, my name is glorified among the Gentiles; and in every place odours of incense are offered to my name, and a pure sacrifice, because great is my name among the nations, saith the Lord.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.16 p.512. See also Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 5 ch.22 p.404.

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "for He [God/Christ] says by Malachi:" and quotes Malachi 4:5-6 Commentary on the Apocalypse from the seventh no.2 p.352

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Now that the Jews were disinherited, because they rejected Christ, and that we, who are of the Gentiles, were adopted into their place, is proved by the Scriptures. Jeremiah thus speaks: ‘I have forsaken mine house, I have given mine heritage into the hands of her enemies. Mine heritage is become unto me as a lion in the forest; it hath given forth its voice against me: therefore have I hated it.’ Also Malachi: ‘I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord, neither will I accept an offering at your hand. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down thereof, my name shall be great among the Gentiles.’ Isaiah also thus speaks: ‘I come to gather all nations and tongues: and they shall come and see my glory.’ The same says in another place, speaking in the person of the Father to the Son: ‘I the Lord have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thine hand, and will keep Thee, and give Thee for a covenant of my people, for a light of the Gentiles; to open the eyes of the blind, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house.’" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.48 p.242

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc23. Reference to 1 or 2 Chronicles as Chronicles

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For so also the book of Chronicles indicates, saying, ‘And Solomon began to build the house of God. In length its first measure was sixty cubits, and its breadth twenty cubits, and its height one hundred and twenty; and he overlaid it within with pure gold.’" On Jeremiah and Ezekiel p.177

Origen (225-254 A.D.) "Any one, moreover, who reads in the second book of Kings of the ‘wrath’ of God, inducing David to number the people, and finds from the first book of Chronicles that it was the devil who suggested this measure, will, on comparing together the two statements, easily see for what purpose the ‘wrath’ is mentioned, of which ‘wrath,’ as the Apostle Paul declares, all men are children: ‘We were by nature children of wrath, even as others.’" Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.72 p.529

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "In the book of Chronicles: ‘The Lord is with you so long as ye also are with Him; but if ye forsake Him, He will forsake you.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.8 p.500

 

OTc24. The Twelve [Minor Prophets]

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions Micah as one of the twelve [minor prophets]. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.109 p.253. See also Zechariah in ch.53 p.222

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "as Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, and Daniel, foretold." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.14 p.202

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "having made myself accurately acquainted with the books of the Old Testament, I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:- The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, Judges, Ruth, the four books of Kings, the two of Chronicles, the book of the Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon, also called the Book of Wisdom, Ecclesiastes, the Song of Songs, Job, the books of the prophets Isaiah, Jeremiah, of the twelve contained in a single book, Daniel, Ezekiel, Esdras." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "concerning which Malachi, among the twelve prophets, thus spoke beforehand: ‘I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord Omnipotent, and I will not accept sacrifice at your hands.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.17.5 p.785

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) mentions "the Twelve" in Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.77 and ch.93.

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial) mentions "the Old Testament scriptures"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For it is expressly said by Joel, one of the twelve prophets, ‘And it shall come to pass after these things, I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy.’" [Joel 2:28a] Stromata book 5 ch.13 p.465

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) Jeremiah and Ambacum [Habakkuk] were still prophesying in the time of Zedekiah. In the fifth year of his reign Ezekiel prophesied at Babylon; after him Nahum, then Daniel. After him, again, Haggai and Zechariah prophesied in the time of Darius the First for two years; and then the angel among the twelve. After Haggai and Zechariah, Nehemiah, the chief cup-bearer of Artaxerxes, the son of Acheli the Israelite, built the city of Jerusalem and restored the temple. Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "For it was He who used to speak in the prophets-the Word, the Creator’s Son. ‘I am present, while it is the hour, upon the mountains, as one that brings glad tidings of peace, as one that publishes good tidings of good.’ So one of the twelve (minor prophets), Nahum: ‘For behold upon the mountain the swift feet of Him that brings glad tidings of peace.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.13 p.364

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "I am convinced, indeed, that much better arguments could be adduced than any I have been able to bring forward, to show the falsehood of these allegations of Celsus, and to set forth the divine inspiration of the prophecies; but we have according to our ability, in our commentaries on Isaiah, Ezekiel, and some of the twelve minor prophets, explained literally and in detail what he calls ‘those fanatical and utterly unintelligible passages.’" Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.11 p.615

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "such as are made contrary to the ordinance and tradition of the Gospel, as the Lord Himself in the twelve prophets asserts, saying, ‘They have set up a king for themselves, and not by me.’ And again: ‘Their sacrifices are as the bread of mourning; all that eat thereof shall be polluted.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.5 p.340-341

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "‘These are the two candlesticks standing before the Lord of the earth.’] These two candlesticks and two olive trees He has to this end spoken of, and admonished you that if, when you have read of them elsewhere, you have not understood, you may understand here. For in Zechariah, one of the twelve prophets, it is thus written: ‘These are the two olive trees and two candlesticks which stand in the presence of the Lord of the earth;’" Commentary on the Apocalypse From the eleventh chapter verse 4 p.354

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Hosea also, the first of the twelve prophets, testified of His resurrection:" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.19 p.122

 

Among heretics

Early Christians warning against the Ebionites (182-325 A.D.) says they accepted the Old Testament.

 

OTc25. Use of the term "Old Testament"

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions the "Old Testament" and lists the books in fragment 4 from the Book of Extracts vol.8 p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.34.1 p.563, and the Old Testament on p.564

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 mentions the Old Testament.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "We must know, then, that if Paul is ‘young in respect to time’ -having flourished immediately after the Lord’s ascension-yet his writings depend on the Old Testament, breathing and speaking of them." Stromata book 4 ch.21 p.434

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "He is clearly defined to us in all Scriptures-in the Old Testament as the Christ of God, in the New Testament as the Son of God." Against Praxeas ch.24 p.620

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) mentions "the Old Testament prophets, or any of the New". from book 3 ch.9 p.337.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) refers to the "Old Testament" in Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.24 p.620. He mentions the Old and New Testaments in Commentary on John book 5 ch.4 p.348.

Origen (239-242 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 14 ch.2.3 p.167

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (implied) "The first law of God is the foundation of the subsequent law. Thee, indeed, it assigned to believe in the second law. Nor are threats from Himself, but from it, powerful over thee. Now astounded, swear that thou wilt believe in Christ; for the Old Testament proclaims concerning Him. For it is needful only to believe in Him who was dead, to be able to rise again to live for all time." Instructions of Commodianus ch.25 p.207

Novatian 254-256 A.D. "But of this I remind you, that Christ was not to be expected in the Gospel in any other wise than as He was promised before by the Creator, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament; especially as the things that were predicted of Him were fulfilled, and those things that were fulfilled had been predicted." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.10 p.619. See also, He was promised before by the Creator, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament" Treatise on the Trinity ch.10 p.619

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627 and ch.30 p.642-643.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "plain that he is a heretic who believes on another God, or receives another Christ than Him whom the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament manifestly declare."

Treatise on Rebaptism (250-258 A.D.) ch.12 p.674 "as it likewise has not upon the Jews who only receive the Old Testament Scriptures."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament referring as we would understand it in many places. He says, "That another Prophet such as Moses was promised, to wit, one who should give a new testament, and who rather ought to be heard." Then he quotes Deuteronomy 18:18,19 as Deuteronomy. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 1 ch.18 p.512

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 ch.4 p.509

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "For the doctrine of the foolish Marcion, which cuts and divides the monarchy into three elements, is assuredly of the devil, and is not of Christ’s true disciples… For these [true disciples] indeed rightly know that the Trinity is declared in the divine Scripture, but that the doctrine that there are three gods is neither taught in the Old nor the New Testament." Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians ch.1 p.365

Anatolius of Alexandria (270-280 A.D.) quotes from the Old Testament to prove his case. "Accordingly, it is not the case, as certain calculators of Gaul allege, that this assertion is opposed by that passage in Exodus, where we read: ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the first month, at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread until the one-and-twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses.’ From this they maintain that it is quite permissible to celebrate the Passover on the twenty-first day of the moon; understanding that if the twenty-second day were added, there would be found eight days of unleavened bread. A thing which cannot be found with any probability, indeed, in the Old Testament, as the Lord, through Moses, gives this charge: ‘Seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread.’" ch.8 p.148

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) compares Mt 5:39 and Isaiah66:5 in the "Old Scripture" and "But giving to the poor is not a new teaching, fir it was commanded in the Old Testament:" and quotes Proverbs 3:27 (Septuagint) (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith second part 15c-d p.94.

Alexander of Lycopolis (301 A.D.) (partial, old and New scriptures) "These men, taking to themselves the Old and New Scriptures, though they lay it down that these are divinely inspired, draw their own opinions from thence; and then only think they are refuted, when it happens that anything not in accordance with these is said or done by them." Of the Manichaeans ch.5 p.243

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "And the books of the Old Testament that are received are twenty-four" Commentary on the Apocalypse from the four chapter no.8 p.349

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament in The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.2 p.348. He specifically mentions Leviticus in The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 6 ch.4 p.330

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But all Scripture is divided into two Testaments. That which preceded the advent and passion of Christ-that is, the law and the prophets-is called the Old; but those things which were written after His resurrection are named the New Testament." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.122

Alexander of Alexandria (321 A.D.) "And besides the pious opinion concerning the Father and the Son, we confess to one Holy Spirit, as the divine Scriptures teach us; who hath inaugurated both the holy men of the Old Testament, and the divine teachers of that which is called the New." Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.12 p.296

 

Among heretics

Marinus (c.300 A.D.) a Bardesene, in disputing with Adamantius, appealed to the "Old Testament" and referred to David as a prophet. Dialogue on the True Faith ch.862a 20 p.173

 

OTc26. The Old Testament is scripture

 

Mentioned a particular book of the Old Testament as scripture is not included here.

 

Irenaeus (182-188 A.D.) "Wherefore also John does appropriately relate that the Lord said to the Jews: ‘Ye search the Scriptures, in which ye think ye have eternal life; these are they which testify of me. And ye are not willing to come unto Me, that ye may have life.’ How therefore did the Scriptures testify of Him, unless they were from one and the same Father, instructing men beforehand as to the advent of His Son, and foretelling the salvation brought in by Him?’ For if ye had believed Moses, ye would also have believed Me; for he wrote of Me;’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.10.1 p.473

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "For as in the Old Testament Scriptures they lay hold of nothing else than, ‘I am God, and beside me there is no God;’ so in the Gospel they simply keep in view the Lord’s answer to Philip, ‘I and my Father are one;’ and, ‘He that hath seen me hath seen the Father; and I am in the Father, and the Father in me.’" Against Praxeas ch.20 p.615

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "But of this I remind you, that Christ was not to be expected in the Gospel in any other wise than as He was promised before by the Creator, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament; especially as the things that were predicted of Him were fulfilled, and those things that were fulfilled had been predicted. As with reason I might truly and constantly say to that fanciful-I know not what-of those heretics who reject the authority of the Old Testament," Concerning the Trinity ch.10 p.619

Treatise on Rebaptism (250-258 A.D.) ch.12 p.674 "And with these they prescribe the Holy Scriptures-whether all or only some of them-to discuss still more boldly concerning the truth than with the Gentiles upon whom the name of the Lord Jesus, the Son of the living God, has not been invoked, as it likewise has not upon the Jews who only receive the Old Testament Scriptures."

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.) "A thing which cannot be found with any probability, indeed, in the Old Testament, as the Lord, through Moses, gives this charge: ‘Seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread.’" The Paschal Canon of Anatolius ch.8 p.148

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "but because he says that he was about to write the things which the thunders had uttered, that is, whatever things had been obscure in the announcements of the Old Testament; he is forbidden to write them, but he was charged to leave them sealed, because he is an apostle, nor was it fitting that the grace of the subsequent stage should be given in the first. ‘The time,’ says he, ‘is at hand.’ For the apostles, by powers, by signs, by portents, and by mighty works, have overcome unbelief. After them there is now given to the same completed Churches the comfort of having the prophetic Scriptures subsequently interpreted, for I said that after the apostles there would be interpreting prophets." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the Tenth chapter verse 3 p.353

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "And besides the pious opinion concerning the Father and the Son, we confess to one Holy Spirit, as the divine Scriptures teach us; who hath inaugurated both the holy men of the Old Testament, and the divine teachers of that which is called the New." Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.12 p.296

 

OTc27. The Ten Commandments / Decalogue

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.15 p.147 "Further, also, it is written concerning the Sabbath in the Decalogue which [the Lord] spoke, face to face, to Moses on Mount Sinai, ‘And sanctify ye the Sabbath of the Lord with clean hands and a pure heart.’"

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "They (the Jews) had therefore a law, a course of discipline, and a prophecy of future things. For God at the first, indeed, warning them by means of natural precepts, which from the beginning He had implanted in mankind, that is, by means of the Decalogue (which, if any one does not observe, he has no salvation), did then demand nothing more of them. As Moses says in Deuteronomy," Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.15.1 p.479

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) mentions the tablet of the Ten Commandments. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.26

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "Especially conspicuous is the love of the Instructor set forth in various salutary commandments, in order that the discovery may be readier, from the abundance and arrangement of the Scriptures. We have the Decalogue given by Moses, which, indicating by an elementary principle, simple and of one kind, defines the designation of sins in a way conducive to salvation: ‘Thou shall not commit adultery. Thou shall not worship idols. Thou shalt not corrupt boys. Thou shalt not steal. Thou shall not bear false witness. Honour thy father and thy mother.’ And so forth. These things are to be observed, and whatever else is commanded in reading the Bible." The Instructor book 3 ch.12 p.292

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says there were ten commandments because it was an image of heaven, embracing the sun, moon, stars, clouds, light, wind, water, air, darkness, and fire. It is also a representation on earth of men, cattle, reptiles, wild beasts, water dwellers, fishes, and whales, winged animals, carnivorous, animals that eat mild food. Stromata book 6 ch.16 p.511

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "For my own part, I prefer viewing this measure of time in reference to God, as if implying that the ten months rather initiated man into the ten commandments; so that the numerical estimate of the time needed to consummate our natural birth should correspond to the numerical classification of the rules of our regenerate life." Treatise on the Soul ch.37 p.218

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "But let us return to the subject before us, in which the Saviour abridged and expounded two commandments from the law, the one from the decalogue from Exodus, and the other from Leviticus, or the other from some one of the books of the Pentateuch. Then since we have explained in what way they made void the word of God which said, ‘Honor thy father and thy mother,’" Commentary on Matthew from the 11th chapter verse 10 p.439

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Then too that the law was given to the children of Israel for this purpose, that they might profit by it, and return to those virtuous manners which, although they had received them from their fathers, they had corrupted in Egypt by reason of their intercourse with a barbarous people. Finally, also, those ten commandments on the tables teach nothing new, but remind them of what had been obliterated-that righteousness in them, which had been put to sleep, might revive again as it were by the afflatus of the law, after the manner of a smothered fire." On Jewish Meats ch.3 p.647

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) quotes many of the ten commandments and then says, "Love therefore is the fulfilment of the Law." After Marcus and Eutropius respond, Admantius says, "The Saviour will more clearly convince you of this in the Gospel." Dialogue on the True Faith Second Part e17 and 832a p.97.

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 307 A.D.) "The tenfold number signifies the decalogue [Ten commandments], and the hundredfold sets forth the crown of virginity: for he who shall have kept the undertaking of virginity completely, and shall have faithfully fulfilled the precepts of the decalogue, and shall have destroyed the untrained nature or impure thoughts within the retirement of the heart, that they may not rule over him, this is the true priest of Christ, and accomplishing the millenary number thoroughly, is thought to reign with Christ; and truly in his case the devil is bound." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the twentieth chapter verse 6 p.359

Methodius (c.260-312 A.D.) "Moreover, the ten horns and stings which he was said to have upon his heads are the ten opposites, O virgins, to the Decalogue, by which he was accustomed to gore and cast down the souls of many imagining and contriving things in opposition to the law, ‘Thou shalt love the Lord thy God,' and to the other precepts which follow. Consider now the fiery and bitter horn of fornication, by which he casts down the incontinent; consider adultery, consider falsehood, covetousness, theft, and the other sister and related vices, which flourish by nature around his murderous heads, which if you root out with the aid of Christ, you will receive, as it were, divine heads, and will bloom with the crowns gained from the dragon." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.13 p.340

 

Among Heretics

The Gnostic Monoimus (before 235/236 A.D.) according to Hippolytus "Man, he [Monoimus] says, bursts forth, and is forcibly separated from man by being severed by a certain stroke. (And this takes place) in order that (man) may be generated, and may declare the law which Moses ordained, who received (it) from God. Conformably with that one tittle, the law constitutes the series of the ten commandments which expresses allegorically the divine mysteries of (those) precepts." Refutation of All Heresies book 8 ch.7 p.121-122

 

NEW TESTAMENT canon

 

NTc1. Matthew is scripture

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.13 p.254 (partial) quotes part of Matthew 9:13 and Luke 6:32 as Scripture. "An another Scripture saith, ‘I came not to call the righteous, but sinners.’" 2 Clement also quotes Matthew 6:24 and Luke 16:13, in ch.16 p.252.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "It is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. … the ‘pillar and ground’ of the Church is the Gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.11.8 p.428

Muratorian Canon 1. (190-217 A.D.) (partial) Third book of the gospels is Luke. (So the unnamed Matthew and Mark are counted as two.)

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "After abandoning idols, then, they will hear the Scripture, ‘Unless your righteousness exceed the righteousness of the scribes and Pharisees’" [Matthew 5:20] Stromata book 6 ch.18 p.519

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Matthew 25:34; Revelation 22:15; Isaiah 66:24, and 1 Thessalonians 4:12 and then says, "These things, then I have set shortly before thee, O Theophilus, drawing them from Scripture itself, in order that, maintaining in faith what is written, and anticipating the things that are to be, thou mayest keep thyself void of offence both toward God and toward men," Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.67 p.219.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial, the Lord says) quotes Matthew 24:15 as the Lord says. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.62 p.217

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "For we may venture to say that the Gospel is the first fruits of all the Scriptures." Commentary on John book 1 ch.4 p.298. "Now the Gospels are four. These four are, as it were, the elements of the faith of the Church,..." Then he discusses John, Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Commentary on John book 1 ch.6 p.299. See also Commentary on Matthew ch.13 p.421.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) discusses in detail Matthew 18:23-34 as "scripture". Commentary on Matthew book 14 ch.6 p.498

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "But in what you have written to me you have made out very clearly, and with an intelligent understanding of the Holy Scriptures, that no very exact account seems to be offered in them of the hour at which He rose. For the evangelists have given different descriptions of the parties who came to the sepulchre one after another, and all have declared that they found the Lord risen already. It was ‘in the end of the Sabbath,’ as Matthew has said; it was ‘early, when it was yet dark,’ as John writes; it was ‘very early in the morning,’ as Luke puts it; and it was ‘very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun,’ as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to Bishop Basilides canon 5 p.94

Treatise on Rebaptism ch.1,2 p.668 (250-258 A.D.) "And therefore we shall, as is needful, collect into one mass whatever passages of the Holy Scriptures are pertinent to this subject." Then in chapter 2 he quotes Matthew 3:11b and Acts 1:4,5 as Acts of the Apostles, Acts 11:15-17, Acts 15:5,8

Cornelius to Cyprian (c.246-256 A.D.) (partial) quotes Matthew 5:8 as "the evangelical word" Letter 45 ch.2 p.323

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "For this reason, the other scripture says, ‘All things are possible unto Thee.’" [Matthew 19:26] Commentary on Luke ch.12 verse 42 p.115

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "What has been reasonably stated in the Scriptures you want to interpret unreasonably. The Prophets and the Gospel plainly speak of two Advents of Christ - the first in humility, and the one after this, in glory. Isaiah spoke in this way of the first: [Isaiah 53:2-3] ... This is just what has been clearly indicated in the Gospel: that He came into Jerusalem, seated upon an ass." [Matthew 21:7] (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith ch.25 p.68-69

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial, both Matthew and Luke) "But I declare what the scripture says: ‘No one can’, it says, ‘serve two lords; for either the one he will hold hate and love the other, or he will hold to the one, and hate the other. You cannot serve God and mammon." [Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13] (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.28 p.74

Theophilus (events c.315 A.D.) quotes Matthew 10:39 and Matthew 7:6 calling them Scripture. Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon vol.8 p.694

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Matthew 8, Mark 4, and Luke 8 when he speaks of "sacred writings" teaching that Jesus "compelled the winds to obey, the seas to serve Him, diseases to depart, the dead to be submissive." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.15 p.116

 

Among heretics

Cerinthus used part of the Gospel of Matthew according to Epiphanius of Salamis (360-403 A.D.). The Panarion section 2 ch.28,5,1 p.109

 

NTc2. Mark is scripture or God says

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "Also, towards the conclusion of his Gospel, Mark says : ‘So then, after the Lord Jesus had spoken to them, He was received up into heaven, and sitteth on the right hand of God;’" [Mark 16:19] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.10 verse 5. p.425

+ Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "It is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. … the ‘pillar and ground’ of the Church is the Gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.11.8 p.428

Muratorian Canon 1. (190-217 A.D.) (partial) Third book of the gospels is Luke. (So the unnamed Matthew and Mark are counted as two.)

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "But when the Word of God says, ‘No man knows the Father but the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal Him,’ He declares that no one can know God but by the help of divine grace coming from above, with a certain divine inspiration." Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.43 p.628

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Consider however, whether the divine Scriptures do not in many places teach this; as where the Saviour says, ‘Or have ye not read that which was spoken at the bush, I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. He is not God of the dead but of the living.’" [Mark 12:26] Commentary on John book 2 ch.10 p.333

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "For we may venture to say that the Gospel is the first fruits of all the Scriptures." Commentary on John book 1 ch.4 p.298. "Now the Gospels are found. These four are, as it were, the elements of the faith of the Church,..." Then he discusses John, Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Commentary on John book 1 ch.6 p.299

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.14 p.675 "if a man should survive and amend his faith, as our God, in the Gospel according to Luke, spoke to His disciples, saying," and quotes Luke 12:50. "Also, according to Mark He said, with the same purpose, to the sons of Zebedee:" and quotes Mark 10:38.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "It is something possible; for Mark makes mention of His saying, ‘Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee.’ [Mark 14:36]. And they are possible if He wills them; for Luke tells us that He said, ‘Father, if Thou be willing, remove this cup from me.’ The Holy Spirit, therefore, apportioned among the evangelists, makes up the full account of our Saviour’s whole disposition by the expressions of these several narrators together. ... For this reason, the other scripture says, ‘All things are possible unto Thee.’" [Matthew 19:26] Commentary on Luke ch.12 verse 42 p.115

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "But in what you have written to me you have made out very clearly, and with an intelligent understanding of the Holy Scriptures, that no very exact account seems to be offered in them of the hour at which He rose. For the evangelists have given different descriptions of the parties who came to the sepulchre one after another, and all have declared that they found the Lord risen already. It was ‘in the end of the Sabbath,’ as Matthew has said; it was ‘early, when it was yet dark,’ as John writes; it was ‘very early in the morning,’ as Luke puts it; and it was ‘very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun,’ as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to Bishop Basilides canon 5 p.94

 

NTc3. Luke is scripture or God says

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.13 p.254 (partial) quotes part of Matthew 9:13 and Luke 6:32 as Scripture. "An another Scripture saith, ‘I came not to call the righteous, but sinners." 2 Clement also quotes Matthew 6:24 and Luke 16:13, in ch.16 p.252.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "It is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. … the ‘pillar and ground’ of the Church is the Gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.11.8 p.428

Muratorian Canon 1. (190-217 A.D.) Third book of the gospels is Luke.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "For we may venture to say that the Gospel is the first fruits of all the Scriptures." Commentary on John book 1 ch.4 p.298. "Now the Gospels are four. These four are, as it were, the elements of the faith of the Church,..." Then he discusses John, Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Commentary on John book 1 ch.6 p.299

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.14 p.675 "if a man should survive and amend his faith, as our God, in the Gospel according to Luke, spoke to His disciples, saying," and then quotes Luke 12:50.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "It is something possible; for Mark makes mention of His saying, ‘Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee.’ [Mark 14:36]. And they are possible if He wills them; for Luke tells us that He said, ‘Father, if Thou be willing, remove this cup from me.’ The Holy Spirit, therefore, apportioned among the evangelists, makes up the full account of our Saviour’s whole disposition by the expressions of these several narrators together. ... For this reason, the other scripture says, ‘All things are possible unto Thee.’" [Matthew 19:26] Commentary on Luke ch.12 verse 42 p.115

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "But in what you have written to me you have made out very clearly, and with an intelligent understanding of the Holy Scriptures, that no very exact account seems to be offered in them of the hour at which He rose. For the evangelists have given different descriptions of the parties who came to the sepulchre one after another, and all have declared that they found the Lord risen already. It was ‘in the end of the Sabbath,’ as Matthew has said; it was ‘early, when it was yet dark,’ as John writes; it was ‘very early in the morning,’ as Luke puts it; and it was ‘very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun,’ as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to Bishop Basilides canon 5 p.94

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial, both Matthew and Luke) "But I declare what the scripture says: ‘No one can’, it says, ‘serve two lords; for either the one he will hold hate and love the other, or he will hold to the one, and hate the other. You cannot serve God and mammon." [Matthew 6:24; Luke 16:13] (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.28 p.74

Athanasius (318 A.D.) quotes Luke 17:12 as scripture. Against the Heathen part 2 ch.30 p.20

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Matthew 8, Mark 4, and Luke 8 when he speaks of "sacred writings" teaching that Jesus "compelled the winds to obey, the seas to serve Him, diseases to depart, the dead to be submissive." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.15 p.116

 

NTc4. John is scripture

 

(Jesus / the Lord / the Savior said is not counted.)

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "It is not possible that the Gospels can be either more or fewer in number than they are. … the ‘pillar and ground’ of the Church is the Gospel and the spirit of life; it is fitting that she should have four pillars, breathing out immortality on every side." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.11.8 p.428

Muratorian Canon 1. (190-217 A.D.) Fourth Gospel is that of John.

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "And the Scripture narrative goes on to explain in an exoteric manner, that ‘they understood not that He spake to them concerning the Father,’" [John 8:27] Against Praxeas ch.22 p.617. See also Against Praxeas ch.20 p.615; ch.23 p.619 [John 13:32].

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "To explain this fully, and to justify the conduct of the Christians in refusing homage to any object except the Most High God, and the First-born of all creation, who is His Word and God, we must quote this from Scripture, ‘All that ever came before Me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them;’ and again, ‘The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy;’" [John10:8-10] Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.70 p.639

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "For we may venture to say that the Gospel is the first fruits of all the Scriptures." Commentary on John book 1 ch.4 p.298. "Now the Gospels are four. These four are, as it were, the elements of the faith of the Church,..." Then he discusses John, Matthew, Mark, and Luke. Commentary on John book 1 ch.6 p.299. See also Commentary on John book 6 no.2 p.351.

Treatise on Rebaptism (250-258 A.D.) ch.2,3 p.668 "Even as the Holy Scriptures declare to us, from which we shall adduce evident proofs throughout each individual instance of those things which we shall narrate. (3) And to these things though perchance, who art bringing in some novelty, mayest immediately and impatiently replay, as though art wont, that the Lord said in the Gospel: ‘Except a man be born again of water and of the Spirit, he cannot enter into the kingdom of Heaven.’" [John 3:3,5]

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.14 p.675 "as says the Scripture" and quotes John 7:38. He also quotes John 3:16 "even as God also says" in ch.13 p.765.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "But in what you have written to me you have made out very clearly, and with an intelligent understanding of the Holy Scriptures, that no very exact account seems to be offered in them of the hour at which He rose. For the evangelists have given different descriptions of the parties who came to the sepulchre one after another, and all have declared that they found the Lord risen already. It was ‘in the end of the Sabbath,’ as Matthew has said; it was ‘early, when it was yet dark,’ as John writes; it was ‘very early in the morning,’ as Luke puts it; and it was ‘very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun,’ as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to Bishop Basilides canon 5 p.94

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "For which reason the Holy Scriptures, that indicate in many various ways the dire distressfulness of life, designate it as a valley of weeping. And most of all indeed is this world a scene of pain to the saints, to whom He addresses this word, and He cannot lie in uttering it: ‘In the world ye shall have tribulation.’" [John 16:33] Commentary on Luke ch.22 verse 46 p.116

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 1:24 as "The Apostle says"; John 1:3 as by "John the Evangelist"; Jeremiah 1:15 (Septuagint) as by Jeremiah, Psalm 118:73 (Septuagint) as by David, Genesis 2:7 as Genesis , and then says, "If then the Scriptures show that the Word of God moulded Man into a living creatuer, how is it that God accepts what is considered shameful (For you people claim that the Godhead can feel a sense of shame!), while you on your side disparage something higher and even more glorious?" Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part d 15 p.147.

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "more, seeing the power of the Word, we receive a knowledge also of His good Father, as the Saviour Himself says, "He that hath seen Me hath seen the Father. But this all inspired Scripture also teaches more plainly and with more authority, so that we in our turn write boldly to you as we do, and you, if you refer to them, will be able to verify what we say." Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.45 p.28

 

NTc5. Acts is scripture

 

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ANF vol.5 ch.2 p.603 "Moreover, the Acts of the Apostles are comprised by Luke in one book,"

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "quotes Jeremiah 23:18 and Acts 10:36 then immediately says, "These things then, brethren, are declared by the Scriptures." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.13-14 p.228

Treatise on Rebaptism ch.1,2 p.668 (250-258 A.D.) "And therefore we shall, as is needful, collect into one mass whatever passages of the Holy Scriptures are pertinent to this subject." Then in chapter 2 he quotes Matthew 3:11b and Acts 1:4,5 as Acts of the Apostles, Acts 11:15-17, Acts 15:5,8

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "divine Scripture proves this, when it says, ‘But the multitude of them which believed were of one heart and of one soul.’ [Acts 4:32] And again: ‘These all continued with one mind in prayer with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brethren.’" [Acts 1:14] Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.25 p.429

 

Among heretics

X Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) in debating Adamantius Eutropius. Eutropius asks "Does your party, Marcus, accept the ‘Acts of the Apostles and those called Disciples’ as genuine, or not?" Marcus answers: We do not accept anything beyond the Gospel and the Apostle" Dialogue on the True Faith second part 828d p.90.

 

NTc6. Paul’s letters are authoritative

 

2 Peter 3:15-16 (scripture)

 

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Calls the writings of Paul scripture. 2 Peter 3:15-16

p15 1 Corinthians 7:18-8:4 (late 3rd century) (implied because is 1 Corinthians)

p16 Philippians 3:10-17; 4:2-8 (late 3rd century) (implied because is Philippians)

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) says to the Corinthians, "Take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul." 1 Clement ch.47 p.18 It also refers to 1 Corinthians 3:13. 1 Clement ch.47 vol.1 p.18 (See also vol.9 p.243)

Presbyters (Papias?) (95-117 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:25,26 as said by the apostle fragment 5 p.154

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) mentions that Paul wrote a letter to the Ephesians. "Ye are initiated into the mysteries of the Gospel with Paul, the holy, the martyred, the deservedly most happy, at who feet may I be found, when I shall attain to God; who in all his Epistle makes mention of you in Christ Jesus." Letter of Ignatius to the Ephesians ch.12 p.55

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) "I do not, as Peter and Paul issue commandments unto you. They were apostles; I am but a condemned man;…" Letter of Ignatius to the Romans ch.4 p.75

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Galatians 4:10 ch.4 p.26 "observing months and days", Philippians 3:20 "citizens of heaven" Letter to Diognetus ch.5 p.27, 1 Timothy 3:16 ch.11 Letter to Diognetus p.29

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) has allusions to Paul’s letters in Ephesians 2:21 in ch.6 p.141, Colossians 1:15 in ch.12 p.145; Ephesians 6:9 in ch.19 p.148

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.11 p.520 quotes half of 1 Corinthians 2:9

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) "For neither I, nor any other such one, can come up to the wisdom of the blessed and glorified Paul. He, when among you, accurately and stedfastly taught the word of truth in the presence of those who were then alive. And when absent from you, he wrote you a letter , which, if you carefully study, you will find to be the means of building you up in that faith which has been given you,…" Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.3 p.33

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) says that 1 Corinthians 6:2 was by Paul. Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.11 p.35

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) Ephesians 4:26 "For I trust that ye are well versed in the Sacred Scriptures, …It is declared then in these Scriptures, ‘Be ye angry, and sin not,’ and , ‘Let not the sun go down upon your wrath.’" (12/12 words of the verse) Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.12 p.35

Dionysius of Corinth (170 A.D.) (partial) fragment 3 vol.8 p.765 "Therefore you also have by such admonition joined in close union the churches that were planted by Peter and Paul, that of the Romans and that of the Corinthians…"

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) (implied) quotes Philippians 2:6 p.783-784

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 15:54 as "in the language of the apostle" The Resurrection of the Dead ch.18 p.159

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) mentions 1 Thessalonians as by the apostle. Oration on the Lord’s Passion ch.9 p.762

Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 1 ch.14 p.93 (implied) quotes Romans 2:7; 1 Corinthians 2:9, and Romans 2:8,9

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 8:14 as by Paul. Irenaeus Fragment 26 p.574

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:1-4 as by Paul writing to the Romans. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.3 p.441

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) ANF vol.9 p.285 (implied) "What are the things in your chest? Speratus said, Books and epistles of Paul, a just man."

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says "the blessed Paul" wrote and quotes 1 Corinthians 14:20. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.217. See also Fragments from Cassiodorus (fragment 1) ch.1 p.572.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Romans 16:19 by the Apostle in the Epistle to the Romans. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.214

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) mentions Philippians 4:5 as by the apostle of the Lord. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Tertullian (205 A.D.) says "the Apostle admonishes the Romans" and quotes Romans 13:1 in Scorpiace ch.14 p.647.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 8:2 and Galatians 1:7 and 5:7 as being by the apostle in On Prescription Against Heretics ch.27 p.256.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) refers to 2 Corinthians 6:14 as by the apostle. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.8 p.328

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans, and John being the author of the Apocalypse (Revelation) in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says "the most holy apostle says" quoting part of 1 Corinthians 10:23 in On Baptism ch.17 p.677

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (implied) quotes Romans 1:17 as by Paul. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.64 p.218

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (implied) speaks of Solomon and Paul the apostle. Instructions of Commodianus ch.31 p.209

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. The only exception is where Paul writes "I say, and not the Lord". Here is what Origen writes: "Consider on this point the language of St. Paul. When he declares that ‘Every Scripture is inspired of God and profitable,’ does he include his own writings? Or does he not include his dictum, ‘I say, and not the Lord,’ and ‘So I ordain in all the churches,’ and ‘What things I suffered at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra,’ and similar things which he writes in virtue of his own authority, and which do not quite possess the character of words flowing from divine inspiration." Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) mentions Romans 1:20 as by the apostle Paul. p.614 He mentions the Apostle Paul writing to the Corinthians and 1 Corinthians 2:6,7,8 in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.27 p.638

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.17 p.663 quotes Ephesians 5:6,7 as by the Apostle.

Treatise on Rebaptism (250-257 A.D.) ch.6 p.670 quotes Philippians 2 as by Paul.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the Epistle of Paul to the Romans in Treatises of Cyprian book 3 ch.45 p.546.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians and then quotes 1 Corinthians 7:10,11 in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 book 3 ch.90 p.553, and first Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians and quotes 1 Corinthians 6:9-11 in Treatises of Cyprian treatise 12 book 3 ch.65 p.551.

Moyses, Maximum, and Nicostratus (248-257 A.D.) quote Romans 8:35 as being by the Apostle. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 25.1 p.303

Firmilian (c.246-258 A.D.) in his letter to Cyprian mentions evil people who defame the blessed apostles Peter and Paul in Letter 74 p.390

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 6:13 as "by the apostle" in Canonical Epistle canon 1 p.18

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) (implied) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:41 as by Paul. From the Books on Nature ch.3 p.86

Paulus of Obba at The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.570 quotes Romans 3:3,4 as by the Apostle.

Pierius of Alexandria (275 A.D.) (implied) quotes half of 1 Corinthians 7:7 as by Paul in fragment 1 p.157.

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) (implied) quotes loosely half of Colossians 4:6 in ch.8 p.161

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) refers to many of Paul’s letters as scripture such as Galatians 1 (Paul sent to the Galatians) on Dialog of the True Faith first part p.44 and quoting Ephesians 2:11-13 as by the apostle to the Ephesians in Dialog of the True Faith second part ch.867a p.99.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes 2 Peter 3:15 to show that Peter affirmed Paul. Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 d p.90

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "I fully accept Paul, who possessed Christ and the Spirit." Dialogue on the True Faith 5th part ch.21 p.177

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "Have the well-known words never rung in your ears, that the wisdom of man is foolishness with God?" (1 Corinthians 3:19) Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.7 p.435

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions Paul and the churches arranged by sevens. Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John ch.16 p.345

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) quotes Philippians 1:23,24 as by "the blessed apostle Paul" The Canonical Epistle Canon 10 p.274

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) mentions "Paul said" and discusses 1 Corinthians 15:50,54 Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.14 p.368.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) quotes half of Ephesians 4:26 as "God has enjoined us not to let the sun go down upon our wrath." The Divine Institutes book 6 ch.18 p.185

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) mentions Peter and Paul preaching at Rome. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.21 p.123.

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 2:9 as by the apostle Paul and Colossians 1:16,17 as by Paul in Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.5 p.293

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:16,17 as by Paul in Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.7 p.293

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) quotes one-fourth of Titus 1:12 "though some one says that the Cretans are liars." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.27 p.76

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius accepts Paul as an apostle and his letters are scripture. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.15d, 6 p.42-43

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) in disputing Adamantius affirms that Paul was an apostle. Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) in debating Adamantius Eutropius. Eutropius asks "Does your party, Marcus, accept the ‘Acts of the Apostles and those called Disciples’ as genuine, or not?" Marcus answers: We do not accept anything beyond the Gospel and the Apostle" Dialogue on the True Faith second part 828d p.90.

 

NTc7. Romans is scripture

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

+ Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) quotes Romans 1:1-4 as by Paul writing to the Romans. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.3 p.441. See also ibid book 3 ch.16.8 p.443.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And Paul likewise declares, ‘And so all Israel shall be saved;’ [Romans 11:26] but he has also said, that the law was our pedagogue [to bring us] to Christ Jesus. [Galatians 3:24]" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.2.7 p.465

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "‘With the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. Wherefore the Scripture saith, Whosoever believeth on Him shall not be ashamed; that is, the word of faith which we preach: for if thou confess the word with thy mouth that Jesus is Lord, and believe in thy heart that God hath raised Him from the dead, thou shalt be saved.’" Stromata book 4 ch.16 p.427

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Now (Marcion), since you have expunged so much from the Scriptures, why did you retain these words, as if they too were not the Creator’s words?" Then Tertullian quotes in order Romans 12:9; Psalm 34:14; Romans 12:10; Leviticus 19:18; Romans 12:12; Psalm 20:1; Romans 12:12; Romans 12:16; Isaiah 5:21; Romans 12:17; Leviticus 19:17,18; Romans 12:19; Romans 12:19 quoted from Deuteronomy 32:25; Romans 12:18; Romans 13:9. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.14 p.460-461

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) quotes Romans 8:11 discusses it, and then says, "Silence! Silence on such blasphemy. Let us be content with saying that Christ died, the Son of the Father; and let this suffice, because the Scriptures have told us so much." Against Praxeas ch.29 p.625

Origen (240-254 A.D.) quotes Romans 9:16 as "in Paul" [both Latin and Greek versions] Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.1 p.307

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. Origen argues that the name "gospel" can also be applied to Paul’s epistles in one sense, because the gospels are the first fruits of all the New Testament. Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

 

Among heretics

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) Epistle 1 ch.8 p.58 quotes Romans 7:9 as scripture.

The heretic Manes (262-278 A.D.) accepts as scripture Archelaus quoting Romans 5:14. Disputation with Manes ch.29 p.202

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc8. 1 Corinthians is scripture

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

+ Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "yet as to us ‘there are diversities of gifts, differences of administrations, and diversities of operations;’ and we, while upon the earth, as Paul also declares, ‘know in part, and prophesy in part.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.28.7 p.401

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) quotes 1 Corinthians 8:14 as by Paul. Irenaeus Fragment 26 p.574

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Expressly then respecting all our Scripture, as if spoken in a parable, it is written in the Psalms, ‘Hear, O My people, My law: incline your ear to the words of My mouth. I will open My mouth in parables, I will utter My problems from the beginning.’ [Psalm 73:1,2] Similarly speaks the noble apostle to the following effect: ‘Howbeit we speak wisdom among those that are perfect; yet not the wisdom of this world, nor of the princes of this world, that come to nought. But we speak the wisdom of God hidden in a mystery; which none of the princes of this world knew. For had they known it, they would not have crucified the Lord of glory.’" [1 Corinthians 2:6-8] Stromata book 4 ch.4 p.450.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) calls 1 Corinthians 2:9a scripture. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.198

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 2:13 as Scripture in The Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.14 p.107.

Origen (c.240 A.D.) says that 1 Corinthians 3:6 is scripture. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.13 p.56

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. Origen argues that the name "gospel" can also be applied to Paul’s epistles in one sense, because the gospels are the first fruits of all the New Testament. Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) calls 1 Corinthians 3:2-3 scripture. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.9c p.49-50

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Corinthians 1:24 as "The Apostle says"; John 1:3 as by "John the Evangelist"; Jeremiah 1:15 (Septuagint) as by Jeremiah, Psalm 118:73 (Septuagint) as by David, Genesis 2:7 as Genesis , and then says, "If then the Scriptures show that the Word of God moulded Man into a living creature, how is it that God accepts what is considered shameful (For you people claim that the Godhead can feel a sense of shame!), while you on your side disparage something higher and even more glorious?" Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part d 15 p.147.

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc9. 2 Corinthians is scripture

 

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 7:1, 6:16,17,18 as God is speaking. Stromata book 4 ch.21 p.433

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) in speaking of what the Creator says writes, "Of Israel he says, ‘Even unto this day the same veil is upon their heart;" [2 Corinthians 3:13] Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.453

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "The Scriptures speak what is right; but Noetus is of a different mind from them." ... He soon after quotes Ephesians 3:15 and 1 Corinthians 8:6. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.3 p.224

Origen quotes 2 Corinthians 4:17,18 as by Paul, in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians in Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.19 p.582

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. Origen argues that the name "gospel" can also be applied to Paul’s epistles in one sense, because the gospels are the first fruits of all the New Testament. Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) refers to many of Paul’s letters as scripture such as 2 Corinthians 1:20 in Dialog of the True Faith second part ch.867a p.99-100.

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc10. Galatians is scripture

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

+ Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And Paul likewise declares, ‘And so all Israel shall be saved;’ [Romans 11:26] but he has also said, that the law was our pedagogue [to bring us] to Christ Jesus. [Galatians 3:24]" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.2.7 p.465

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Origen (240-254 A.D.) refers to Galatians 2:12 as by Paul in the Letter to the Galatians. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.1 p.429

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. Origen argues that the name "gospel" can also be applied to Paul’s epistles in one sense, because the gospels are the first fruits of all the New Testament. Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes Galatians 6:7 as scripture. Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part 824a p.81.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) refers to many of Paul’s letters as scripture such as Galatians 1 (Paul sent to the Galatians) on Dialog of the True Faith first part p.44

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc11. Ephesians is scripture

 

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 4:26 "For I trust that ye are well versed in the Sacred Scriptures, …It is declared then in these Scriptures, ‘Be ye angry, and sin not,’ and , ‘Let not the sun go down upon your wrath.’" (12/12 words of the verse) Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.12 p.35

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

+ Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) quotes Ephesians 4:5-6 as by Paul. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.32.1 p.506

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "‘And let not the sun,’ says the Scripture, ‘go down upon your wrath.’" [2/3 of Ephesians 4:26] Stromata book 5 ch.5 p.450

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Since Christ, then, is the person of the Creator, who said, ‘Let there be light,’ it follows that Christ and the apostles, and the gospel, and the veil, and Moses - nay, the whole of the dispensations - belong to the God who is the Creator of this world, ...I here pass over discussion about another epistle, which we hold to have been written to the Ephesians, but the heretics to the Laodiceans. In it he tells them to remember", and then he discusses Ephesians 2:12. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.454

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 5:14 as Scripture in The Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.51.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "The Scriptures speak what is right; but Noetus is of a different mind from them." ... He soon after quotes Ephesians 3:15 and 1 Corinthians 8:6. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.3 p.224

Origen (240-254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 5:16 as by Paul. Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.55 p.598

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. Origen argues that the name "gospel" can also be applied to Paul’s epistles in one sense, because the gospels are the first fruits of all the New Testament. Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) paraphrases Ephesians 5:5-13 saying, "Scripture says" in Canonical Epistle ch.2 p.18.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 5:28-32 as Scripture, by Paul. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.1 p.317

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) quotes half of Ephesians 4:26 as "God has enjoined us not to let the sun go down upon our wrath." The Divine Institutes book 6 ch.18 p.185

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "Since the body of the Catholic Church is one, and it is commanded in Holy Scripture that we should keep the bond of unanimity and peace," [Ephesians 4:3] Letters on the Arian Heresy Letter 2 ch.1 p.297

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc12. Philippians is scripture

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Wherefore also Paul says," and he quotes part of Philippians 4:17. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.8.2 p.471

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "And the Divine Word, well knowing this, speaks to that effect in many passages of Scriptures, although it is sufficient at present to quote one testimony of Paul to the following effect:" and then he quotes Philippians 2:5-9. Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.18 p.504.

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. Origen argues that the name "gospel" can also be applied to Paul’s epistles in one sense, because the gospels are the first fruits of all the New Testament. Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.1 p.657 quotes two-thirds of Philippians 3:2 as scripture.

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc13. Colossians is scripture

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

+ Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) quotes Colossians 4:14 as by Paul. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.14.1 p.438

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "‘And let the peace of God rule in your hearts, to which ye are called in one body; and be thankful.’ [Colossians 3:15] For there is no obstacle to adducing frequently the same Scripture in order to put Marcion to the blush, if perchance he be persuaded and converted; by learning that the faithful ought to be grateful to God the Creator, who hath called us, and who preached the Gospel in the body." Stromata book 4 ch.8 p.421

Origen (240-254 A.D.) quotes of Colossians 2:8 as by Paul. Origen Against Celsus book 1 preface no.5 p.396

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. Origen argues that the name "gospel" can also be applied to Paul’s epistles in one sense, because the gospels are the first fruits of all the New Testament. Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "‘These only to me are fellow-workers unto the kingdom of God, who were to me a consolation’. And the rest. And again [Col.4:14]: ‘Salute you Luke and Demas’. Out of this scripture [it] is made clear that the apostle Paul himself offers this testimony." Dialogue on the Truth Faith first part ch.5 p.42-43

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "For according to them, the space of time in which they say that the Son had not yet been made by the Father, preceded the wisdom of God that fashioned all things, and the Scripture speaks falsely according to them, which calls Him ‘the First-born of every creature.’ Conformable to which, that which the majestically-speaking Paul says of Him: ‘Whom He hath appointed heir of all things. By whom also He made the worlds. But by Him also were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by Him, and for Him; and He is before all things.’" Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.6 p.293

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc14. 1 Thessalonians is scripture

 

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) in discussing the canon of scripture vs. what Marcion accepts, discusses Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans, and John being the author of the Apocalypse (Revelation) in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Matthew 25:34; Revelation 22:15; Isaiah 66:24, and 1 Thessalonians 4:12 and then says, "These things, then I have set shortly before thee, O Theophilus, drawing them from Scripture itself, in order that, maintaining in faith what is written, and anticipating the things that are to be, thou may keep thyself void of offence both toward God and toward men," Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.67 p.219.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And by Paul in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians like things are said: ‘For ye brethren became imitators of the churches of God which are in Judaea in Christ Jesus, for ye also suffered the same things of your own countrymen even as they did of the Jews, who both killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets, and drove out us, and please not God, and are contrary to all men.’" [1 Thessalonians 2:14-15] Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.18 p.425

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. The only exception is where Paul writes "I say, and not the Lord". Here is what Origen writes: "Consider on this point the language of St. Paul. When he declares that ‘Every Scripture is inspired of God and profitable,’ does he include his own writings? Or does he not include his dictum, ‘I say, and not the Lord,’ and ‘So I ordain in all the churches,’ and ‘What things I suffered at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra,’ and similar things which he writes in virtue of his own authority, and which do not quite possess the character of words flowing from divine inspiration." Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc15. 1 Timothy is scripture

 

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (202 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 6:20,21 as by Timothy. Then he says, "Convicted by this utterance, the heretics reject the Epistles to Timothy." Stromata book 2 ch.11 p.359

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) asks Marcion why he rejects as scripture the apostle’s two letters to Timothy and one to Titus. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.21 p.473.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes the first half of 1 Timothy 1:7 and discusses the second half as "mentioned by Paul". Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.41 p.472

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. The only exception is where Paul writes "I say, and not the Lord". Here is what Origen writes: "Consider on this point the language of St. Paul. When he declares that ‘Every Scripture is inspired of God and profitable,’ does he include his own writings? Or does he not include his dictum, ‘I say, and not the Lord,’ and ‘So I ordain in all the churches,’ and ‘What things I suffered at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra,’ and similar things which he writes in virtue of his own authority, and which do not quite possess the character of words flowing from divine inspiration." Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come from our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc16. 2 Timothy is scripture

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) "Wherefore also Marcion and his followers have betaken themselves to mutilating the Scriptures, not acknowledging some books at all; and, curtailing the Gospel according to Luke and the Epistles of Paul, they assert that these are alone authentic, which they have themselves thus shortened." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.12 p.434-435

+ Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) quotes 2 Timothy 4:10-11 as by Paul. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.14.1 p.438

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (202 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 6:20,21 as by Timothy. Then he says, "Convicted by this utterance, the heretics reject the Epistles to Timothy." Stromata book 2 ch.11 p.359

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) asks Marcion why he rejects as scripture the apostle’s two letters to Timothy and one to Titus. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.21 p.473.

Origen (c.240 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 11:2-3 and then 2 Timothy 1:7. "And you yourself can bring together from the Scriptures these winds." Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 8 ch.5 p.81

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc17. Titus is scripture

 

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) asks Marcion why he rejects as scripture the apostle’s two letters to Timothy and one to Titus. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.21 p.473.

Origen (c.240 A.D.) "But Paul, the Apostle from Israel, one blameless according to the justice in the Law, does say" add quotes Titus 3:3. Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 5 ch.1 p.41 (translated by Jerome)

+ Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) discusses how Paul’s epistles are scripture. The only exception is where Paul writes "I say, and not the Lord". Here is what Origen writes: "Consider on this point the language of St. Paul. When he declares that ‘Every Scripture is inspired of God and profitable,’ does he include his own writings? Or does he not include his dictum, ‘I say, and not the Lord,’ and ‘So I ordain in all the churches,’ and ‘What things I suffered at Antioch, at Iconium, at Lystra,’ and similar things which he writes in virtue of his own authority, and which do not quite possess the character of words flowing from divine inspiration." Commentary on John book 1 ch.5 p.299

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied) "Moreover, belief in divine Scripture declares to us,..." Epistles of Cyprian letter 58 ch.3 p.354 + "For it is written" and quotes Titus 1:15. Epistles of Cyprian letter 58 ch.4 p.354

 

Among heretics

Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) (implied) "We do not accept the Law and Prophets, nor do they come form our God. We do, however, accept the Gospel and the Apostle". Adamantius asks which Apostle? Marcus answers "Paul." Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part ch.12 c p.89-90

 

NTc18. Revelation is scripture or the Lord says

 

Revelation 1:1;22:18-19

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) has all of Revelation

Alexandrinus (450 A.D.) has all of Revelation.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) (partial) quotes Revelation 22:12 p.14 (Also Isaiah 40:10; 62:11) 1 Clement ch.34 p.14

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "repent before the great day of judgment come, wherein all those of your tribes who have pierced this Christ shall mourn as I have shown has been declared by the Scriptures." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.118 p.258

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions a literal millennium in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.75-81 p.236-240. In ch.81 he says, "And further, there was a certain man with us, whose name was John, one of the apostles of Christ, who prophesied, by a revelation that was made to him, that those who believed in our Christ would dwell a thousand years in Jerusalem; and that thereafter the general, and, in short, the eternal resurrection and judgment of all men would likewise take place."

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons) (177 A.D.) "for they felt no shame that they had been overcome, for they were not possessed of human reason; but their defeat only the more inflamed their range, and governor and people, like a wild beast, showed a like unjust hatred of us, that the Scripture might be fulfilled, ‘He that is unjust, let him be unjust still; and he that is righteous, let him be righteous still.’" [Revelation 22:11] vol.8 p.783

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) quotes part of Revelation 14:4 p.779 and paraphrases Revelation 22:11 (which is also Daniel 12:10) on p.783. They quote Revelation 1:5 and half of Revelation 3:14 on p.784.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "For it is said, ‘He that sitteth on the throne said, Behold, I make all things new. And the Lord says, Write all this; for these words are faithful and true. And He said to me, They are done.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.35.2 p.566

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Revelation 6:2 as by John in the Apocalypse. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.3 p.493

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) John wrote the Apocalypse. Two letters belonging to John, or bearing the name John. p.603.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) John wrote the Apocalypse [Revelation] Stromata book p.504

Mihnucius Felix (210 A.D.) (partial) "The winds assemble into lightnings, the heavenly wrath rages; and wherever the wicked man fleeth, he is seizedupon by this fire. There will be no succour nor ship of the sea. Amen flames on the nations, and the Medes and PArthians burn for a thousand years, as the hidden words of John declare. For then after a thousand years they are delivered over to Gehenna; and he whose work they were, with them are burnt up." Instructions of Commodianus ch.43 p.211

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) dicusses in detail Revelation 2:18,20-22 as by John in the Apocalypse and the Holy Spirit teaching. Tertullian on Modesty ch.19 p.95

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (partial) quotes Revelation 1:16 as "the Apostle John, in the Apocalypse" in Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.14 p.333

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Matthew 25:34; Revelation 22:15; Isaiah 66:24, and 1 Thessalonians 4:12 and then says, "These things, then I have set shortly before thee, O Theophilus, drawing them from Scripture itself, in order that, maintaining in faith what is written, and anticipating the things that are to be, thou mayest keep thyself void of offence both toward God and toward men," Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.67 p.219.

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 3:14 "There will be no succour nor ship of the sea. Amen flames on the nations, and the Medes and Parthians burn for a thousand years, as the hidden words of John declare. For then after a thousand years there are delivered over to Gehenna; and he whose work they were, with them are burnt up." Instructions of Commodianus ch.43 p.211

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (partial) "From heaven will descend the city in the first resurrection; this is what we may tell of such a celestial fabric. We shall arise again to Him, who have been devoted to Him. And they shall be incorruptible, even already living without death. And neither will there be any grief nor any groaning in that city. …" Instructions of Commodianus ch.44 p.214

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) (implied, … other prophets) "gathered from John in the Apocalypse, thogh the other prophets also do not by any means conceal the tate of matters from those hwo have the faculty of heaving them. John speaks as follows:" and then quotes Revelation 14:1-5. Commentary on John book 1 ch.1 p.297

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions Revelation 5:8 as from John in Revelation Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.17 p.645 Also Origen’s Commentary on John (c.227-240 A.D.) book 1 ch.14 p.305 says that Revelation was written by John son of Zebedee.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.13 p.661 "although the Scripture cries aloud and says, ‘Remember whence thou hast fallen, and repent, or else I will come to thee except thou repent.’" (Revelation 2:5)

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.17 p.663 (partial) quotes Revelation 20:11-13 as John says in the Apocalypse. He also quotes Revelation 3:17 as in the Apocalypse in ch.2 p.657, and Revelation 17:15 as in the Apocalypse in ch.4 p.658

Treatise Against Novatian (254-256 A.D.) ch.4 p.658 ((partial) quotes part of Revelation 17:15 as in the Apocalypse.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "the divine Scripture in the Apocalypse declares that the waters signify the people, saying," and quotes Revelation 17:15. Epistles of Cyprian letter 62 ch.12 p.361-362

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And in the Apocalypse the Lord directs His divine and heavenly precepts to the seven churches and their angels, which number is now found in this case," Treatise of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (partial) mentions the Apocalypse and then quotes Revelation 18:4-9 in Treatises of Cyprian book 3 ch.36 p.544.

Moyses et al. to Cyprian (250-251 A.D.) (partial) quotes half of Revelation 3:21 "To him that overcomes will I give to sit on my throne, even as I also overcame and am set down on the throne of my Father." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 25 p.303

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) quotes half of Revelation 3:7, which is like Isaiah 22:22. "And this same principle is expressed indeed in the Holy Scriptures themselves, when it is said that only He who shutteth openeth, and no other one whatever;"

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) (partial) says that Revelation was written by John, but thinks it was a different John than the author of the Gospel, and 1 and 2 John. He thought this based on the fact that John did not use his name in the other books, Dionysius says there were two different monuments in Ephesus, and both of them are to a John. Two books on the Promises ch.4-5 p.82-83

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) wrote an entire Commentary on the Apocalypse. In the beginning he quotes Revelation 1:1a stating it is "The Revelation of Jesus Christ" p.344

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "After them there is now given to the same completed Churches the comfort of having the prophetic Scriptures subsequently interpreted, for I said that after the apostles there would be interpreting prophets." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the tenth chapter no.3 p.353

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "John, in the course of the Apocalypse, says:" and quotes Revelation 12:1-6 calling it scripture. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.4 p.336

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) refers to Revelation 19:12: "his name is known to none, except to Himself and the Father, as John teaches in the Revelation." The Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.41 p.238.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) alludes to Revelation 13 in The Divine Institutes book 7 ch.17 p.214. Lactantius alludes to Revelation 217 and 22:17 in The Divine Institutes book 7 ch.27 p.223. These are all of his references to Revelation.

 

Among heretics

X Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) in debating Adamantius Eutropius. Eutropius asks "Does your party, Marcus, accept the ‘Acts of the Apostles and those called Disciples’ as genuine, or not?" Marcus answers: We do not accept anything beyond the Gospel and the Apostle" Dialogue on the True Faith second part 828d p.90.

 

NTc19. Using the term "New Testament"

 

I have been told that the Etymology Dictionary says the word "Testament" did not come into the English language until the late 13th or early 14th century. Regardless of what might or might not be true of English, early Christians used the term frequently.

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions "how the New Testament, which God formerly announced" Dialogue with Trypho the Jew ch.51 p.221.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (partial, says Old Testament) mentions the "Old Testament" and lists the books in fragment 4 from the Book of Extracts vol.8 p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.34.1 p.563, and the Old Testament on p.564

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) mentions the "New Testament". Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.91.

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) p.603 (partial, says Old Testament) mentions the Old Testament.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For God is the cause of all good things; but of some primarily, as of the Old and the New Testament; and of others by consequence, as philosophy." Stromata book 1 ch.5 p.305

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in An Answer to the Jews ch.6 p.157.

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) uses the term "New Testament". Tertullian on Modesty ch.6 p.76

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "He is clearly defined to us in all Scriptures-in the Old Testament as the Christ of God, in the New Testament as the Son of God." Against Praxeas ch.24 p.620

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions the New Testament in Tertullian’s Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.1 p.346.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Our denial of his existence will be all the more peremptory, because of the fact that the attribute which is alleged in proof of it belongs to that God who has been already revealed. Therefore the ‘New Testament’ will appertain to none other than Him who promised it - if not ‘its letter’, yet ‘its spirit;’ and herein will lie it newness." Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.452

Asterius Urbanus (c.232 A.D.) was fearful in writing lest anyone think he was trying to "add some new word or precept to the doctrine of the gospel of the New Testament". The Exordium fragment 1 vol.7 p.335

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) mentions the New Testament of our Savior in Commentary on Genesis 49:12-15 p.165.

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) (partial) "The first law of God is the foundation of the subsequent law. Thee, indeed, it assigned to believe in the second law. Nor are threats from Himself, but from it, powerful over thee. Now astounded, swear that thou wilt believe in Christ; for the Old Testament proclaims concerning Him. For it is needful only to believe in Him who was dead, to be able to rise again to live for all time." Instructions of Commodianus ch.25 p.207

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) spoke of the New Testament and said there were only four gospels. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.1 p.299.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) mentions the New Testament. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.6 p.300. He mentions the Old and New Testaments in Commentary on John book 5 ch.4 p.348.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) refers to the "Old Testament" in Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.24 p.620. He mentions the Old and New Testaments in Commentary on John book 5 ch.4 p.348.

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627 and ch.30 p.642-643.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "plain that he is a heretic who believes on another God, or receives another Christ than Him whom the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament manifestly declare."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the Old Testament referring as we would understand it in many places. He says, "That another Prophet such as Moses was promised, to wit, one who should give a New Testament, and who rather ought to be heard." Then he quotes Deuteronomy 18:18,19 as Deuteronomy. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 18 p.512

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "For the doctrine of the foolish Marcion, which cuts and divides the monarchy into three elements, is assuredly of the devil, and is not of Christ’s true disciples… For these [true disciples] indeed rightly know that the Trinity is declared in the divine Scripture, but that the doctrine that there are three gods is neither taught in the Old nor the New Testament." Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians ch.1 p.365

Anatolius of Alexandria (270-280 A.D.) (partial, says Old Testament) "Accordingly, it is not the case, as certain calculators of Gaul allege, that this assertion is opposed by that passage in Exodus, where we read: ‘In the first month, on the fourteenth day of the first month, at even, ye shall eat unleavened bread until the one-and-twentieth day of the month at even. Seven days shall there be no leaven found in your houses.’ From this they maintain that it is quite permissible to celebrate the Passover on the twenty-first day of the moon; understanding that if the twenty-second day were added, there would be found eight days of unleavened bread. A thing which cannot be found with any probability, indeed, in the Old Testament, as the Lord, through Moses, gives this charge: ‘Seven days ye shall eat unleavened bread.’" ch.8 p.148

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) Uses the term "Old Testament" which implies a New. Dialogue on the True Faith Second part 15b p.94 (Adamantius is speaking)

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John ch.15 (2nd time) p.345

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (partial, says Old Testament) mentions the Old Testament in The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.2 p.348. He specifically mentions Leviticus in The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 6 ch.4 p.330

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But all Scripture is divided into two Testaments. That which preceded the advent and passion of Christ-that is, the law and the prophets-is called the Old; but those things which were written after His resurrection are named the New Testament." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.122

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) "After He had risen again on the third day, He gathered together His apostles, whom fear, at the time of His being laid hold on, had put to flight; and while He sojourned with them forty days, He opened their hearts, interpreted to them the Scripture, which hitherto had been wrapped up in obscurity, ordained and fitted them for the preaching of His word and doctrine, and regulated all things concerning the institutions of the New Testament; and this having been accomplished, a cloud and whirlwind enveloped Him, and caught Him up from the sight of men unto heaven." Manner in Which the Persecutors Died ch.2 p.311

Alexander of Alexandria (321 A.D.) "And besides the pious opinion concerning the Father and the Son, we confess to one Holy Spirit, as the divine Scriptures teach us; who hath inaugurated both the holy men of the Old Testament, and the divine teachers of that which is called the New." Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.12 p.296

 

Among heretics

Mani (262-278 A.D.) said we are not to follow the Law and the Prophets, just the New Testament. Disputation with Manes ch.13 p.188

X Marcus the Marcionite (c.300 A.D.) in debating Adamantius Eutropius. Eutropius asks "Does your party, Marcus, accept the ‘Acts of the Apostles and those called Disciples’ as genuine, or not?" Marcus answers: We do not accept anything beyond the Gospel and the Apostle" Dialogue on the True Faith second part 828d p.90.

Marinus (c.300 A.D.) (partial, says Old Testament) a Bardesene, in disputing with Adamantius, appealed to the "Old Testament" and referred to David as a prophet. Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part ch.862a 20 p.173

 

NTc20. The "New Testament" is Scripture

 

Mentioning just a verse or portion of the New Testament is not counted here.

 

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "He is clearly defined to us in all Scriptures-in the Old Testament as the Christ of God, in the New Testament as the Son of God." Against Praxeas ch.24 p.620

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "But the Gospel, which is the new covenant, having delivered us from the oldness of the letter, lights up for us, by the light of knowledge, the newness of the spirit, a thing which never grows old, which has its home in the New Testament, but is also present in all the Scriptures." Commentary on John book 1 ch.8 p.&&&

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "And I should have enough to do were I to endeavour to gather together all the passages whatever on this side; since the divine Scripture, not so much of the Old as also of the New Testament," Concerning the Trinity ch.26 p.637

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "that thereby it appears and is plain that he is a heretic who believes on another God, or receives another Christ than Him whom the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament manifestly declare, which announce without any obscurity the Father omnipotent, Creator of all things, and His Son."

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "For the doctrine of the foolish Marcion, which cuts and divides the monarchy into three elements, is assuredly of the devil, and is not of Christ’s true disciples… For these [true disciples] indeed rightly know that the Trinity is declared in the divine Scripture, but that the doctrine that there are three gods is neither taught in the Old nor the New Testament." Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians ch.1 p.365

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But all Scripture is divided into two Testaments. That which preceded the advent and passion of Christ-that is, the law and the prophets-is called the Old; but those things which were written after His resurrection are named the New Testament. The Jews make use of the Old, we of the New: but yet they are not discordant, for the New is the fulfilling of the Old, and in both there is the same testator, even Christ, who, having suffered death for us, made us heirs of His everlasting kingdom, the people of the Jews being deprived and disinherited." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.20 p.122

Alexander of Alexandria (321 A.D.) "And besides the pious opinion concerning the Father and the Son, we confess to one Holy Spirit, as the divine Scriptures teach us; who hath inaugurated both the holy men of the Old Testament, and the divine teachers of that which is called the New." Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.12 p.296

 

Teachings on the Bible canon not on the list

 

1. Old Testament sacrifices covered over sin (no writers mentioned this)

2. Scripture cannot be broken (only 2 writers: Tertullian, Novatian)

3. God’s word is a lamp to our feat / light to our path (only 1 writer: Origen)

4. God’s Word is sweeter than honey (only 3 writers: Justin Martyr, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian)

5. Heavenly scriptures (only 2 writers: Novatian, Treatise Against Novatian)

6. Canon of scripture (only 1 writer: Clement of Alexandria)

7. Do not add to God’s word (only 2 writers: The Didache, Tertullian)

8. Referencing 2 Timothy 3:16 (only 2 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian)

9. The Law is our teacher (only 2 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Commodianus)

10. The Law is spiritual (only 3 writers: Origen, Novatian, Methodius)

11. The holy covenant (only 3 writers: Jutin Martyr, the Diatessaron, Irenaeus)

12. Scripture comforts us (only 1 writer: Clement of Alexandria)

13. Word of God is a two-edged word Hebrews 4:12 (only 3 writers: Tertullian, Origen, Victorinus of Petau, p13)

14. Scapgoats represent two natures of Christ (only 1 writer: Tertullian)

15. The Bible has no contradictions (many writers including Dionysius of Alexandria and Lactantius. However, Origen against)

16. Ezra/Esdras recovered the Old Testament (only 3 writers: Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian. Hippolytus is partial.)

17. Don’t add falsehood to scripture (only 1 writer:Asterius Urbanus (implied))

18. Joshua is scripture (only 3 writers: Meleto of Sardis, Irenaeus, Origen. Partial Justin Martyr)

19. Judges is scripture (only 3 writers: Meleto of Sardis, Irenaeus, Origen)

20. Ruth is scripture (only 1 writer: Meleto of Sardis)

21. Chronicles is scripture (only 2 writers: Meleto, Origen. Muratorian canon is partial.)

22. Ezra is scripture (only 2 writers: Meleto, Origen. Muratorian canon is partial.)

23. Nehemiah is scripture (only 2 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Julius Africanus)

24. Esther is scripture (no writers. Many of them allude to Esther and Mordecai though.)

25. Ecclesiastes is scripture or God says (only 2 writers: Melito, Origen)

26. Lamentations is scripture (only 1 writer: Origen)

27. Obadiah is scripture (no writers)

28. Jonah is scripture (only 2 writers: Meleto, Origen. Muratorian canon is partial.)

29. Zephaniah is scripture or God says (2 writers: Melito of Sardis (implied), Clement of Alexandria)

30. Haggai is scripture or God says (only 3 writers: Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Cyprian)

31. 2 Thessalonians is scripture (only 3 writers: Irenaeus, Muratorian Canon, Origen)

32. Hebrews is scripture (only 3 writers: Irenaeus, Origen, Treatise Against Novatian. Others quote James)

33. James is scripture (no writers, though some reference the book of James)

34. 1 Peter is scripture (only 2 writers: Tertullian and Adamantius. Others quote 1 Peter.)

35. 2 Peter is scripture (no writers. Cyprian and others quote it though.)

36. 1 John is scripture (only 3 writers: Muratorian Canon, Origen, Dionysius of Alexandria. Others quote it though.)

37. 2 John is scripture (no writers)

38. 3 John is scripture (no writers)

39. Jude is scripture (only 2 writers: Muratorian Canon and Origen)

 

Divergences

1. Divergence: Apocryphal Book of Sirach (Ecclesaisticus) is Scripture (2 writers for: 1 against. For: Clement of Alexandria, Origen. 1 against: Melito)

2. Divergence: Apocryphal Book of Judith is scripture (1 writer for, 1 against. For: Origen. Against: Melito)

3. Divergence: The Book of Enoch is scripture (1 writer for, 1 against. 1 writer mixed. For: Tertullian. Against: Melito. Mixed Origen quotes from it "if any one cares to accept that book as sacred")

4. Divergence: Nehemiah is scripture (&&& 1 against: Melito)

5. Divergence: Esther are scripture (&&& 1 against: Melito)

6. Divergence: Gospel of the Egyptians is scripture (2 writers for, 6 against. For: 2 Clement, Clement of Alexandria. Against: (only 4 gospels), Tatian’s Diatessaron, Muratorian Canon, Irenaeus, Adamantius, Victorinus of Petau, Methodius)

7. Divergence: Gospel of the Hebrews is scripture (1 writers for, 6 against. For: Clement of Alexandria. Against: (only 4 gospels), Tatian’s Diatessaron, Muratorian Canon, Irenaeus, Adamantius, Victorinus of Petau, Methodius)

8. Divergence: Only four true gospels (9 writers for, 2 against. for: Tatian’s Diatessaron, Theophilus of Antioch, Muratorian Canon, Irenaeus, Origen, Adamantius, Victorinus of Petau, Methodius, Athanasius. Against: 2 Clement, Clement of Alexandria)

9. Divergence: John the Apostle wrote Revelation (Justin Martyr, Muratorian Canon, Tertullian, Origen, and others for, Dionysius of Alexandria had doubts)

 

X No authority except the Bible (no writers)

X Mustn’t read from the list of forbidden books (no writers)

X Laity must not possess scripture (no writers)

X Laity must not interpret scripture (no writers)

 

 

OLD TESTAMENT AUTHORS

 

OTa1. OT has writing in Hebrew

 

Justin Martyr (150 A.D.) "There were, then, among the Jews certain men who were prophets of God, through whom the prophetic Spirit published beforehand things that were to come to pass, ere ever they happened. And their prophecies, as they were spoken and when they were uttered, the kings who happened to be reigning among the Jews at the several times carefully preserved in their possession, when they had been arranged in books by the prophets themselves in their own Hebrew language." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.31 p.173

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (implied) "And the Hebrew word Eden signifies ‘delight.’ And it was signified that a river flowed out of Eden to water Paradise, and after that divides into four heads; of which the two called Pison and Gihon water the eastern parts, especially Gihon, which encompasses the whole land of Ethiopia, and which, they say, reappears in Egypt under the name of Nile. And the other two rivers are manifestly recognisable by us-those called Tigris and Euphrates-for these border on our own regions." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.24 p.108

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) speaks of a verse in Hebrew. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.43.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "saying, as Luke relates, ‘All these will I give thee,-for they are delivered to me; and to whom I will, I give them,-if thou wilt fall down and worship me.’ The Lord then, exposing him in his true character, says, ‘Depart, Satan; for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and Him only shalt thou serve.’ He both revealed him by this name, and showed [at the same time] who He Himself was. For the Hebrew word Satan signifies an apostate." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.21.2 p.549

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "Ptolemy the son of Lagus, being anxious to adorn the library which he had founded in Alexandria, with a collection of the writings of all men, which were [works] of merit, made request to the people of Jerusalem, that they should have their Scriptures translated into the Greek language." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.2 p.451

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "It is said that the Scriptures both of the law and of the prophets were translated from the dialect of the Hebrews into the Greek language in the reign of Ptolemy the son of Lagos, or, according to others, of Ptolemy surnamed Philadelphus; Demetrius Phalereus bringing to this task the greatest earnestness, and employing painstaking accuracy on the materials for the translation." Stromata book 1 ch.22 p.334

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (implied) "But I think it better to regard the ark, so called from the Hebrew word Thebotha as signifying something else." Stromata book 5 ch.6 p.453

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Now in ancient times the people we call Jews bare the name of Hebrews, and so both their writings and their speech were Hebrew." Apology ch.18 p.32

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "-whose names, being Hebrew, are an evidence to the Hebrews, who have their sacred books written in the Hebrew language and letters, that their nation is akin to these men." Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.34 p.512

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "For Hebrew was the language of their fathers before their descent into Egypt; and the Hebrew letters, employed by Moses in writing those five books which are deemed sacred by the Jews, were different from those of the Egyptians." Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.6 p.467

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "Now it is absolutely certain that, being descended, as the Mosaic history records, from Hebrew ancestors, they employed a language from which they also took the names which they conferred upon their children." Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.8 p.467

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial) "on this account we call Him Christ, that is, the Anointed, who in Hebrew is called the Messias. Hence in some Greek writings, which are badly translated from the Hebrew, the word eleimmenos is found written, from the word aleiphesthai anointing." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.7 p.106

 

OTa2. Moses wrote the Law [Pentateuch]

 

John 1:17

John 7:23; 1 Corinthians 9:9. Law of Moses

Acts 13:39; 28:23

 

p17 Hebrews 9:12-19 (late 3rd century) Hebrews 9:19 "When Moses had proclaimed every commandment of the law to all the people,…"

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Quotes John 7:23

 

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) mentions the Law of Moses. Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans ch.5 p.88

Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) p.275 "Moses their Lawgiver"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions the Law of Moses in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.45 p.217

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) refers to Noah and the animals as "by Moses in the book of Genesis" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.20 p.204

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 2 ch.30 p.46 mentions the Law of Moses.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 3 ch.56 p.48 saysthe Law was given by Moses.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "And Moses, who lived many years before Solomon, or, rather, the Word of God by him as by an instrument, says, ‘In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.10 p.98

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Numbers 16:15 as by Moses. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.26.4 p.497

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 5:8 as "Moses said" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.5 p.420

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) mentions that to people that transgressed the law that Moses threatened that God would bring down to them a day of fire. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.8 p.490

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) (partial) mentions "the legislation of Moses". Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.89.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "And the Instructor, as I think, very beautifully says, through Moses: ‘If any one die suddenly by him, straightway the head of his consecration shall be polluted, and shall be shaved,’" [Numbers 6:9] The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.210

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) mentions "the Law of Moses" An Answer to the Jews ch.2 p.152

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 9:3 as by Moses in Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.27 p.88. He also discusses Deuteronomy 5:22 as "And Moses has not been silent on this point, when he says, that there are three words of God, ‘darkness, gloom, tempest, and added no more." Refutation of All Heresies book 8 ch.1 p.118

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions the Law of Moses. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 19 ch.15.9 p.220. See also homily 5 ch.14 p.56

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "listen to the writings of Moses and the prophets," Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.55 p.522

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (implied) Moses, moreover, introduces God commanding that there should be light at the first, that the heaven should be established, that the waters should be gathered into one place, that the dry land should appear, that the fruit should be brought forth according to its seed, that the animals should be produced, that lights should be established in heaven, and stars." Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.4 p.658 "as said Moses" and quotes Genesis 6:5-7.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "and even to this day, if at any time Moses is read, the veil is upon their heart. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12.1 ch.4 p.509

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "The law was given through Moses" Dialogue on the True Faith fifth paart ch.11 p.160

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) mentions the "Law of Moses" Dialogue on the True Faith First Part ch.22 p.65

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) Moses declared the knowledge of the law to the whole world." Commentary on the Apocalypse ch.16 p.345

Methodius of Olympus and Patara (270-311/312 A.D.) mentions the Law of Moses. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 p.350

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "as the illustrious Moses also at the beginning of his account of Creation" and quotes Genesis 1:20. Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.46 p.29

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "years, under the leadership of Moses, through whom the law was afterwards given to them by God;" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.10 p.108

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.38 p.236 says Moses wrote the Law.

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.2 p.215 says Moses wrote the law.

Bardesan/Bardesaines of Syria (154-224/232 A.D.) says , "All the Jews, who received the law through Moses, circumcise their male children on the eighth day," He goes on to show this as another example that we should not wait on stars or astrology, but obey God. The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.733

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) refers to the "Law of Moses" in his debate with Adamantius believes it was from the just god, not the good god. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.22b p.65

 

OTa3. Moses wrote Genesis

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) refers to Noah and the animals as "by Moses in the book of Genesis" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.20 p.204

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:-The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, ..." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "And Moses, who lived many years before Solomon, or, rather, the Word of God by him as by an instrument, says, ‘In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.10 p.98

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes Genesis 49:10 as by Moses. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.57.

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "moreover, of Sodom and Gomorrah on account of their sins, related by Moses in Genesis ," Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.21 p.505

Novatian 254-256 A.D. (implied) "But of this I remind you, that Christ was not to be expected in the Gospel in any other wise than as He was promised before by the Creator, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament; especially as the things that were predicted of Him were fulfilled, and those things that were fulfilled had been predicted." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.10 p.619. See also, He was promised before by the Creator, in the Scriptures of the Old Testament" Treatise on the Trinity ch.10 p.619

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.4 p.658 refers to Genesis 6:5-7 "as said Moses".

Athanasius (318 A.D.) "as the illustrious Moses also at the beginning of his account of Creation" and quotes Genesis 1:20. Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.46.4 p.29

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.49 p.247 says Moses wrote the first book of the Law.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 7 ch.7 p.154 says that Moses wrote Genesis 1:1-2.

The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185 A.D.) ch.22 p.117-118 says Moses wrote Genesis 2:21.

 

OTa4. Moses wrote Exodus

 

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "From the writings of Moses also this will be manifest; for thus it is written in them, ‘And the Angel of God spake to Moses, in a flame of fire out of the bush, and said, I am that I am, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, the God of thy fathers; go down into Egypt, and bring forth My people.’" [Exodus 3:6] First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.63 p.184

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "for Moses says somewhere in Exodus" and quotes Exodus 6:2 ff in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.126 p.263

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:-The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, ..." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Wherefore also He says to Moses in Exodus: ‘I will send forth My angel before thee; for I will not go up with thee, because thou art a stiff-necked people.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.15.1 p.480

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "But Moses also bears witness to the unity of the sacred book, when he says:" and quotes Exodus 32:32. Commentary on John book 5 no.4 p.348.

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "And, further, who else could the destroying angel mentioned in the Exodus of Moses be, than he who was the author of destruction to them that obeyed him," Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.43 p.592.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Moses in Exodus prays for the people, and does not obtain his prayer, saying: "I pray, O Lord, this people hath sinned a great sin." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.4 p.499

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in Exodus God says to Moses" and quotes Exodus 12:13. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 2 ch.22 p.525

 

Among heretics

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) "The God who had spoken beforehand in Genesis which instructed Moses to escape from Egypt, says [Exodus 12:11; 3:22; 11:2; 12:35)]: ‘Make ready to eat! with your loins girded and feet shod, and rod in hand’, [Exodus 3:22] and bags on their back and much gold (and) much silver of all the Egyptians that they can bear to carry." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.10 p.51

 

OTa5. Moses wrote Leviticus

 

In Luke 5:14 Jesus refers to Leviticus 14:2-12 as "Moses commanded".

In Roman 10:5 Paul quotes Leviticus 18:5 as by Moses.

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Romans 10:5

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And God himself proclaimed by Moses, speaking thus: ‘And circumcise the hardness of your hearts, and no longer stiffen the neck. For the Lord your God is both Lord of lords, and a great, mighty, and terrible God, who regardeth not persons, and taketh not rewards.’ And in Leviticus: ‘Because they have transgressed against Me, and despised Me, and because they have walked contrary to Me, I also walked contrary to them, and I shall cut them off in the land of their enemies. Then shall their uncircumcised heart be turned.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.16 p.202

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:-The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, ..." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Leviticus 15:29; 12:8 as God says by Moses. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.212

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "In short, when the sacerdotal law was being drawn up, through Moses, in Leviticus, we find it prescribed to the people of Israel that sacrifices should in no other place be offered to God than in the land of promise; which the Lord God was about to give to ‘the people’ Israel and to their brethren, in order that, on Israel’s introduction thither, there should there be celebrated sacrifices and holocausts, as well for sins as for souls; and nowhere else but in the holy land." An Answer to the Jews ch.5 p.156

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) quotes Leviticus 19:31 as from the Mosaic Law. Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.26 p.407.

Origen (235/235 A.D.) says that Moses wrote Leviticus 21:17-21. Exhortation to Martyrdom book 5 ch.30 p.171

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For what was the purpose of the theologian Moses, in introducing, under a mystical sense, the Feast of Tabernacles in the Book of Leviticus? Was it that we may keep a feast to God, as the Jews with their low view of the Scriptures interpret it? as if God took pleasure in such tabernacles, decked out with fruits and boughs and leaves, which immediately wither and lose their verdure. We cannot say so." Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.14 p.368

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For what was the purpose of the theologian Moses, in introducing, under a mystical sense, the Feast of Tabernacles in the Book of Leviticus?" Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.13 p.368

 

OTa6. Moses wrote Numbers

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.12 p.145 refers to Numbers 21:8-9 "And Moses spoke unto them, saying, ‘when any one of you is bitten, let him come to the serpent placed on the pole; and let him hope and believe that even though dead, it is able to give him life, and immediately he shall be restored.’ And they did so. Though hast in this also [an indication of] the glory of Jesus;"

Justin Martyr (151-155 A.D.) also tells of the brass serpent in Numbers 21:6-9. He begins with "for in the writings of Moses it is related how at that time, when the Israelites went out of Egypt and were in the wilderness, they fell in with poisonous beasts, both vipers and asps…" First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.50 p.183.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:-The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, ..." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Numbers 16:15 as by Moses Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.26.4 p.497

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Numbers 6:9 as by the "Instructor" saying though Moses. The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.210.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "let him read the book of Moses entitled Numbers" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.23 p.583-584.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.2 p.658 quotes Numbers 5:2 as by Moses.

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.248-256 A.D.) ch.15 p.676 quotes Numbers 11:17 as said by God to Moses in the Old Testament.

Athanasius (318 A.D.) quotes from Numbers 24:5-17 as by Moses. Incarnation of the Word ch.33.4 p.54

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But Moses also, in Numbers, thus speaks: ‘There shall arise a star out of Jacob, and a man shall spring forth from Israel.’" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.13 p.112

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Moses in Numbers". Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.44 p.239

 

OTa7. Moses wrote Deuteronomy

 

In Matthew 19:7 Jesus refers to Deuteronomy 24:1-4 as "Moses Command"

Acts 3:22

Acts 7:37 quotes Deuteronomy 18:15 as by Moses

 

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) quotes Romans 9:19 which quotes Deuteronomy 32:21 as by Moses.

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 32:15 as "by Moses" in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.20 p.204. He also quotes from Deuteronomy 10:16 as by Moses in the same work ch.126 p.262

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "I have set them down below, and herewith send you the list. Their names are as follows:-The five books of Moses-Genesis , Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy; Joshua, ..." From the Book of Extracts p.759

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 5:8 as "Moses said" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.5 p.420. See also ibid book 4 ch.15.1 p.479 where he quotes Deuteronomy 5:22 as "Moses says".

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes from Deuteronomy as by Moses. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.28. See also ch.95.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) quotes from Deuteronomy in many places, including Deuteronomy 6:4 as by Moses in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.8 p.195 and the same verse in Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.471.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says that Moses wrote Deuteronomy 25:13,15. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.6 p.191

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 9:3 as by Moses in Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.27 p.88. He also discusses Deuteronomy 5:22 as "And Moses has not been silent on this point, when he says, that there are three words of God, ‘darkness, gloom, tempest, and added no more." Refutation of All Heresies book 8 ch.1 p.118

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Now the Lord Jehovah, according to Moses, is Faithful and True." [Deuteronomy 32:4] Commentary on John book 2 no.4 p.326

Dionysius of Rome (259-269 A.D.) mentions "Moses in the great song of Deuteronomy" Against the Sabellians (ANF vol.7) ch.2 p.365.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) quotes Deuteronomy 25:4 as from the Law of Moses. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.22b p.65

Methodius of Olympus and Patara (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes from Deuteronomy 32:32,33 as by Moses. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 5 ch.5 p.327

Athanasius (318 A.D.) quotes part of Deuteronomy 30:14 as by Moses. Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.30.1 p.29

Lactantius (315-325/330 A.D.) "Moses also says in Deuteronomy" and quotes Deuteronomy 28:66 in Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.46 p.241

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.53 p.248 says Moses wrote Deuteronomy 34:15-19.

 

OTa8. David a writer of Psalms

 

Psalm 72:20

In Mathew 22:23-24 Jesus quotes Psalm 110:1 as by David

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "For, says the elect David, ‘I will confess unto the Lord ; and that will please Him more than a young bullock that hath horns and hoofs. Let the poor see it, and be glad.’" 1 Clement ch.52 vol.1 p.19

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.10 p.143 "David, however, comprehends the knowledge of the three doctrines, and speaks in like manner: ‘Blessed is the man who hath not walked in the counsel of the ungodly,’"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "And again by David, in the forty-ninth Psalm, He thus said:" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.22 p.205

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon" From the Book of Extracts vol.8 p.759

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "David says:" and quotes Psalms 2:1-2. On Pascha stanza 62 p.53

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "The same, too, says David: ‘They are corrupt, they have done abominable works; there is none that doeth good, no, not one; they have all gone aside, they have together become profitless.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.35 p.108

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "David said beforehand, ‘Blessed are they whose iniquities are forgiven, and whose sins are covered. Blessed is the man to whom the Lord has not imputed sin; ‘" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.17.2 p.545

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes Psalm 1:1a as the Holy Spirit saying by David. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.2.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "thus summarily expressed by the prophet David: "Who shall ascend to the hill of the Lord, or who shall stand in His holy place? He who is guiltless in his hands, and pure in his heart; who hath not lifted up his soul to vanity, or sworn deceitfully to his neighbour. He shall receive blessing from the Lord, and mercy from God his Saviour. This is the generation of them that seek the Lord, that seek the face of the God of Jacob." Stromata book 7 ch.10 p.539

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But we find that that first word of David bears on this very sort of thing: ‘Blessed,’ he says, ‘is the man who has not gone into the assembly of the impious, nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of scorners.’" The Shows ch.3 p.80-81

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "and of David’s Psalm, that He would ‘ sit at the right hand of God.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.41 p.419

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "the Psalmist David says: ‘In the sun he hath placed his tabernacle, and himself (is) as a bridegroom coming forth from his nuptial chamber, (and) he will rejoice as a giant to run his course.’" Against All Heresies book 8 ch.10 p.123

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "…David says, ‘Great peace have they that love Thy law, and there is no stumbling-block to them.’" Origen’s Commentary on Matthew 12 ch.23 p.463

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says Psalm 16 is called "a Psalm of David". Prayer ch.2.5 p.21

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "Similarly David: ‘Wherefore God, even Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above thy fellows.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.641

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.10 p.660 Implied) "Let us hear what the Holy Spirit testifies by David: ‘If his children forsake my law, and walk not in my commandments; if they should profane my righteousness, and should not keep my precepts; I will visit their crimes with a rod, and their sins with stripes. But my mercy will I not utterly disperse from them.’"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in the cxxxist Psalm: ‘God hath sworn the truth unto David himself,’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12.2 ch.11 p.520

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) (implied) "And David says: ‘Into Thy hands I commit my spirit.’" Metaphrase of Ecclesiastes ch.10 p.16

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes Psalm 105:4-5 as by David. Dialogue on the True Faith First part ch.24 p.68

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "And thus in the sixth Psalm for the eighth day, David asks the Lord that He would not rebuke him in His anger, nor judge him in His fury;" On the Creation of the World p.342. For Psalm 62:11 see Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter no.16 p.345

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "as King David, openly confessing with tears in the mountains, cried out, ‘My wounds stink and are corrupt,’" The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 1 ch.1 p.311

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "David also in the seventeenth Psalm says:" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Now, that He would not remain in bell, but rise again on the third day, had been foretold by the prophets. David says, in the fifteenth Psalm: ‘Thou wilt not leave my soul in hell; neither wilt Thou suffer Thine holy one to see corruption." Also in the third Psalm: ‘I laid me down to sleep, and took my rest, and rose again, for the Lord sustained me.’ Hosea also, the first of the twelve prophets, testified of His resurrection: ‘This my Son is wise, therefore He will not remain in the anguish of His sons: and I will redeem Him from the power of the grave. Where is thy judgment, O death? or where is thy sting?’ The same also in another place: ‘After two days, He will revive us in the third day.’" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.19 p.122

 

Among heretics

Marcionite heretic Megethius quotes Psalm 2:1-2 as by David. Dialogue on the True Faith First Part 815a ch.24 p.67

 

OTa9. Solomon a writer of Proverbs

 

Proverbs 1:1

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "He speaks by Solomon the following:" and then quotes Proverbs 8:21. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.61 p.227-228

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "Psalms of David, the Proverbs of Solomon" From the Book of Extracts p.759

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "Wherefore He speaks thus by the prophet Solomon: ‘When He prepared the heavens I was there, and when He appointed the foundations of the earth I was by Him as one brought up with Him.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.10 p.98

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "as Solomon says: ‘He that hath pity upon the poor, lendeth unto the Lord.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.18.6 p.486

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And Solomon again says: ‘She is a tree of immortality to those who take hold of her.’" Stromata book 5 ch.11 p.461

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "So He commands by Solomon: ‘Strike thou thy son with the rod, that thou mayest deliver his soul from death.’ And again: ‘Abstain not from chastising thy son, but correct him with the rod; for he will not die.’" (Proverbs 3:11-12) The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.229

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) "For even in the Proverbs, which we call Paroemiae, Solomon specially (treats) of the adulterer" Tertullian on Modesty ch.18 p.94

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) the proverbs of "Solomon" fragment 1 On Proverbs p.172

Origen (240-254 A.D.) "I might quote the words of Solomon from the book of Proverbs, which run thus: ‘There be four things which are little upon the earth, but these are wiser than the wise: The ants are a people not strong, yet they prepare their meat in the summer; the conies are but a feeble folk, yet make they their houses in the rocks; the locusts have no king, yet go they forth in order at one command; and the spotted lizard, though leaning upon its hands, and being easily captured, dwelleth in kings’ fortresses.’" Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.87 p.536. See also Origen On Modesty ch.18 p.94.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) In Solomon in the Proverbs: ‘Wisdom hath built herself a house,…’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12.2 ch.2 p.516

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And the Holy Spirit speaks by Solomon, saying, ‘A perverse man carrieth perdition in his mouth; and in his lips he hideth a fire.’ Also again, he warneth us, and says, ‘Hedge in thy ears with thorns, and hearken not to a wicked tongue.’" [Proverbs 16:27; 17:4] Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.21 p.346

Nemesianus of Thubunae at the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D. p.566) (paraphrase) "as the Lord says by Solomon: ‘He who trusteth in that which is false, he feeds the winds;’" (Proverbs 9:12 (Septuagint))

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "as it is said in Solomon, ‘I will walk in the midst of the paths of the just,’" Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter ch.13 p.344

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (partial, does not say Proverbs) "For if you will look at the books of Moses, or David, or Solomon, or Isaiah, or of the prophets who follow," The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 7 ch.4 p.333

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "by that most wise King Solomon, full of divine inspiration, spake these things" and quotes Proverbs 8:22-31 in the Septuagint. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.6 p.105

 

OTa10. Solomon, writer of Ecclesiastes

 

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "For Solomon says in Ecclesiastes, ‘My son, beware of making many books; there is no end of it, and much study is a weariness of the flesh.’" Commentary on John book 5 ch.1 p.346

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) wrote an entire work: Metaphrase of Ecclesiastes. He attributes Ecclesiastes to Solomon in the first chapter.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "For in this Solomon had also an experience surpassing prudence, and above the measure of all the ancients. Consequently he shows the vanity of it, as what follows in like manner demonstrates: ‘And my heart uttered many things: I knew wisdom, and knowledge, and parables, and sciences.’" Commentary on the Beginning of Ecclesiastes ch.1 verse 18 p.111

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "And Solomon says, that it is not possible that it should come to pass that a man should comprehend with his understanding ‘the way of a serpent upon a rock,’ which is Christ, according to the opinion of Paul." Epistles on the Arian Heresy letter 1 ch.7 p.294

 

OTa11. Isaiah/Esias wrote or said Isaiah

 

Isaiah 1:1; Matthew 3:3; John 1:23

 

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) quotes John 1:23

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) quotes Romans 9:27 which quotes Isaiah 10:22 as by Isaiah.

 

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) And how those who have sinned and repent shall escape their sins, is declared by Esaias the prophet, as I wrote above; he thus speaks:" and then he quotes Isaiah 1:16-20. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.61 p.183

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 6.37-39 p.53 quotes from Isaiah as Isaiah.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "But what Isaiah said," and quotes Isaiah 7:11 Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.5 p.453

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes from Isaiah as by Isaiah. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.3.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "‘Ye that thirst, go to the waters,’ says Esaias [Isaiah], And ‘drink water from thine own vessels,’" and he quotes Saiah 55:1. Stromata book 1 ch.1 p.301

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says that Iaiah wrote a verse of Isaiah. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.8 p.194

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Of darkness, indeed, the Lord Himself by Isaiah says, ‘I formed the light, and I created darkness.’ Of the wind also Amos says, ‘He that strengtheneth the thunder, and createth the wind, and declareth His Christ unto men;’" Against Hermogenes ch.32 p.495. See also Isaiah 53:1 in Against Praxeas (c.213 A.D.) ch.13 p.607.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "as says Isaiah" and quotes Isaiah 40:8. Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.33 p.404

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For Isaiah says, ‘There shall come forth a rod out of the root of Jesse, and a flower shall grow up out of it.’ That which is called by Isaiah a flower, Jacob calls a shoot. For first he shot forth, and then he flourished in the world. And the expression, ‘he stooped down, he couched as a lion, and as a lion’s whelp,’ refers to the three days’ sleep (death, couching) of Christ;" Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.8 p.206

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) [To the Jews] "Isaiah said that ye were of hardened heart. Ye look upon the law which Moses in wrath dashed to pieces; and the same Lord gave to him a second law. In that he placed his hope; but ye, half healed, reject it, and therefore ye shall not be worthy of the kingdom of heaven." Instructions of Commodianus ch.38 p.210

Origen (c.240 A.D.) says that Isaiah wrote Isaiah 53:7. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 10 ch.1 p.95

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "For in the same way as Isaiah says, ‘Behold, a virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and ye shall call His name Emmanuel, which is, interpreted, God with us;’" Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.612

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "There came one of the seven angels, which have the seven bowls, and spake with me, saying, Come, I will show thee the judgment of that great whore who sitteth upon many waters. And I saw the woman drunk with the blood of the saints, and with the blood of the martyrs.’ The decrees of that senate are always accomplished against all, contrary to the preaching of the true faith; and now already mercy being cast aside, itself here gave the decree among all nations.(paragraph) 3. ‘And I saw the woman herself sitting upon the scarlet-coloured beast, full of names of blasphemy.’ But to sit upon the scarlet beast, the author of murders, is the image of the devil. Where also is treated of his captivity, concerning which we have fully considered. I remember, indeed, that this is called Babylon also in the Apocalypse, on account of confusion; and in Isaiah also; and Ezekiel called it Sodom. In fine, if you compare what is said against Sodom, and what Isaiah says against Babylon, and what the Apocalypse says, you will find that they are all one." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the 17th chapter no.1-6 p.357. For Isaiah 11:4 see Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter no.16 p.346

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "will happen unto them what is spoken by Esias the prophet:" and then quotes Isaiah 66:24 and 57:20-21. The Canonical Epistle canon 4 p.270

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Isaiah says, too, ‘For as the new heaven and the new earth which I make, remaineth before me, saith the Lord, so shall your seed and your name be;’ and again, ‘Thus saith the Lord that created the heaven, it is He who prepared the earth and created it, He determined it; He created it not in vain, but formed it to be inhabited.’" Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.8 p.366

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 16:7-8 as by Isaiah. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.7 p.337

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) quote from Isaiah as by Isaiah. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.44 p.239

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) says Isaiah wrote Isaiah 6:1-9. Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.2 p.384

 

OTa12. Jeremiah wrote or said Jeremiah

 

Jeremiah 1:1-2

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "In like manner also Jeremiah says: ‘Stand in the ways, and see, and ask which is the good way of the Lord your God, and walk in it and ye shall find rest for your souls. Judge just judgment, for in this is the will of the Lord your God.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.115

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And Jeremiah says: ‘Behold, I will make a new covenant, not as I made with your fathers’ [Jeremiah 31:31a] in Mount Horeb. But one and the same householder produced both covenants, the Word of God, our Lord Jesus Christ, who spake with both Abraham and Moses, and who has restored us anew to liberty, and has multiplied that grace which is from Himself." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.9.1 p.472

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes from Jeremiah as by Jeremiah. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.43.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "let him hear the Spirit interpreting the matter in question by Jeremiah," and then Clement quotes Jeremiah 13:24-27. Stromata book 4 ch.26 p.439. See also ibid book 4 ch.25 p.438.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says that Jeremiah wrote a verse of Jeremiah. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.8 p.194

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But, moreover, when Jeremiah says, ‘And I will gather them together from the extremities of the land in the feast-day,’ he signifies the day of the Passover and of Pentecost, which is properly a ‘feast-day.’" [Jeremiah 31:8; 38:8 Septuagint) On Baptism ch.19 p.678

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Jeremiah said, "Cursed is the man that trusteth in man." [Jeremiah 17:5] Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.33 p.403

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "Now Jeremiah says, ‘Who hath stood in the counsel of the Lord, and hath perceived His Word?’" Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.13 p.228

Origen (239-242 A.D.) quotes Jeremiah 1:9-10 as by Jeremiah. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 1 ch.12.2 p.41

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Now Jeremiah says, ‘It is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth;’ and ‘that his soul should not depart from the Lord.’" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 5 ch.3 p.326

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "For the prophet Jeremiah says: ‘I sent to you my servants the prophets; I sent them before the morning light; but ye did not hearken, nor incline your ears to hear, when I spake unto you: let every one of you turn from his evil way, and from your most corrupt affections; and ye shall dwell in the land which I gave to you and to your fathers for ever. Walk ye not after strange gods, to serve them; and provoke me not to anger with the works of your hands, that I should destroy you.’ [Jeremiah 25:406] The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Now that the Jews were disinherited, because they rejected Christ, and that we, who are of the Gentiles, were adopted into their place, is proved by the Scriptures. Jeremiah thus speaks: ‘I have forsaken mine house, I have given mine heritage into the hands of her enemies. Mine heritage is become unto me as a lion in the forest; it hath given forth its voice against me: therefore have I hated it.’ Also Malachi: ‘I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord, neither will I accept an offering at your hand. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down thereof, my name shall be great among the Gentiles.’ Isaiah also thus speaks: "I come to gather all nations and tongues: and they shall come and see my glory.’ The same says in another place, speaking in the person of the Father to the Son: ‘I the Lord have called Thee in righteousness, and will hold Thine hand, and will keep Thee, and give Thee for a covenant of my people, for a light of the Gentiles; to open the eyes of the blind, to bring out the prisoners from the prison, and them that sit in darkness out of the prison-house.’" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.48 p.242. See also ibid ch.44 p.239.

 

OTa13. Ezekiel is by Ezekiel

 

Ezekiel 1:3

 

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.6 p.518 (See also vol.9 p.252) "For thus also saith the Scripture in Ezekiel, ‘If Noah, Job, and Daniel should rise up, they should not deliver their children in captivity.’"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 20:19-26 as by Ezekiel in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.21 p.204-205

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "And another prophet, Ezekiel, says: ‘If the wicked will turn from all his sins that he hath committed, and keep all My statutes, and do that which is right in My sight, he shall surely live, he shall not die.’" Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.11 p.114

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 20:24 as by Ezekiel. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.15.1 p.479

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes from Ezekiel 11:19 as by Ezekiel.. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.93.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Then Zedekiah reigned for eleven years; and up to his time Jeremiah continued to prophesy. Along with him Ezekiel the son of Buzi, and Urias the son of Samaeus, and Ambacum prophesied." Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "You will find in Ezekiel the like, as follows: and he quotes Ezekiel 18:4-9. Stromata book 2 ch.21 p.376.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Ezekiel 2:16-17 as by Ezekiel. The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.220

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Ezekiel announces your ruin as about to come: and not only in this age -a ruin which has already befallen-but in the ‘day of retribution,’ which will be subsequent. From which ruin none will be freed but he who shall have been frontally sealed with the passion of the Christ whom you have rejected." An Answer to the Jews ch.11 p.167

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "Ezekiel also speaks of him to the same effect, thus: ‘Thus saith the Lord God, Because thine heart is lifted up,’" Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.18 p.208

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "‘And, to compare history with history, I would say to the Jew, ‘Even your own Ezekiel writes, saying, ‘The heavens were opened, and I saw a vision of God.’" Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.43 p.414

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) says Ezekiel wrote Ezekiel 34:23 Commentary on John book 1 ch.23 p.310

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.10 p.660 "Words like to these we read that the Lord said also by Ezekiel: ‘Son of man, the house of Israel has dwelt on its own land, and they have defiled it by their crimes: their uncleanness has become like that of a menstruous woman before my face.’"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "when Holy Scripture speaks by the mouth of the prophet Ezekiel, and says, ‘Then will I sprinkle clean water upon you, and ye shall be clean: from all your filthiness and from all your idols will I cleanse you.’" Epistles of Cyprian Letter 75 ch.12 p.401

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "I remember, indeed, that this is called Babylon also in the Apocalypse, on account of confusion; and in Isaiah also; and Ezekiel called it Sodom." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the 17th chapter no.3 p.357. See also from the 11th chapter verse 7 p.354.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "And, when Origen allegorises that which is said by the prophet Ezekiel concerning the resurrection of the dead, and perverts it to the return of the Israelites from their captivity in Babylon," Discourse on the Resurrection ch.2.18 p.376

 

Among heretics

Marcionite heretic Megethius in Adamantius Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.23 p.66 (c.300 A.D.) "Thus how could Ezekiel say [Ez. 20:5]: ‘And I made myself known to the fathers in the desert?’"

 

OTa14. Daniel spoke or wrote Daniel

 

In Matthew 24:15 Jesus refers to Daniel 9:27 as spoken of by Daniel.

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.4 p.138 "In like manner Daniel says concerning the same, "And I beheld the fourth beast, wicked and powerful, and more savage than all the beasts of the earth, and how from it sprang up ten horns, and out of them a little budding horn, and how it subdued under one three of the great horns.’"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "For He shall come on the clouds as the Son of man, so Daniel foretold, and His angels shall come with Him. These are the words: ‘I beheld till the thrones were set; and the Ancient of days did sit, whose garment was white as snow, and the hair of His head like the pure wool....’" Justin actually quotes all of Daniel 7:9-28. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.31 p.209-210.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Then Daniel also says this very thing: ‘And the kingdom and dominion, and the greatness of those under the heaven, is given to the saints of the Most High God, whose kingdom is everlasting, and all dominions shall serve and obey Him.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.34.2 p.564

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "On this account also, Daniel, foreseeing His [Christ’s] advent, said…" and discusses half of Daniel 2:34. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.21.6 p.453

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And Daniel the prophet says, ‘The mystery which the king asks, it is not in the power of the wise, the Magi, the diviners, the Gazarenes, to tell the king; but it is God in heaven who revealeth it.’" Stromata book 1 ch.4 p.304

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For the two years are added to the seventeen months and eighteen days of Otho, and Galba, and Vitellius; and the result is three years and six months, which is ‘the half of the week,’ as Daniel the prophet said. For he said that there were two thousand three hundred days from the time that the abomination of Nero stood in the holy city, till its destruction. For thus the declaration, which is subjoined, shows: "How long shall be the vision, the sacrifice taken away, the abomination of desolation," Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.334

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "and is Himself ‘blessed by all things’ as Daniel tells us." [Daniel 2:19,20; 3:28; 4:34,37] Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.452

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "These words then being thus presented, let us observe somewhat in detail what Daniel says in his visions." Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.19 p.208

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And in the passage, ‘There is one glory of the sun, and another glory of the moon, and another glory of the stars: for one star differeth from another star in glory: so also is the resurrection of the dead,’ the Apostle says the same thing as Daniel, taking this thought from his prophecy." Commentary on Matthew Book 10 no.3 p.415

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.17 p.662-663 "Like things to these also says Daniel: ‘ I beheld a throne placed, and the Ancient of days sat upon it, and His clothing was as it were snow, and the hairs of His head as it were white wool: His throne was a flame of fire, its wheels were burning fire. A river of fire came forth before Him: thousand thousands ministered to Him, and thousand thousands stood before Him: He sat to judgment, and the books were opened.’"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And Daniel, devoted to God, and filled with the Holy Spirit, exclaims and says: ‘I worship nothing but the Lord my God, who founded the heaven and the earth.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.11 p.503

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Which rightly in the holy scriptures is spoken, yet by no willingness rightly understood." or "What has been reasonably stated in the Scriptures you want to interpret unreasonably." (Adamantius is speaking right after Megethius quotes Daniel 2:34,35) Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "Thence here he places, and by and by here he renews, that of which the Lord, admonishing His churches concerning the last times and their dangers, says: "But when ye shall see the contempt which is spoken of by Daniel the prophet standing in the holy place, let him who readeth understand." [Daniel 11:45] Commentary on the Apocalypse from the thirteenth chapter no.13 p.357. For Daniel 11:37 see Commentary on the Apocalypse from the seventeenth chapter no.16 p.358.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "as Daniel had shown that it would be, saying: ‘And, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days.’" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.21 p.123

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Daniel had long before shown this, saying, ‘I saw in the night vision, and, behold, one like the Son of man came with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days; and they who stood beside Him brought Him near before Him. And there was given Him a kingdom, and glory, and dominion, and all people, tribes, and languages shall serve Him; and His power is an everlasting one, which shall not pass away, and His kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.’ Also David in the cixth Psalm: ‘The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Thou at my right hand, until I make Thine enemies Thy footstool.’" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.47 p.241

 

Among spurious works

pseudo-Cyprian (after 258 A.D.) quotes Dan 4:34 as in Daniel. Exhortation to Repentance p.594.

 

Among heretics

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) "Daniel declared [Dan.2:34,35]: ‘You have seen, even beheld a stone that is cut from a mountain without hands, and striking an image and its feet were as dust, which is blown in the wind’." or "Daniel says, ‘I saw, and behold, a stone was cut out of a mountain without hands, and it struck the image and made it like a cloud of dust, and it was blown away by the wind.’" Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.25 p.68

 

OTa15. Hosea wrote or spoke Hosea

 

Hosea 1:1

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "‘Of these and such like words written by the prophets, O Trypho,’ said I, ‘some have reference to the first advent of Christ, in which He is preached as inglorious, obscure, and of mortal appearance: but others had reference to His second advent, when He shall appear in glory and above the clouds; and your nation shall see and know Him whom they have pierced, as Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, and Daniel, foretold.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.14 p.202

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "So also says Hosea:" and then quotes Hosea 12:6. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.115

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "As God, when teaching them His will in Hosea the prophet, said, ‘I desire mercy rather than sacrifice, and the knowledge of God more than burnt-offerings.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.17.4 p.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes of Hoses 2:23 as by Hosea. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.93.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "With the greatest clearness, accordingly, the Word has spoken respecting Himself by Hosea: ‘I am your Instructor.’" The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.223

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "and again by Hosea, ‘I [God] will cause to cease all her mirth, and her feast-days, and her sabbaths, and her new moons, and all her solemn assemblies. ‘" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.4 p.436

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "The Spirit by Osee [Hosea] says," and quotes part of Hosea 5:2. Excerpts of Theodotus ch.5 p.43. He also quotes Hosea 1:2,7,10,11; 5:2,8

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "is called the Word came to certain persons; as ‘The Word of the Lord which came to Hosea, the son of Beeri,’ and ‘The Word which came to Isaiah, the son of Amos, concerning Judah and concerning Jerusalem,’ and ‘The Word which came to Jeremiah concerning the drought.’ We must enquire how this Word came to Hosea, and how it came also to Isaiah the son of Amos, and again to Jeremiah concerning the drought;" Commentary on John book 2 verse 1 p.322

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Why shall the truth of faith hesitate in that wherein the authority of Scripture has never hesitated? For, behold, Hosea the prophet says in the person of the Father: ‘I will not now save them by bow, nor by horses, nor by horsemen; but I will save them by the Lord their God.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.621

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "God Himself manifests by Hosea the prophet, saying, ‘They have set up for themselves a king, but not by me.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 67 ch.4 p.353

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (partial), mentions Jacob, Jeremy [Jeremiah], Ezekiel, David, Solomon, Gad, Asaph, Nathan, Osee [Hosea], Amos. Incarnation of the Word ch.40 p.57

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Hosea also, the first of the twelve prophets, testified of His resurrection:" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.19 p.122

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Likewise Hosea: This my Son is wise, therefore He shall not stay long in the anguish of His sons: and I will ransom Him from the hand of the grave. Where is thy judgment, O death, where is thy sting?" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.47 p.241

 

Among spurious works

pseudo-Cyprian (after 258 A.D.) quotes Hos 14:2 as in Hosea. Exhortation to Repentance p.594.

 

OTa16. Joel wrote Joel

 

Joel 1:1

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "And another, Joel, spoke in agreement with these: "Gather the people, sanctify the congregation, assemble the elders, gather the children that are in arms; let the bridegroom go forth of his chamber, and the bride out of her closet," Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.12 p.115

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For it is expressly said by Joel, one of the twelve prophets, ‘And it shall come to pass after these things, I will pour out of My Spirit on all flesh, and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy.’" Stromata book 5 ch.13 p.465

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "‘Since, then, Christ was announced by the Creator, ‘who formeth the lightning, and createth the wind, and declareth unto man His Christ,’ as the prophet Joel says," Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.6 p.325

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "For Joel withal exclaimed: ‘Sanctify a fast, and a religious service;’" On Fasting ch.16 p.112

Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) "and in the appointed occasions of times given. For He was promised by Joel the prophet" and quotes Joel 2:28. Concerning the Trinity ch.29 p.640

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Joel the prophet, and says, ‘And now, thus saith the Lord your God, Turn ye even...’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.22 p.333

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "So both the true fig-tree and the true vine yield fruit after that the power of chastity has laid hold upon all men, as Joel the prophet preaches, saying: ‘Fear not, O land; be glad and rejoice, for the Lord will do great things.’" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.4 p.349

 

OTa17. Amos wrote Amos

 

Amos 1:1

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "these by Amos, one of the twelve, saying:" and then quotes Amos 5:18-20. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.22 p.205

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (immediately after the previous reference: "And again, specifying the place of His advent, he [Amos] says: ‘The Lord hath spoken from Zion, and He has uttered His voice from Jerusalem.’" [Joel 3:16; Amos 1:2] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.20 p.451

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "And Amos (Micah) the prophet declares the same: ‘He will turn again, and will have compassion upon us: He will destroy our iniquities, and will cast our sins into the depths of the sea.’" [Micah 7:9] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.20 p.451

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "Very clearly, therefore, by the prophet Amos has the Lord unfolded His method of dealing, saying, ‘I have overthrown you, as God overthrew Sodom and Gomorrah; and ye shall be as a brand plucked from the fire: and yet ye have not returned unto me, saith the Lord.’" The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.227

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Of darkness, indeed, the Lord Himself by Isaiah says, ‘I formed the light, and I created darkness.’ Of the wind also Amos says, ‘He that strengtheneth the thunder, and createth the wind, and declareth His Christ unto men;’" Against Hermogenes ch.32 p.495

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "at His passion, that mid-day grew dark, the prophet Amos announces, saying," and quotes Amos 8:9-10 An Answer to the Jews ch.10 p.167

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Of this Amos says: ‘He buildeth His ascensions into heaven;’" Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.25 p.343

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "In Amos: ‘And it shall come to pass in that day, saith the Lord, the sun’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 2 ch.23 p.525

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (partial), mentions Jacob, Jeremy [Jeremiah], Ezekiel, David, Solomon, Gad, Asaph, Nathan, Osee [Hosea], Amos. Incarnation of the Word ch.40 p.57

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "At the same hour there was an earthquake; and the veil of the temple, which separated the two tabernacles, was rent into two parts; and the sun withdrew its light, and there was darkness from the sixth even to the ninth hour. Of which event the prophet Amos testifies:" (Amos 8:9-10) The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.19 p.122

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Amos thus speaks of the obscuring of the sun: ‘In that day, saith the Lord, the sun shall go down at noon, and the clear day shall be dark; and I will turn your feasts into mourning, and your songs into lamentation.’" (Amos 8:9-10) The Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.46 p.241

 

OTa18. Micah wrote or said Micah

 

Micah 1:1

 

"In Micah", in Melito of Sardis and Cyprian of Carthage, is not counted.

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "quoting a short statement from the prophecy of Micah, one of the twelve [minor prophets]. This is as follows: ‘And in the last days the mountain of the Lord shall be manifest, established on the top of the mountains; it shall be exalted above the hills, arid people shall flow unto it.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.109 p.253

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes Micah 5:2 as by the prophet Micah and referring to Christ. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.63.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Such are they of whom Micah the prophet says, ‘Hear the word of the Lord, ye peoples who dwell with pangs.’" Stromata book 4 ch.26 p.440

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Concerning the forgiveness of sins, Micah also says," and quotes Micah 7:18-19. Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.10 p.358

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (partial) quotes Micah 5:2 as by the prophet. "Now it behooved Him to be born in Bethlehem of Judah. For thus it is written in the prophet: ‘And thou, Bethlehem, are not the least in the leaders of Judah: for out of thee shall issue a Leader who shall feed my People Israel.’ But if hitherto he has not been born, what ‘leader’ was it who was thus announced as to proceed from the tribe of Judah, out of Bethlehem? For it behooves him to proceed from the tribe of Judah and from Bethlehem." An Answer to the Jews ch.13 p.169

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "through which the impassable Word of God came under suffering, as also the prophets testify to me. For thus speaks the blessed Micah:" and quotes Micah 2:7,8. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.13-14 p.228

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For thus speaks the blessed Micah: ‘The house of Jacob provoked the Spirit of the Lord to anger. These are their pursuits. Are not His words good with them, and do they walk rightly? And they have risen up in enmity against His countenance of peace, and they have stripped off His glory. ‘" Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.15 p.229

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) "the prophet Micah will prove when he says: ‘If it has been announced to thee, O man, what is good, or what does the Lord require of thee, except to do justice and to love mercy?’" [in both Latin and Greek] de Principiis book 3 ch.1.6 p.305

Origen (239-242 A.D.) refers to Micah as by Micah. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 10 ch.4.2 p.135

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Micah also says, ‘They shall sit every man under his vine and under his fig-tree; and none shall make them afraid.’" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.5 p.350

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "For Micah announced that He would give a new law, in these terms: ‘The law shall go forth of Zion, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem. And He shall judge among many people, and rebuke strong nations.’" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.17 p.118

 

Among spurious works

pseudo-Cyprian (after 258 A.D.) quotes Mic 7:1,2,3,8 as in Micah. Exhortation to Repentance p.594.

 

OTa19. Habakkuk wrote Habakkuk

 

Habakkuk 1:1

 

"In Habakkuk", per Cyprian and Melito of Sardis, is not counted here.

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "The same, too, says David: ‘They are corrupt, they have done abominable works; there is none that doeth good, no, not one; they have all gone aside, they have together become profitless.’ So also Habakkuk: ‘What profiteth the graven image that he has graven it a lying image? Woe to him that saith to the stone, Awake; and to the wood, Arise.’ Likewise spoke the other prophets of the truth. And why should I recount the multitude of prophets, who are numerous, and said ten thousand things consistently and harmoniously?" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.35 p.108

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "thus says the prophet Habakkuk: ‘God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from Mount, Effrem. His power covered the heavens over, and the earth is full of His praise. Before His face shall go forth the Word, and His feet shall advance in the plains.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book3 ch.20.4 p.451

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "And the prophet Habakkuk sees Him bearing horns, and celebrates His defensive attitude-’horns in His hands.’" fragment 11 ch.2 p.582

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "When He disperses its waves, Habakkuk’s words are fulfilled, where he says, ‘Scattering the waters in His passage.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.20 p.379. See also Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.18 p.376 [Habakkuk 2:4]

Origen (233/234 A.D.) quotes Habakkuk 3:1f in the Septuagint as by Habakkuk. Prayer ch.14.4 p.55

Novatian (250-257 A.D.) "He [God] says by Habakkuk the prophet: ‘God shall come from the south, and the Holy One from the dark and dense mountain.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.621

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) says Habakkuk 3:2 (Septuagint) is by Habakkuk. Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.4 p.385-386

 

OTa20. Zephaniah is by Zephaniah/Sophonias

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) (partial) alludes to Zephaniah 3:19 as by the prophet.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 9:9 as by Zephaniah. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.35 p.175

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Zephaniah 1:18 as "the Spirit prophesies by Zephaniah" The Instructor book 2 ch.13 p.269

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) "Contemporaneous with the law, Moses and Aaron; and after these prophesied Jesus the son of Nave, Samuel, Gad, Nathan, Achias, Samaeas, Jehu, Elias, Michaeas, Abdiu, Elisaeus, Abbadonai, Amos, Esaias, Osee, Jonas, Joel, Jeremias, Sophonias the son of Buzi, Ezekiel, Urias, Ambacum, Naum, Daniel, Misael, who wrote the syllogisms, Aggai, Zacharias, and the angel among the twelve. These are, in all, five-and-thirty prophets." Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.331

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "but it will be enough for our present purpose to quote the following passage from Zephaniah: ‘Prepare and rise early; all the gleanings of their vineyards are destroyed.’" Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.72 p.667

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Of which sacrifice Sophonias said:" and quotes Zephaniah 1:7. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 2 ch.20 p.524

 

Among spurious works

pseudo-Cyprian (after 258 A.D.) quotes Zeph 2:1 (Septuagint) as by Zephaniah Exhortation to Repentance p.594.

 

OTa21. Zechariah wrote Zechariah

 

Zechariah 1:1; 7:4; 8:1

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) refers to Zechariah 3:1 as by Zechariah in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.79 p.238

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And Zechariah also, among the twelve prophets, pointing out to the people the will of God, says: ‘These things does the Lord Omnipotent declare: Execute true judgment, and show mercy and compassion each one to his brother. And oppress not the widow, and the orphan, and the proselyte, and the poor; and let none imagine evil against your brother in his heart.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.17.3 p.483-484

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes from Zechariah as in Zechariah. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.76.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "In the fifth year of his reign Ezekiel prophesied at Babylon; after him Nahum, then Daniel. After him, again, Haggai and Zechariah prophesied in the time of Darius the First for two years; and then the angel among the twelve. After Haggai and Zechariah, Nehemiah, the chief cup-bearer of Artaxerxes, the son of Acheli the Israelite, built the city of Jerusalem and restored the temple." Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.328

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 14:14 as by Zechariah. An Answer to the Jews ch.9 p.162.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) discusses Zechariah 3 as by Zechariah. Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.7 p.325.He also alludes ot Zechariah 8:16 as by Zechariah in ibid book 4 ch.29 p.399.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "And how does Zechariah prophesy about Christ when he says," and quotes Zechariah 9:9. Commentary on John book 10 no.17 p.395

Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 7:6 (Septuagint) as by Zechariah. On Jewish Meats ch.5 p.649

Treatise Against Novatian ch.14 p.662 (c.248-258 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 11:16 as by Zechariah.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in Zechariah God says: ‘And they shall cross over through the narrow sea, and they shall smite the waves in the sea, and they shall dry up all the depths of the rivers; and all the haughtiness of the Assyrians shall be confounded, and the sceptre of Egypt shall be taken away.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second book ch.6 p.518

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) paraphrases Zechariah 7:10; 8:17 as by the prophet. Dialogue on the True Faith First Part no.13 p.56. (Adamantius is speaking)

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) quotes Zechariah 9:9; 8:17 as "by the prophet". Dialogue on the True Faith First Part no.25 p.69. (Adamantius is speaking) (These are the only references to Zechariah in Adamantius)

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 4:14 as by Zechariah in Commentary on the Apocalypse from the 11th chapter verse 4 p.354.

Methodius of Olympus and Patara (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes Zechariah 4:1-3 as by Zechariah. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 p.350

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But who this was about to be, to whom God promised an everlasting priesthood, Zechariah most plainly teaches, even mentioning His name: ‘And the Lord God showed me Jesus the great Priest standing before the face of the angel of the Lord, and the adversary was standing at His right hand to resist Him.’" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.14 p.113-114

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Also Zechariah says: ‘And they shall look on me whom they pierced.’" (Zechariah 12:10) The Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.46 p.241. See also book 4 ch.14 p.113.

 

Among spurious works

pseudo-Cyprian (after 258 A.D.) quotes Zech 1:3 as in Zechariah Exhortation to Repentance p.594.

 

OTa22. Malachi wrote Malachi

 

Malachi 1:1

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) mentions what Malachi wrote in Scriptures in Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.117 p.258

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) quotes Malachi 4:1 as "Malachi the prophet foretold" in Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.37 p.110

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "concerning which Malachi, among the twelve prophets, thus spoke beforehand: ‘I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord Omnipotent, and I will not accept sacrifice at your hands.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.17.5 p.785

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes Malachi 1:10,11,14 as by "Malachi the prophet" in Stromata book 4 ch.14 p.475. He also quotes Malachi 2:17 as by Malachi in Stromata book 3 ch.4 p.388

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that Malachi 4:2-3 was by Malachi. On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.31 p.567

Hippolytus of Portus (232-235/236 A.D.) "For by the mouth of Malachi also He speaks thus: ‘And unto you that fear my name shall the Sun of righteousness arise with healing in His wings.’" [Malachi 4:2] Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.61 p.217

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:6 as by Malachi. Origen Against Celsus ch.62 p.602

Origen (239-242 A.D.) refers to Malachi as by Malachi. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 10 ch.4.2 p.135

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also the prophet Malachi testifies that He is called the Sun, when he says, ‘But to you that fear the name of the Lord shall the Sun of righteousness arise, and there is healing in His wings.’" Treatise of Cyprian Treatise 4 ch.35 p.457

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) quotes Malachi 2:10 (from the Septuagint) as "by the prophet". Dialogue on the True Faith second part section c p.104

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "We read that these things are predicted in the opening of the Old and New Testament; for He says by Malachi: ‘Lo, I will send to you Elias the Tishbite, to turn the hearts of the fathers to the children, according to the time of calling, to recall the Jews to the faith of the people that succeed them.’" [Malachi 4:5-6] Commentary on the Apocalypse from the Seventh chapter no.2 p.351-352

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "And He had long before threatened that He would do this, as the prophet Malachi shows, saying: ‘I have no pleasure in you, saith the Lord, and I will not accept an offering from your hands; for from the rising of the sun even unto its setting, my name shall be great among the Gentiles.’" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.109

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) (partial) quotes Malachi 3:6 as "by the prophet" in Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 2 ch.3 p.298

 

 

NEW TESTAMENT AUTHORS

 

NTa1. At least 1 NT word originally in Greek

 

Clement of Alexandria (198-220 A.D.) (implied) "and cried, saying, ‘Hosanna to the Son of David! Blessed is He that cometh in the name of the Lord;’ light, and glory, and praise, with supplication to the Lord: for this is the meaning of the expression Hosanna when rendered in Greek. And the Scripture appears to me, in allusion to the prophecy just mentioned, reproachfully to upbraid the thoughtless: ‘Have ye never read, Out of the mouths of babes and sucklings Thou hast perfected praise?’" The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.212

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "And so truly is this the case, that he therefore adds, ‘only in the Lord;’ because the question in agitation was about her who had had a heathen (husband), and had believed subsequently to losing him: for fear, to wit, that she might presume herself able to marry a heathen even after believing; albeit not even this is an object of care to the Psychics. Let us plainly know that, in the Greek original, it does not stand in the form which (through the either crafty or simple alteration of two syllables) has gone out into common use, ‘But if her husband shall have fallen asleep,’ as if it were speaking of the future, and thereby seemed to pertain to her who has lost her husband when already in a believing state." On Monogamy ch.11 p.68-69

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "On the other hand, if we were to make such a statement as this, for example, ‘In the beginning the potter made a basin or a water-jug,’ the word beginning will not here indicate a material substance (for I have not mentioned the clay, which is the beginning in this sense, but only the order of the work, meaning that the potter made the basin and the jug first, before anything else-intending afterwards to make the rest. It is, then, to the order of the works that the word beginning has reference, not to the origin of their substances. I might also explain this word beginning in another way, which would not, however, be inapposite. The Greek term for beginning, which is arkh, admits the sense not only of priority of order, but of power as well; whence princes and magistrates are called archon." Against Hermogenes ch.19 p.488

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "‘Blessed are the needy’ (for no less than this is required for interpreting the word in the Greek), ‘because theirs is the kingdom of heaven.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.14 p.365

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "The New Testament gives Hebrew names a Greek form and treats them as Greek words; Jacob is changed into Jacobus, Symeon into Simon, and Joannes is the same as Joa." Commentary on John book 2 ch.27 p.342

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "And because the Lord was about to depart to the heavens, He gave the Paraclete out of necessity to the disciples; so as not to leave them in any degree orphans, which was little desirable, and forsake them without an advocate and some kind of protector." Treatise on the Trinity ch.29 p.640

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) (partial) discussed 666 and a Greek codex. However, he also discusses Latin and Gothic letters too, so this is not proof that he thought the New Testament was written in Greek. Commentary on the Apocalypse from the thirteenth chapter no.18 p.356.

 

NTa2. Matthew wrote the Gospel of Matthew

 

Papias (95-110 A.D.) refers by name to the books of Matthew and Mark. fragment 6 from Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.39.

Claudius Apollinaris (177, 160-180 A.D.) mentions Matthew, the Gospels, and the law. Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.772

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Matthew 1:1 as by Matthew. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.2 p.440

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And in the Gospel according to Matthew, the genealogy which begins with Abraham is continued down to Mary the mother of the Lord." Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.334

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "Or perhaps, after all, he was only reproaching the Gospels with a lie, saying in fact: ‘Away with Matthew; away with Luke!’" Against Praxeas ch.1 p.597

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says, "I mean the Gospels of John and Matthew – whilst that which Mark published may be affirmed to be Peter’s whose interpreter Mark was. For even Luke’s form of the Gospel men unusually ascribe to Paul. And it may well seem that the works which disciples publish belong to their masters." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) wrote, "…that the Evangelical Testament has apostles for its authors, … apostolic men also … Of the apostles therefore, John and Matthew first instill faith in us; whilst of apostolic men, Luke and Mark renew it afterwards." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.2 p.347

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) stresses the authorship of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Revelation, many of Paul’s letters in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Julius Africanus (232-245 A.D.) mentions "the Evangelist Matthew" and "Luke" in comparing the two genealogies of Jesus in his Epistle to Aristides ch.3 p.126

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "From Bethphage Matthew says the disciples are sent out who are to fetch the ass and the colt;" Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 no.18 p.398

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.56 p.568.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) quotes Matthew 6:9-13 as by Matthew. Prayer ch.18.1 p.65

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions "The Gospel according to Matthew" quoting Matthew 5:23,24 in Treatises of Cyprian - Testimonies ch.3 p.533. See also The Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 the third book 1.40.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "It was ‘in the end of the Sabbath,’ as Matthew has said; it was ‘early, when it was yet dark,’ as John writes; it was ‘very early in the morning,’ as Luke puts it; and it was ‘very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun,’ as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to Bishop Basilides canon 5 p.94

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Will you agree if I show from the Gospels that they are not fabrications?" … "The disciples of Christ wrote them: John and Matthew; Mark and Luke. Dialogue on the True Faith First Part "b 5" p.41

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions Psalm, Matthew, Isaiah, Daniel Commentary on the Creation of the World p.342

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions Matthew, Mark, and Luke in Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.348

 

NTa3. Mark wrote the Gospel of Mark

Papias (95-110 A.D.) refers by name to the books of Matthew and Mark. fragment 6 from Eusebius’ Ecclesiastical History book 3 ch.39.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Mark 1:1 as by Mark. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.3 p.441

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) paraphrases Mark 10:17-31 saying "These things are written in the Gospel according to Mark" Who is the Rich Man That Shall be Saved? ch.5 p.592

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) stresses the authorship of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Revelation, many of Paul’s letters in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/235 A.D.) "that neither Paul the apostle nor Mark, he of the maimed finger, announced such (tenets). For none of these (doctrines) has been written in the Gospel according to Mark." Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.18 p.112

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "But there were some person standing beside the tied-up foal, as Mark says; those, I suppose, who had tied it; as Luke records." Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 ch.18 p.398. See also ibid ch.18 p.399.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "For the same Mark says: ‘The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as it is written in Isaiah the prophet, Behold I send my messenger before thy face, who shall prepare thy way." Commentary on John book 1 ch.14 p.305-306

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.56 p.568.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) quotes Mark 1:35 as by Mark Prayer ch.13.1 p.48

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.14 p.675 "Also according to Mark He said, with the same purpose, to the sons of Zebedee"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says "Also according to Mark" and quotes Mark 4:24 in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 3 - Testimonies ch.22 p.541. See also ibid ch.28 p.542

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "It was "in the end of the Sabbath," as Matthew has said; it was "early, when it was yet dark," as John writes; it was "very early in the morning," as Luke puts it; and it was "very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun," as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to the bishop Basilides p.94

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Will you agree if I show from the Gospels that they are not fabrications?" … "The disciples of Christ wrote them: John and Matthew; Mark and Luke. Dialogue on the True Faith First Part "b 5" p.41

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions Matthew, Mark, and Luke in Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.348

 

NTa4. Luke wrote the Gospel of Luke

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Luke 1:6 as by Luke. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.10.1 p.423

Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) Third book of the gospels is Luke. Muratorian Canon 1.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes Luke 3:1,2,23 as the Gospel of Luke in Stromata book 1 ch.21 p.333

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "Or perhaps, after all, he was only reproaching the Gospels with a lie, saying in fact: ‘Away with Matthew; away with Luke!’" Against Praxeas ch.1 p.597

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) stresses the authorship of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Revelation, many of Paul’s letters in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Julius Africanus (232-245 A.D.) mentions "the Evangelist Matthew" and "Luke" in comparing the two genealogies of Jesus. Epistle to Aristides ch.3 p.126

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "But there were some person standing beside the tied-up foal, as Mark says; those, I suppose, who had tied it; as Luke records." Origen’s Commentary on John book 10 no.18 p.398

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.56 p.568.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) quotes Luke 11:2-4 as by Luke. Prayer ch.18.1 p.65

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "For they propose and put forward what is told in the Gospel of Luke" and refers to Luke 1:35. Concerning the Trinity ch.24 p.635

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.14 p.675 "if a man should survive and amend his faith, as our God, in the Gospel according to Luke, spoke to His disciples, saying," and then quotes Luke 12:50.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the "Gospel according to Luke" and quotes Luke 6:37 in Treatises of Cyprian - Testimonies ch.21 p.541.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "It was "in the end of the Sabbath," as Matthew has said; it was "early, when it was yet dark," as John writes; it was "very early in the morning," as Luke puts it; and it was "very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun," as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to the Bishop Basilides p.94

Pierius of Alexandria (275 A.D.) wrote a book entitled On the Gospel According to Luke fragment 1 p.157.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Will you agree if I show from the Gospels that they are not fabrications?" … "The disciples of Christ wrote them: John and Matthew; Mark and Luke. Dialogue on the True Faith First Part "b 5" p.41

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions Matthew, Mark, and Luke in Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.348

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) (implied), Luke is the evangelist) "after the history of Luke, the evangelist and historian" An Exposition of the Chapters of the Acts of the Apostles Introduction p.166

 

NTa5. John wrote the Gospel of John

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) has "John says" and then quotes John 1:1a. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.22 p.103

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "even as John, the disciple of the Lord, declares regarding Him [Jesus]:" and then quotes John 1:3. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.2 p.362.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes John 1:1 as by his disciple John. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.43.

Muratorian Canon (170-217 A.D.) Fourth Gospel is that of John. Muratorian Canon 1.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) John wrote his Gospel. Stromata book 5 ch.12 p.463

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) stresses the authorship of Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, Revelation, many of Paul’s letters in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "And the blessed John, in the testimony of his Gospel, and quotes John 1:1. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.14 p.228

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) mentions Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.56 p.568

Origen (233/234 A.D.) quotes John 17:1 as by John. Prayer ch.13.1 p.48

Novatian says John 1:14 is by John in Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.13 p.622

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.2 p.657 says John 10:1 is by John, the gospel.

Treatise on Rebaptism (254-257 A.D.) says "as it is written in the Gospel according to John" ch.9 p.672

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the "Gospel according to John" and then quotes John 3:18,19 in Treatises of Cyprian book 3 ch.31 p.543

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "It was "in the end of the Sabbath," as Matthew has said; it was "early, when it was yet dark," as John writes; it was "very early in the morning," as Luke puts it; and it was "very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun," as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to the Bishop Basilides p.94

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) discusses the "third hour" from the autograph copy itself of the Evangelist John, preserved in the church in Ephesus. fragment 5.2 p.283

Athanasius (318 A.D.) mentions John’s Gospel as "in the words of John". Incarnation of the Word ch.2.6 p.37

 

NTa6. Luke wrote Acts

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Acts 8:9-11,20,21,23 (about Simon the Sorcerer) as written by Luke. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.23.1 p.347

Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) Mentions the Acts of the Apostles by Luke. Muratorian Canon 2.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes Acts 17:22,23 saying "Luke in Acts of the Apostles" Stromata book 5 ch.12 p.464

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "…as Luke relates in the Acts of the Apostles" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.11 p.578. See also Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.23 p.310.

Pamphilus (martyred 309 A.D.) (implied) "We make this exposition, therefore, after the history of Luke, the evangelist and historian." An Exposition of the Chapters of Acts of the Apostles Prologue (ANF vol.6) p.166

 

NTa7. Paul wrote Romans

 

Romans 1:1

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:1-4 as by Paul writing to the Romans. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.3 p.441. See also Romans 8:36 as by Paul in his letter address to the Romans in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.22.2 p.390

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "therefore, when Paul sets forth human infirmity, he says: ‘For I know that there dwelleth in my flesh no good thing,’ showing that the ‘good thing’ of our salvation is not from us, but from God. And again: ‘Wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death?’ [Romans 7:24] Then he introduces the Deliverer, [saying, ] ‘The grace of Jesus Christ our Lord.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.20.3 p.450

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says "the apostle Paul" said part of Romans 13:10. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.87.

The Muratorian Canon (170-210 A.D.) section 8 34-39 (ANF vol.5) p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Paul wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:8 and Galatians 1:1 as by Paul. Against Praxeas ch.28 p.625

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But how Paul, ... As also in his Epistle to the Romans: ‘And not only so, but we glory in tribulations also, being sure that tribulation worketh patience, and patience experience, and experience hope; and hope maketh not ashamed.’ [Romans 5:3-5a] And again: ‘And if children, then heirs, heirs indeed of God, and joint-heirs with Christ: if so be that we suffer with Him, that we may be also glorified together. For I reckon that the sufferings of this time are not worthy to be compared with the glory which shall be revealed in us.’ And therefore he afterward says: ‘Who shall separate us from the love of God? Shall tribulation, or distress, or famine, or nakedness, or peril, or sword? (As it is written: For Thy sake we are killed all the day long; we have been counted as sheep for the slaughter), Nay, in all these things we are more than conquerors, through Him who loved us. For we are persuaded, that neither death, nor life, nor power, nor height, nor depth, nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God, which is in Christ Jesus our Lord.’" [Romans 8:17-39] Scorpiace ch.13 p.646

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:17 as by Paul Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.64 p.218. See also Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.4 p.225

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Romans 9:16 as "in Paul" [both Latin and Greek versions] Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.1 p.307

Novatian (250-257A.D.) mentions Romans 1:20 as by the apostle Paul. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.3 p.614

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the "Epistle of Paul to the Romans" in Treatises of Cyprian - Testimonies ch.45 p.546.

At the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) (partial) Paulus of Obba quotes half of two verses, Romans 3:3b-4a, as by the apostle on p.570

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) Adamantius quotes Romans 7:12 as by Paul. Dialogue on the True Faith second part ch.20 p.105. See also ibid first part ch.21 p.64

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345 He listed the letters of Paul as Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Thessalonians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy and quotes 1 Timothy 3:15 in ch.16 p.345 He goes on to quote 1 Corinthians 15:53 on p.346

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes Romans 8:19-21 as "Paul clearly testifies". Discourse on the Resurrection part 1 ch.8 p.365

Athanasius (c.318 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:26 "as Paul said, the holy minister of Christ" Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.26 p.17

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes Romans 8:32 as by St. Paul. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.8 p.294

 

Among heretics

Marcion (c.160 A.D.) refers to Romans as by Paul, according to Adamantius and Tertullian.

 

NTa8. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians

 

1 Corinthians 1:1

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) (implied) alludes to 1 Corinthians as by Paul. "Take up the epistle of the blessed Apostle Paul. What did he write to you at the time when the Gospel first began to be preached? Truly, under the inspiration of the Spirit, he wrote to you concerning himself, and Cephas, and Apollos, because even then parties had been formed among you." 1 Clement ch.47 p.18

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:11 as by Paul. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.14.3 p.479

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 6:12 as by Paul in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.37.4 p.519

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 8:14 as by Paul. Irenaeus Fragment 26 p.574

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Paul wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) asked what the wisdom of this world was that Paul warned us against in 1 Corinthians 3:19-21. Stromata 1:11

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) says 1 Cor 1:5 is by Paul. Tertullian on Modesty ch.13 p.86. See also ibid ch.13,14 p.87.88 and On Monogamy (213 A.D.) ch.6 p.63.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "And in like manner Paul also, in setting forth the truth that all things are delivered unto Him, said," and quotes 1 Corinthians 15:23-28. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.6 p.226

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:3-8 as by Paul in the concluding portion of the first Epistle to the Corinthians. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.63 p.456

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Paul shows that the world is something more than men when he writes to the Corinthians in his first Epistle" and then quotes 1 Corinthians 4:9. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.24 p.311

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) has three chapters discussing the books of scripture. After saying that Moses left only five books, said, "But he who was made fit to be a minister of the New Covenant, not of the letter, but of the spirit, Paul, who fulfilled the Gospel from Jerusalem around about to Illyricum, did not write epistles to all the churches he taught, and to those whom he did write he sent no more than a few lines." Then he talks about 1 Peter. Commentary on John book 5 ch.3 p.346. See also Origen quoting 1 Corinthians 1:2a,c in book 6 ch.38 p.380.

Origen (233/234 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 11:4f as by Paul. Prayer ch.2.2 p.18

Origen (239-242 A.D.) refers to 1 Corinthians as by Paul. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 7 ch.10.2 p.107-108

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions the First Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians and then quotes 1 Corinthians 7:10,11 in Treatises of Cyprian - Testimonies ch.90 p.553. He also refers to Paul and his first Epistle to the Corinthians in Treatise 12 Second book ch.1 p.516. See also Epistles of Cyprian Letter 70 ch.3 p.378 and Epistles of Cyprian letter 59 ch.2 p.355 for Paul writing 1 Corinthians 3:16.

Pierius of Alexandria (275 A.D.) quotes half of 1 Corinthians 7:7 as by Paul in fragment 1 p.157.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 3:2-3 as by the Apostle Paul. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.9 p.50

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:16 as by Paul. Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part 868a 10 p.106

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) Eutropius the adjuticator says that Adamantius’ quote of 1 Corinthians is by Paul. Neither Adamantius nor his opponents disagree. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.22b p.65

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 Corinthians 10:1-4 as by "the apostle" "writing to the Corinthians" Dialogue on the True Faith Second Part ch.867a p.1009

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345 He listed the letters of Paul as Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Thessalonians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy and quotes 1 Timothy 3:15 as by Paul to Timothy in ch.16 (2nd time) p.345 He goes on to quote 1 Corinthians 15:53 on p.346

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 7:34 as by Paul. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 1 ch.1 p.311.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "When, then, Paul says that ‘flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom of God,’ [1 Corinthians 15:50] he does not give a disparaging opinion of the regeneration of the flesh, but would teach that the kingdom of God, which is eternal life, is not possessed by the body, but the body by the life." Discourse on the Resurrection ch.13 p.368

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 15:41-42 as by Paul. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 7 ch.3 p.332

Athanasius (318 A.D.) quotes half of 1 Corinthians 2:8 as by Paul in Incarnation of the Word ch.54 p.65

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes 1 Corinthians 2:9 as by the apostle Paul and Colossians 1:16,17 as by Paul in Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.5 p.293

 

Among heretics

Mani/Manes (262-278 A.D.) "As Paul, too, has given these further testimonies, that" and quotes part of 2 Corinthians 3:6-7, 1 Corinthians 15:56. (Manes is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203

 

NTa9. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians

 

2 Corinthians 1:1

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 7:7-9 as by Paul in the Second to the Corinthians in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 p.3.1 p.529

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Paul wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 7:1 as by Paul. Stromata book 3 ch.11 p.394

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But how Paul, an apostle, ... But further, in recounting his own sufferings to the Corinthians, he certainly decided that suffering must be borne: ‘In labours, (he says,) more abundant, in prisons very frequent, in deaths oft. Of the Jews five times received I forty stripes, save one; thrice was I beaten with rods; once was I stoned,’ and the rest. And if these severities will seem to be more grievous than martyrdoms, yet once more he says: ‘Therefore I take pleasure in infirmities, in reproaches, in necessities, in persecutions, in distresses for Christ’s sake.’ [2 Corinthians 11:23] He also says, in verses occurring in a previous part of the epistle: ‘Our condition is such, that we are troubled on every side, yet not distressed; and are in need, but not in utter want; since we are harassed by persecutions, but not forsaken; it is such that we are east down, but not destroyed; always bearing about in our body the dying of Christ.’ ‘But though,’ says he, ‘our outward man perisheth’-the flesh doubtless, by the violence of persecutions-’yet the inward man is renewed day by day’-the soul, doubtless, by hope in the promises. ‘For our light affliction, which is but for a moment, worketh for us a far more exceeding and eternal weight of glory; while we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen. For the things which are seen are temporal’-he is speaking of troubles; ‘but the things which are not seen are eternal’-he is promising rewards." [2 Corinthians 11:10] Scorpiace ch.13 p.646-647

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) says 2 Corinthians 2:5-11 does not say plainly to whom Paul was referring. Tertullian on Modesty ch.14 p.89.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 12:2 as by Paul in The Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.3 p.54

Origen (c.240 A.D.) Paul wrote 2 Corinthians 12:9 and 11:23-24. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 11 ch.4 p.106

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 2 Corinthians 4:17,18 as by Paul, in the Second Epistle to the Corinthians in Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.19 p.582

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) (implies a second) "Paul shows that the world is something more than men when he writes to the Corinthians in his first Epistle" and then quotes 1 Corinthians 4:9. Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.24 p.311

Origen (239-242 A.D.) says Paul wrote 2 Corinthians 11:3. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 7 ch.6.1 p.105

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in the second Epistle of Paul to the Corinthians: ‘We must all be manifested before the tribunal of Christ, that every one may bear again the things which belong to his own body, according to what he hath done, whether good or evil.’"

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) (partial, does not say 2 Corinthians) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345 He listed the letters of Paul as Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Thessalonians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy and quotes 1 Timothy 3:15 in ch.16 p.345 He goes on to quote 1 Corinthians 15:53 on p.346

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says 2 Corinthians 5:10 is by the blessed Paul. Incarnation of the Word ch.56 p.66-67.

 

Among spurious works

pseudo-Cyprian (after 258 A.D.) quotes 1 Cor 7:10; 2:10; 12:21; 13:2 as "in the second Epistle of the blessed Paul to the Corinthians". Exhortation to Repentance p.594.

 

Among heretics

Mani/Manes (262-278 A.D.) "As Paul, too, has given these further testimonies, that" and quotes part of 2 Corinthians 3:6-7, 1 Corinthians 15:56. (Manes is speaking) Disputation with Manes ch.31 p.203

 

NTa10. Paul wrote Galatians

 

Galatians 1:1

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Galatians 4:4-5 as by Paul writing to the Galatians. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.16.3 p.441

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Paul wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria quotes Galatians 3:19,23,24 as by Paul in Stromata book 1 ch.27 p.338. He also refers to Galatians 3:24 as Paul saying in The Instructor book 1 ch.11 p.234.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) quotes of half of Galatians 1:1 as by Paul "And that is just what David and Paul both refer to, as when Paul says, ‘and God the Father, who raised Him from the dead.’" [Galatians 1:1] Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.8 p.206

Origen (wrote 225-253/254 A.D.) refers to Galatians 2:12 as by Paul in the Letter to the Galatians. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.1 p.429

Novatian (250-257A.D.) says Galatians 1:1 and 1:12 as by Paul. Treatise on the Trinity ch.13 p.622

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions "Paul to the Galatians" in Treatises of Cyprian - Testimonies ch.64 p.551. See also Epistles of Cyprian letter 59 ch.2 p.355 for Paul writing Galatians 3:27.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) Adamantius, his opponents, and the adjudicator Eutropis all agree that Paul wrote Galatians 1:9. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.6 p.43

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345 He listed the letters of Paul as Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Thessalonians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy and quotes 1 Timothy 3:15 in ch.16 p.345 He goes on to quote 1 Corinthians 15:53 on p.346

 

NTa11. Paul wrote Ephesians

 

Ephesians 1:1

 

Ignatius of Antioch (c.110-117 A.D.) Paul wrote a letter to the Ephesians according to Ignatius’ Letter to the Ephesians ch.12 p.55

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 5:30 as by Paul in his letter to the Ephesians in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.2.2 p.528

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says Paul said Ephesians 4:6 Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.5

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Paul wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (implied) mentions the apostle writing to the Ephesians and quoting Ephesians 4:13-15. The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.213

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:8 and Galatians 1:1 as by Paul. Against Praxeas ch.28 p.625

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans, and John being the author of the Apocalypse (Revelation) in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 5:16 as by Paul. Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.54 p.598

Origen (239-242 A.D.) says Paul wrote Ephesians. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 7 ch.10.3 p.108

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.17 p.663 (implied) quotes Ephesians 5:6,7 as by the Apostle.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions Paul writing Ephesians, First Letter to Timothy, and Titus in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.70-78 p.552. See also ibid ch.7 p.534 and ibid part 3 ch.41 p.545.

Firmilian (250-251 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 4:5,6 as by "the Apostle Paul." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.26 p.396

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 2:17-18 as by Paul Dialogue on the True Faith 2nd part 868a d p.102

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) alludes to Ephesians 2:12,16 and Colossians 1:21-22 as by Paul. Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part e p.151

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) refers to Ephesians 2:11-13 as by "the apostle" "writing to the Ephesians" Dialogue on the True Faith Second Part ch.867a p.99

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345 He listed the letters of Paul as Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Thessalonians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy and quotes 1 Timothy 3:15 in ch.16 p.345 He goes on to quote 1 Corinthians 15:53 on p.346

Peter of Alexandria (285-311 A.D.) (implied) quotes from Ephesians 2:8-9 as by the apostle in fragment 2 On the Godhead p.280.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes Ephesians 5:28-32 as Scripture, by Paul. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.1 p.317

 

NTa12. Paul wrote Philippians

 

Philippians 1:1

 

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) says that the blessed and glorified Paul wrote the Philippians a letter. Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.3 p.33 He also alludes to Philippians 2:16 in ch.9 p.35

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes Philippians 4:18 as "Paul also says to the Philippians" in Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.18.4 p.485. He also quotes from Philippians 2:11

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Paul wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "according to Paul" and then quotes Philippians 2:15 The Instructor book 3 ch.12 p.295

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) (partial) mentions Philippians 4:5 as by the apostle of the Lord. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) refers to Paul and quotes half of Philippians 3:2a fragment 10 p.244

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And the Divine Word, well knowing this, speaks to that effect in many passages of Scriptures, although it is sufficient at present to quote one testimony of Paul to the following effect:" and then he quotes Philippians 2:5-9. Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.18 p.504.

Novatian (250-257A.D.) (partial) quotes Philippians 2:6-11 as by the apostle in Treatise on the Trinity ch.22 p.632

Treatise On Rebaptism (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.6 p.670 quotes Philippians 2:9b-11 as by Paul.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions Philippians and quotes Philippians 2:21; 3:19-21 in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 - Testimonies ch.11 p.536. See also ibid ch.26 p.542.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Philippians: ‘But doing all things for love, without murmurings and revilings, that ye may be without complaint, and spotless sons of God.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third book testimonies ch.14 p.537

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345 He listed the letters of Paul as Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Thessalonians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy and quotes 1 Timothy 3:15 in ch.16 p.345 He goes on to quote 1 Corinthians 15:53 on p.346

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) quotes Philippians 1:23,24 as by "the blessed apostle Paul" The Canonical Epistle Canon 10 p.274

Athanasius (318 A.D.) quotes Philippians 3:14 as by Paul in Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.5 p.6

 

NTa13. Paul wrote Colossians

 

Colossians 1:1

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) quotes Colossians 3:5 as by the apostle in the letter to the Colossians. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.12.3 p.538

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Paul wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (implied) Colossians by the Apostle. Stromata book p.463

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) mentions Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans, and John being the author of the Apocalypse (Revelation) in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (implied) paraphrases Colossians 1:21 as the "apostle … his Epistle to the Colossians" in On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.23 p.561

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes of Colossians 2:8 as by Paul. Origen Against Celsus book 1 preface no.5 p.396

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) quotes Colossians 1:15,18 as by Paul in Colossians in Treatise 12 Second book ch.1 p.516.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) alludes to Ephesians 2:12,16 and Colossians 1:21-22 as by Paul. Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part e p.151

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "I choose the last part of the epistle of Paul to the Colossians: ‘Salutes you’, it says, ‘Aristarchus, my fellow-prisoner, and Mark, the cousin of Barnabas, concerning whom ye received orders that he comes to you.’" (Colossians 4:10,11) Dialogue on the True Faith first part 5d p.42-43

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) mentions the Old and New Testaments in his Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.345 He listed the letters of Paul as Romans, Corinthians, Galatians, Ephesians, Thessalonians, Philippians, Colossians, Timothy and quotes 1 Timothy 3:15 in ch.16 p.345 He goes on to quote 1 Corinthians 15:53 on p.346

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) alludes to Colossians 1:15 as by Paul. The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 3 ch.3 p.317. Paul is mentioned at the very end of chapter 2 and the very start of chapter 4.

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "Conformable to which, that which the majestically-speaking Paul says of Him: ‘Whom He hath appointed heir of all things. By whom also He made the worlds. But by Him also were all things created that are in heaven, and that are in earth, visible and invisible, whether they be thrones or dominions, or principalities, or powers; all things were created by Him, and for Him; and He is before all things.’" Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 to Alexander of Constantinople ch.6 p.293

 

Among heretics

The heretic Marcion according to Tertullian

 

NTa14. Paul wrote 1 Thessalonians

 

1 Thessalonians 1:1

 

p65 1 Thessalonians 1:3-2:1; 2:6-13 (225-275 A.D.) Paul says he is an apostle in 1 Thessalonians 2:6

 

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Paul wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) in discussing the canon of scripture vs. what Marcion accepts, discusses Paul being the author of Galatians, Corinthians, Philippians, Thessalonians, Ephesians, Romans, and John being the author of the Apocalypse (Revelation) in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.5 p.350.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And by Paul in the First Epistle to the Thessalonians like things are said: ‘For ye brethren became imitators of the churches of God which are in Judaea in Christ Jesus, for ye also suffered the same things of your own countrymen even as they did of the Jews, who both killed the Lord Jesus and the prophets, and drove out us, and please not God, and are contrary to all men.’" [1 Thessalonians 2:14-15] Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.18 p.425

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And in the Epistle of Paul to the Thessalonians: ‘But we would not that you should be ignorant, brethren, concerning those who sleep, that ye sorrow not as others which have no hope. For if we believe that Jesus died and rose again, so also them which have fallen asleep in Jesus will God bring with Him.’" [1 Thessalonians 4:13-14] Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.58 p.548

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) quotes 1 Thessalonians 4:16-17 as by Paul. Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 6 ch.4 p.330

 

NTa15. Paul wrote 2 Thessalonians

 

Paul’s authorship of 2 Thessalonians was never challenged until the 19th century by rationalist critics, according to the Bible Knowledge Commentary : Old Testament p.713.

 

2 Thessalonians 1:1

 

p30 - 1 Thessalonians 4:12-13,16-17; 5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28; 2 Thessalonians 1:1-2; 2:1,9-11 (25 verses) (ca.225 A.D.) 2 Thessalonians 1:1

 

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) "But how Paul, an apostle, from being a persecutor, who first of all shed the blood of the church, though afterwards he exchanged the sword for the pen, and turned the dagger into a plough, being first a ravening wolf of Benjamin, then himself supplying food as did Jacob, -how he, (I say, ) speaks in favour of martyrdoms, now to be chosen by himself also, when, rejoicing over the Thessalonians, he says, ‘So that we glory in you in the churches of God, for your patience and faith in all your persecutions and tribulations, in which ye endure a manifestation of the righteous judgment of God, that ye may be accounted worthy of His kingdom, for which ye also suffer! [2 Thessalonians 1:4] ... But writing in bonds to the Thessalonians, he certainly affirmed that they were blessed, since to them it had been given not only to believe on Christ, but also to suffer for His sake. ‘Having,’ says he, ‘the same conflict which ye both saw in me, and now hear to be in me.’ ‘For though I are offered upon the sacrifice, I joy and rejoice with you all; in like manner do ye also joy and rejoice with me.’ [Philippians 2:29-30] You see what he decides the bliss of martyrdom to be, in honour of which he is providing a festival of mutual joy." Scorpiace ch.13 p.646-647. See also "the Apostle Paul" writing to the Thessalonians and quoting 2 Thessalonians 3:14,15 in Tertullian on Modesty ch.13 p.87.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "And the blessed Apostle Paul, writing to the Thessalonians, says: ‘Now we beseech you, brethren, concerning the coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, and our gathering together at it, that ye be not soon shaken in mind, or be troubled, neither by spirit, nor by word, nor by letters as from us, as that the day of the Lord is at hand. Let no man deceive you by any means; for (that day shall not come) except there come the falling away first, and that man of sin be revealed, the son of perdition, who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped: so that he sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. Remember ye not, that when I was yet with you, I told you these things? And now ye know what withholdeth, that he might be revealed in his time.’" [2 Thessalonians 2:1-11] Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.63 p.218

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12 as by Paul. Then he quotes Daniel 9:29. "So many, out of a greater number of passages, have I thought it right to adduce, that the hearer may understand in some slight degree the meaning of holy Scripture, which gives us information concerning the devil and Antichrist;" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) Paul to the Thessalonians: ‘But we have commanded you, in the name of Jesus Christ, that ye depart from all brethren who walk disorderly, and not according to the tradition which they have received from us.’" [2 Thessalonians 3:6] Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.68 p.551

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "Paul the apostle says: ‘Except there come a falling away first, and the man of sin shall appear, the son of perdition; and the adversary who exalted himself above all which is called God, or which is worshipped.’" [2 Thessalonians 2:3b-4] Commentary on the Apocalypse from the 12th chapter v.7-9 p.356.

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "And Paul, speaking of Antichrist to the Thessalonians, says:" and quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:8. Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter verse 16 (first time) p.345.

 

NTa16. Paul wrote 1 Timothy

 

1 Timothy 1:1

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Of this Linus, Paul makes mention in the Epistles to Timothy." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3.3 p.416

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (202 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 6:20,21 as by Timothy. Then he says, "Convicted by this utterance, the heretics reject the Epistles to Timothy." Stromata book 2 ch.11 p.359

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says 1 Timothy 6:16 is by Paul and 1 John 4:16 by John. Clement of Alexandria fragment 3 p.575

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "because Paul addressed even this expression to Timothy: ‘O Timothy, guard that which is entrusted to thee;’ and again: ‘That good thing which was committed unto thee keep.’" Prescription Against Heretics ch.25 p.255

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) "Plainly, the selfsame apostle [Paul] delivered to Satan Hymenaeus and Alexander, ‘that they might be emended into not blaspheming,’ as he writes to his Timotheus [Timothy 1:20]." Tertullian on Modesty ch.13 p.87. See also Tertullian On Modesty ch.18 p.95

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But how Paul, an apostle, ... When at length he had come to be very near the attainment of his desire, greatly rejoicing in what he saw before him, he writes in these terms to Timothy: ‘For I am already being offered, and the time of my departure is at hand. I have fought the good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith; there is laid up for me the crown which the Lord will give me on that day’" [1 Timothy 4:6] Scorpiace ch.13 p.646-647

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (partial) asks Marcion why he rejects as scripture the apostle’s two letters to Timothy and one to Titus. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.21 p.473.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "But persons of this description are estimated Cynics rather than Christians, inasmuch as they do not attend unto the words spoken against them through the Apostle Paul. Now he, predicting the novelties that were to be hereafter introduced ineffectually by certain (heretics), made a statement thus: ‘The Spirit speaketh expressly, In the latter times certain will depart from sound doctrine, giving heed to seducing spirits and doctrines of devils, uttering falsehoods in hypocrisy, having their own conscience seared with a hot iron, forbidding to marry, to abstain from meats, which God has created to be partaken of with thanksgiving by the faithful, and those who know the truth; because every creature of God is good, and nothing to be rejected which is received with thanksgiving; for it is sanctified by the word of God and prayer.’" (1 Timothy 4:1-5) Refutation of All Heresies book 8 ch.13 p.124

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes the first half of 1 Timothy 1:7 and discusses the second half as "mentioned by Paul". Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.41 p.472

Origen (233/234 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 2:8 as by Paul in 1 Timothy. Prayer ch.9.1 p.38

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "says the Apostle Paul, ‘from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by those things which are made, even His eternal power and godhead; so that the human mind, learning hidden things from those that are manifest, from the greatness of the works which it should behold, might with the eyes of the mind consider the greatness of the Architect.’ [allusion to Romans 1:20a] Of whom the same apostle, ‘Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory.’ [1 Timothy 1:17]" Concerning the Trinity ch.3 p.614

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied, since a second) "Of this same thing, Paul in the second Epistle to Timothy: ‘I am now offered up, and the time of my assumption is at hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith. There now remains for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will give me in that day; and not only to me, but to all also who love His appearing.’" [2 Timothy 4:6-8] Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third part ch.16 p.539

Pontius (after 258 A.D.) (partial) alludes to 1 Timothy 3:6 as by the apostle. "the apostle’s epistle says that novices should be passed over, else by the stupor of heathenism that yet clings to their unconfirmed minds, their untaught inexperience should in any respect sin against God." Life and Passion of Cyprian ch.2 p.268

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "In the whole world Paul taught that all the churches are arranged by sevens, that they are called seven, and that the Catholic Church is one. And first of all, indeed, that he himself also might maintain the type of seven churches, he did not exceed that number. But he wrote to the Romans, to the Corinthians, to the Galatians, to the Ephesians, to the Thessalonians, to the Philippians, to the Colossians; afterwards he wrote to individual persons, so as not to exceed the number of seven churches. And abridging in a short space his announcement, he thus says to Timothy: ‘That thou mayest know how thou oughtest to behave thyself in the Church of the living God.’" [1/2 of 1 Timothy 3:15] Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter no.16 p.345

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 Timothy 2:4 as by the apostle. Banquet of the Ten Virgins ch.7 p.316

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 4:1 as by Paul. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 2 ch.4 p.298

 

NTa17. Paul wrote a 2nd letter to Timothy

 

2 Timothy 1:1

 

Paul wrote 2 Timothy

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Of this Linus, Paul makes mention in the Epistles to Timothy." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.3.3 p.416

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes 2 Timothy 4:10,11 as by Paul in the epistles. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 14.1 p.438

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) ch.3 p.603 mentions that Paul wrote to seven churches in his epistles, Corinthians (2 letters), Ephesians, Philippians, Colossians, Galatians, Thessalonians (2 letters), Romans. Wrote Philemon, Titus, two letters to Timothy.

Clement of Alexandria (202 A.D.) (partial, apostle) quotes 1 Timothy 6:20,21 as by the apostle to Timothy. Then he says, "Convicted by this utterance, the heretics reject the Epistles to Timothy." Stromata book 2 ch.11 p.359

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (partial) asks Marcion why he rejects as scripture the apostle’s two letters to Timothy and one to Titus. Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.21 p.473.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) quotes 2 Timothy 3:6-7 as by Paul. Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.24 p.584

Origen (239-242 A.D.) (partial) quotes part of 2 Timothy 3:4 as by the apostle. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 3 ch.5.2 p.59

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (1 Timoth implies a 2 Timothy) quotes 1 Timothy 2:8 as by Paul in 1 Timothy. Prayer ch.9.1 p.38

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Of this same thing, Paul in the second Epistle to Timothy: ‘I am now offered up, and the time of my assumption is at hand. I have fought a good fight, I have finished my course, I have kept the faith. There now remains for me a crown of righteousness, which the Lord, the righteous Judge, will give me in that day; and not only to me, but to all also who love His appearing.’" [2 Timothy 4:6-8] Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third part ch.16 p.539. See also Treatise 12 third part ch.67 p.551.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Looking forward to which, the blessed Apostle Paul writes to Timothy, and warns him that a bishop must not be ‘litigious, nor contentious, but gentle and teachable.’" [2 Timothy 2:24] Epistles of Cyprian Letter 73 ch.10 p.389

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (implied, if a first, then a second) "The apostle in his First Epistle to Timothy: ‘But if any take not care of his own, and especially of those of his own household, he denies the faith, and is worse than an infidel.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.75 p.552

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes half of 2 Timothy 3:4. It is at the end of a long catena of three verses introduced as "according to the blessed Paul". Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.13 p.296

 

NTa18. Peter wrote 1 Peter

 

1 Peter 1:1

 

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. 1 Peter 1:1

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) quotes all of 1 Peter 1:8 as "Peter says in his Epistle" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.9.2 p.472

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 2:1-3 as an authority by Peter. The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.220

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 4:3 as by Peter. The Instructor book 3 ch.12 p.291

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 1:21,22 as by Peter in his Epistle. Stromata book 3 ch.18 p.402

Tertullian (205 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 2:20 saying "Addressing the Christians of Pontus, Peter, at all events, says," in Scorpiace ch.12 p.645. He quotes 1 Peter 4:12 in the same chapter on p.645 also.

Origen (c.240 A.D.) says that Peter wrote 1 Peter 5:8-9. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 5 ch.16 p.60

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) quotes 1 Peter 3:18-20 as by Peter. Origen’s Commentary on John book 6 ch.18 vol.9 p.368

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) alludes to 1 Peter 2:5 as by Peter. Origen’s Commentary on John ch.23 vol.9 p.404

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) says that Peter left "only one epistle of acknowledged genuineness. Suppose we allow that he left a second; for this is doubtful." Origen’s Commentary on John from the Fifth book ch.3 p.346

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions "the Epistle of Peter to them in Pontus" and then quotes 1 Peter 4:15-16 in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.39 p.545.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Peter also, His apostle, … For he wrote in his epistle, and said" and quotes 1 Peter 4:12-14. Epistles of Cyprian letter 55 ch.2 p.347-348

Firmilian of Caesarea to Cyprian (256 A.D.) refers to 1 Peter. "Even as also the Apostle Peter laid down, saying, ‘Thus also shall baptism in like manner make you safe;’" (1 Peter 3:21) Letter 74 ch.15 p.394

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) quotes part of 1 Peter 2:9 as by the apostle Peter Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John p.344

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "6. ‘ And He made us a kingdom and priests unto God and His Father.’] That is to say, a Church of all believers; as also the Apostle Peter says: ‘A holy nation, a royal priesthood.’" Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter no.6 p.344

 

NTa19. John wrote 1 John

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) quotes 1 John 4:1,2 and 1 John 5:1 as by "his disciple in his epistle". He also quotes from John as from his disciple in the gospel. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 16.8 p.443

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes 1 John 3:14,15 as by John. Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved? Ch.37 p.601.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says 1 Timothy 6:16 is by Paul and 1 John 4:16 by John. Clement of Alexandria fragment 3 p.575

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) quotes part of 1 John 1:1 as a "Testimony of John" in A Treatise on the Soul ch.17 p.197

Tertullian (205 A.D.) quotes 1 John 4:18 as by John. Scorpiace ch.12 p.645-646

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) quotes that God is light from "the Catholic Epistle of John" (1 John 1:5) Origen’s Commentary on John book 2 ch.18 p.336

Novatian (250-257 A.D.) quotes half of 1 John 4:12 as by John. Treatise on the Trinity ch.18 p.627

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.675 "For John says of our Lord in his epistle, teaching us: ‘This is He who came by water and blood, Jesus Christ; not by water only, but by water and blood: and it is the Spirit that beareth witness, because the Spirit is truth.’"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions "the Epistle of John and then quotes 1 John 2:21,22 in Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 part 3 ch.79 p.552.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) The word of the blessed Apostle John is: ‘God,’ saith he, ‘is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God dwelleth in him.’ Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.14 p.426

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) refers to 1 John 2:18 as by John. Section 10 p.244

 

NTa20. Jude wrote Jude

 

Jude 1

 

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Jude 1.

 

The Muratorian Canon (190-217 A.D.) "John wrote the Apocalypse. Two letters belonging to John, or bearing the name John. The Epistle of Jude." ANF vol.5 p.603.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Jude 5,6 as by Jude. The Instructor book 3 ch.8 p.282

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) quotes part of Jude 19,22b,23a Stromata book 6 ch.8 p.495

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) refers to Jude 8-17 as Jude prophesied. Stromata book 3 ch.2 p.383

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) quotes Jude 1,4-14,19 as by Jude in fragments form Cassiodorus p.573.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "To these considerations is added the fact that Enoch possesses a testimony in the Apostle Jude." On the Apparel of Women book 1 ch.3 p.16

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) in discussing scriptural books, quotes Jude 1 as by Jude. Origen’s Commentary on Matthew book 10 ch.17 p.424. He also quotes part of Jude 1 as by Jude in his commentary on Matthew book 13 ch.27 p.491.

 

NTa21. The evangelists [gospel writers]

 

&&&Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And it is not only from the writings of the evangelists and the apostles that they endeavour to derive proofs for their opinions by means of perverse interpretations and deceitful expositions: they deal in the same way with the law and the prophets, which contain many parables and allegories that can frequently be drawn into various senses, according to the kind of exegesis to which they are subjected." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3.6 p.320

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial, evangelists just doing evangelism) "And since the omnipotent God Himself ‘gave some apostles, and some prophets, and some evangelists, and some pastors and teachers, for the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ," Stromata book 4 ch.21 p.433

&&&Tertullian (199-220 A.D.) "One Lord God does she [the church] acknowledge, the Creator of the universe, and Christ Jesus (born) of the Virgin Mary, the Son of God the Creator; and the Resurrection of the flesh; the law and the prophets she unites in one volume with the writings of evangelists and apostles, from which she drinks in her faith." Prescription Against Heretics ch.36 p&&&

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "Justinus was entirely opposed to the teaching of the holy Scriptures, and moreover to the written or oral teaching of the blessed evangelists, according as the Logos was accustomedto instruct His disciples, saying, 'Go not into the way of the Gentiles;' and this signifies that they should not attend to the futile doctrine of the Gentiles." Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.18 p.69

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) "The evangelists, therefore, would thus have spoken falsely, affirming what was not truth, but a fictitious commendation. And for this reason the one traced the pedigree of Jacob the father of Joseph from David through Solomon; the other traced that of Heli also, though in a different way, the father of Joseph, from Nathan the son of David." Epistle to Aristides ch.1 p.125

&&&Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Nay, even one of the evangelists-Mark-says: 'The beginning of the Gospel of Jesus Christ, as it is written in the prophet Isaiah" Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.4 p.&&&

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "In the matter of proper names the Greek copies are often incorrect, and in the Gospels one might be misled by their authority. The transaction about the swine, which were driven down a steep place by the demons and drowned in the sea, is said to have taken place in the country of the Gerasenes. Now, Gerasa is a town of Arabia, and has near it neither sea nor lake. And the Evangelists would not have made a statement so obviously and demonstrably false; for they were men who informed themselves carefully of all matters connected with Judaea. But in a few copies we have found, ‘into the country of the Gadarenes; ‘and, on this reading, it is to be stated that Gadara is a town of Judaea, in the neighbourhood of which are the well-known hot springs, and that there is no lake there with overhanging banks, nor any sea." Commentary on John book 6 ch.24 p.371

Origen (233/234 A.D.) the evangelists [writers of the gospels]. On Prayer book 27 ch.7 p.91.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "It is something possible; for Mark makes mention of His saying, ‘Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee.’ [Mark 14:36]. And they are possible if He wills them; for Luke tells us that He said, ‘Father, if Thou be willing, remove this cup from me.’ The Holy Spirit, therefore, apportioned among the evangelists, makes up the full account of our Saviour’s whole disposition by the expressions of these several narrators together. ... For this reason, the other scripture says, ‘All things are possible unto Thee.’" [Matthew 19:26] Commentary on Luke ch.12 verse 42 p.115

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "But in what you have written to me you have made out very clearly, and with an intelligent understanding of the Holy Scriptures, that no very exact account seems to be offered in them of the hour at which He rose. For the evangelists have given different descriptions of the parties who came to the sepulchre one after another, and all have declared that they found the Lord risen already. It was ‘in the end of the Sabbath,’ as Matthew has said; it was ‘early, when it was yet dark,’ as John writes; it was ‘very early in the morning,’ as Luke puts it; and it was ‘very early in the morning, at the rising of the sun,’ as Mark tells us. Thus no one has shown us clearly the exact time when He rose." letter 5 to Bishop Basilides canon 5 p.94

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) discusses what if Jesus only suffered in appearance. "If He suffered in appearance, and not in reality, Herod sat in judgment only in appearance; …. Even His blood was poured out in appearance; the Evangelists preached the Gospel in appearance; Christ came from Heaven in appearance, and He ascended in appearance. The salvation of mankind was also in appearance, and not in truth. Why then does Christ say, ‘I am the truth?’" Dialogue on the True Faith fifth part ch.851a p.149

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 303 A.D.) "Moreover, not only do the evangelists express their four similitudes in their respective openings of the Gospels, but also the Word itself of God the Father Omnipotent, which is His Son our Lord Jesus Christ, bears the same likeness in the time of His advent." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter verses 7-10 p.348

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-310/311 A.D.) "according to what is written by the blessed Paul: 'For even Christ our Passover is sacrificed for us;’ and not as some who, carried along by ignorance, confidently affirm that after He had eaten the Passover, He was betrayed; which we neither learn from the holy evangelists, nor has any of the blessed apostles handed it down to us." Fragment 5 That Up to the Time of the Destruction of Jerusalem ch.7 p.282

Alexander of Alexandria (-326 A.D.) "Not that the Word is unbegotten, for the Father alone is unbegotten, but because the inexplicable subsistence of the only-begotten Son transcends the acute comprehension of the evangelists, and perhaps also of angels." Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.4 p.292

 

Teachings on Bible authors not on the list

 

1. Moses the author of Leviticus (only 3 writers: Melito of Sardis, Tertullian, Methodius)

2. Solomon wrote Song of Songs (3 writers for. For: Gregory Thaumaturgus, Dionysius of Alexandria, Methodius.)

2. Obadiah wrote Obadiah (no writers)

3. Haggai wrote Haggai (only 1 writer: Cyprian of Carthage)

4. Paul wrote Titus (only 3 writers: Muratorian Canon, Tertullian, Origen. Cyprian of Carthage is partial.)

5. Paul wrote Philemon (only 2 writers: Muratorian Canon, Origen)

6. Law can refer to Psalms as well as the Torah. (Jn 10:34 + Ps 82:6) (only 2 writers: Tatians’ Diatessaron, Tertullian)

 

Divergences

1. Divergence: Moses wrote the book of Job (only 1 writer had this unusual view: Methodius)

2. Divergence: (disputed) Paul wrote Hebrews (6 writers for, 1 writer against. For: Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Dionysius of Alexandria, Adamantius, Athanasius. Against: Tertullian thought Hebrews might have been written by Barnabas.

3. Divergence: Peter wrote 2 Peter (1 writer for, 1 against. For: Adamantius. Against: Origen)

4. Divergence: Peter wrote 2 Peter (only 1 writer for and 1/2 against: Adamantius. Hippolytus is partial. Origen said it is doubtful.)

5. Divergence: John the Apostle wrote Revelation (10 writers for, 1 against. for: Irenaeus, Muratorian Canon, Clement of Alexandria, Tertullian, Origen, Treatise Against Novatian, Cyprian of Carthage, Victorinus of Petau, Methodius, Lactantius. Against: Dionysius of Alexandria said by another John.)

 

God’s TranscendEnce

 

G1. There is only One True God

 

Deuteronomy 6:4,35-39; 2 Samuel 7:22; Mark 12:29-33; Isaiah 43:10-12; 44:6-8,24; 45:5-14; 46:9; Matthew 19:17; Mark 10;18; 12:29,32; John 17:3; 1 Corinthians 8:4,6; 1 Timothy 1:17; 6:15-16; James 2:19

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 17:3

p20 - James 2:19-3:2 (6 out of 96 letters of 3:3; 3:4-9 (3rd century A.D.) James 2:19

p15 1 Corinthians 7:18-8:4 (late 3rd century) 1 Corinthians 8:4

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament, including all of Deuteronomy, and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Matthew 19:17; Mark 10:18; 12:29,32; John 17:3

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

While Mormonism has taught that there are many gods over many planets, both the Bible and the early church teach there is only one true God.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) says that we have only one God, one Christ, and one spirit of grace poured out on us. 1 Clement ch.46 p.17

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) "His grace to fully convince the unbelieving that there is one God, who has manifested Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who is His eternal Word,..." Letter of Ignatius Letter to the Magnesians ch.8 p.62

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) "‘You [Emperor Trajan] are in error when you call the demons of the nations gods. For there is but one God, who made heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all that are in them; and one Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God, whose kingdom may I [Ignatius] enjoy.’ Trajan asked, ‘do you mean the one who was crucified under Pontius Pilate?’" The Martyrdom of Ignatius ch.2 p.129

Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) p.276 teaches on one God Almighty.

Letter to Diognetus ch.3 p.26 (130-150 A.D.) (implied) mentions it proper that the Jews worship the one God as being Lord of all.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) There was never any true God for anyone but the Creator, and there will never be any other God. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.11 p.199

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 2 first commandment p.20 says there is one God who created and finished all things, and made all things out of nothing.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 34.28 p.96 quotes Jesus speaking the two greatest commandments.

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) said that like Christians, even some Greek poets said there is only one God. A Plea for Christians ch.5,6 p.131

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) taught that Isaiah 41:4; 44:6; 43:10,11; 66:1 show that there is only one God. A Plea for Christians ch.9 p.133

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) discusses a man forsaking the light and saying there is another God. Discourse to Antonius Caesar p.751

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "sent holy prophets to declare and teach the race of men, that each one of us might awake and understand that there is one God." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.34 p.108

Maximus of Jerusalem (185-196 A.D.) "There cannot exist two uncreated substances at one and the same time". See also, "we are driven to the conclusion that there is only one uncreated substance." fragment 1 vol.8 p.767 He also says that God is uncreated on p.771.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: [She believes] in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion [death], and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and his [future] manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father ‘to gather all things in one,’ and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, ..." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.2 p.330.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says there is only One God. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.4, 5.

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) says that God is alone. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.18 p.183. See also ibid ch.33 p.193.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says that God is one. The Instructor book 1 ch.4 p.211. See also see The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.213

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says that the God of all is the only One good. The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.228

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) quotes Isaiah 45:21-23 that there is none besides God. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.8 p.194

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "God, who alone is truly God." Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.186

Tertullian (188-220 A.D.) "The object of our worship is the One God, He who by His commanding word, His arranging wisdom, His mighty power, brought forth from nothing this entire mass of our world, with all its array of elements, bodies, spirits, for the glory of His majesty;" Apology ch.17 p.31

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "These [the four gospels] all start with the same principles of the faith, so far as relates to the one only God the Creator and His Christ, how that He was born of the Virgin, and came to fulfil the law and the prophets." Tertullian’s Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.2 p.347

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says, "The first and only (one God) both Creator and Lord or all, had nothing coeval with Himself, not infinite chaos, nor measureless water nor solid earth, ... But He was One alone in Himself." The Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.28 p.150

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "For this is the one God, who has measured both the beginning and the end of events suitably to each one." Excerpts from Theodotus ch.18 p.45

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) "Believe in the one God, that when dead thou mayest live, and mayest rise in His kingdom, when there shall be the resurrection to the just." Instructions of Commodianus ch.34 p.209. See also ibid ch.33 p.209.

Martyrdom of the Holy Martyrs (before 250 A.D.) (ANF vol.1) ch.3 p.306 "I too am a Christian, for I worship and reverence the only True God"

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Now it is possible that some may dislike what we have said representing the Father as the one true God…" Origen’s Commentary on John book 2 ch.3 p.323

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) speaks of the only God. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.3 p.614 and He has no equal and is of necessity the Highest. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.4 p.614

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "The Lord in His Gospel, when He would direct the way of our hope and faith in a brief summary, said, ‘The Lord thy God is one God: and thou shalt love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy strength." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 1 ch.15 p.426

Nemesianus of Thubunae at the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.566 quotes Ephesians 4:3-6 as keeping the unit of the Spirit and One God.

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "There is one God, the Father of the living Word, who is His subsistent Wisdom and Power and Eternal Image: perfect Begetter of the perfect Begotten, Father of the only-begotten Son." A Declaration of Faith p.7

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "Now we worship the one God, who is the Creator of all things," Part 2 Letter 10 ch.5 p.105

Dionysius of Rome (259-269 A.D.) it is just to dispute against those who say there are three powers and distinct substances. Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians (ANF vol.7) ch.1 p.365

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "I believe in One God, Creator and Maker of all thing; and in God the Word, who was born of Him, of the same essence, and exists eternally." Dialogue on the True Faith ch.2 p.37

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (alternate translation) "There is One God, Creator and Architect of everything, in whom I believe, and his Word, his essence, is even co-eternal." Dialogue on the True Faith ch.2

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) says there is only one true God. Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.75 p.463

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) "One God the Father Almighty, the Maker and Provider of all things" Creed of Lucian of Antioch in The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff vol.2 p.26

Athanasius (c.318 A.D.) "Therefore their worship and deification is no part of religion, but the bringing in of godlessness and of all impiety, and a sign of a wide departure from the knowledge of the one true God, namely the Father of Christ." Athanasius Against the Heathen part 1 ch.29 p.19

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) There is only one God The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.4 p.13

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But he who shall follow the guidance of reason will understand that there cannot be a Lord except one, nor a Father except one. For if God, who made all things, is also Lord and Father, He must be one only, so that the same may be the head and source of all things. Nor is it possible for the world to exist unless all things be referred to one person, unless one hold the rudder, unless one guide the reins, and, as it were, one mind direct all the members of the body." Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.2 p.224. See also ibid ch.4 p.225.

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.491 "And the women shouted aloud, and with one mouth returned thanks to God, saying: There is one God, the God of Thecla;"

 

Among heretics

The Encratite Tatian (died 172 A.D.) says that He [God] alone is without beginning, and He Himself is the beginning of all things. He made both the visible and invisible things. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.2-3 p.65-66

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.7 p.78 says One God created the heavens and earth. See also ibid book 2 ch.36 p.107; book 3 ch.75 p.134.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.40 p.236 says there is only one and good God, maker of the world. See also homily 2 ch.12,16 p.230-231, homily 3 ch.10 p.240, and homily 10 ch.19 p.283.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.10 p.240 Peter says, "But we also can easily show many passages from them [the Scriptures] that He who made the world alone is God, and that there is none other besides Him."

pseudo-Clement Two Epistles on Virginity (3rd century A.D.) Epistle 1 ch.13 p.60 says there is One God.

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says there are three divine principles: the good, the just (Demiurge) and the evil. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.2 p.37-38

X The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185 A.D.) ch.10 p.112 is against there being only One God.

 

G2. God is almighty (omnipotent)

 

Job 42:2; Luke 1:37; Romans 9:29; Revelation 11:17

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Romans 9:29

p47 (= Chester Beatty III) (c.250-300 A.D.) 31% of Revelation. Revelation 9:20-11:3; 11:5-16:15; 16:17-17:2 calls God Almighty. Revelation 11:17

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 1:37

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 1:37

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 1:37

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) refers to Hebrews 6:18 where nothing is impossible with God except to lie. 1 Clement ch.27 p.12 and vol.9 p.237. [Actually two other things Scriptures says are impossible with God too: to deny Himself and to be tempted.]

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) mentions Almighty God. 1 Clement ch.1 p.229

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) vol.7 ch.10 p.380 speaks of the holy Father, and Master almighty.

Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) p.276 mentions one God Almighty.

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) "Mercy to you, and peace from God Almighty…" Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.1 p.33

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 1 vision 3 ch.3 p.14 mentions the word of the almighty and glorious Name.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.139 p.269 mentions "the Almighty Father"

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "we expect to receive again our own bodies, though they be dead and cast into the earth, for we maintain that with God nothing is impossible." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.18 p.172

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) "And he [Polycarp], placing his hands behind him, and being bound like a distinguished ram [taken] out of a great flock for sacrifice, and prepared to be an acceptable burnt-offering unto God, looked up to heaven, and said, ‘O Lord God Almighty, the Father of thy beloved and blessed Son Jesus Christ, by whom we have received the knowledge of Thee, the God of angels and powers, and of every creature, and of the whole race of the righteous who live before thee, I give Thee thanks that Thou hast counted me, worthy of this day and this hour, that I [Polycarp] should have a part in the number of Thy martyrs, in the cup of thy Christ, to the resurrection of eternal life, both of soul and body, through the incorruption [imparted] by the Holy Ghost." Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.14 p.42

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 48.9 p.117 says the Father can do all things.

Meleto/Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "believe in Him who is in reality God, and to Him lay open thy mind, and to Him commit thy soul, and He is able to give thee immortal life for ever, for everything is possible to Him;" Discourse in the Presence of Antoninus Caesar p.753

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "He is creator and maker of the universe; the Highest, because of His being above all; and Almighty, because He Himself rules and embraces all." Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.14 p.90. See also book 2 ch.13 p.99

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: [She believes] in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion [death], and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and his [future] manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father ‘to gather all things in one,’ and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, ..." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.2 p.330.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that God is almighty. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.3.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "And by the Spirit the Father is called Most High and Almighty and Lord of hosts;" Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.8

Maximus of Jerusalem (185-196 A.D.) God has a controlling power over all things. fragment 1 vol.8 p.771

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201-205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) ch.6.4 p.706 "God the Father Omnipotent, and His Son Jesus Christ our Lord"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "and there is nothing which God cannot do." The Instructor book 1 ch.3 p.210. He also speaks of the omnipotent in Stromata (193-202 A.D.) book 2 ch.16 p.363

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says that God is Almighty The Instructor book 1 ch.3 p.211

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "…for I have but one true Lord, the God omnipotent and eternal, who of Lord of the emperor as well." Apology ch.34 p.43

Tertullian (c.206/207 A.D.) "And therefore it was said to him, ‘Thy faith hath made thee whole,’ because he had discovered that it was his duty to render the true oblation to Almighty God-even thanksgiving-in His true temple, and before His true High Priest Jesus Christ." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.35 p.409

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says John has said "Which is, and which was, and which is to come, the Almighty." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.6 p.225.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "By the omnipotent will of God all things are made". Against Beron and Helix fragment 1 p.231

Theodotus the probable Montanist (c.240 A.D.) says that nothing is impossible with God. Excerpts of Theodotus ch.26 p.46

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions Almighty God. Instructions of Commodianus ch.3 p.202 and ch.57 p.214. See also ibid ch.29 p.208. God is omnipotent in ibid ch.8 p.204.

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions Almighty God and the "law of the Omnipotent" in Instructions of Commodianus ch.3 p.203 and ch.22 p.206.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "We, however, have learned who the Son of God is, and know that He is ‘the brightness of His glory, and the express image of His person,’ and ‘the breath of the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the glory of the Almighty; ‘moreover, ‘the brightness of the everlasting light, the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the image of His goodness.’" Origen Against Celsus book 8 ch.14 p.644

Origen (233/234 A.D.) says God is almighty. Prayer ch.14.3 p.54

Origen (239-242 A.D.) says God is almighty. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 7 ch.10.2 p.107

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) speaks of God the Father and Lord Omnipotent, the found of all things. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.17 p.627 and ch.1 p.611

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "that thereby it appears and is plain that he is a heretic who believes on another God, or receives another Christ than Him whom the Scriptures of the Old and New Testament manifestly declare, which announce without any obscurity the Father omnipotent, Creator of all things, and His Son."

Cyprian to Cornelius (c.246-258 A.D.) "I … do render the greatest thanks without ceasing, dearest brother, to God the Father Almighty, and to His Christ the Lord and our God and Saviour, that the Church is thus divinely protected, and its unity and holiness is not constantly nor altogether corrupted by the obstinacy of perfidy and heretical wickedness." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 46 p.324

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "We give thanks, O Lord God omnipotent," Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part ch.20 p.540

Cornelius to Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions Almighty God Epistles of Cyprian Letter 46 p.323

Felix, Jader, Polianus, and the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian of Carthage (246-256 A.D.) "…And we have given and do give thanks to God the Father Almighty through His Christ," Letter 79 p.406

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) speaks of the "Almighty Father" Letter to Dionysius of Rome book 4 ch.15 p.94 and Jesus telling the Father, "all things are possible to thee" Exegetical Fragment 3 on Luke 22:42, etc. p.117.

Dionysius of Rome (259-269 A.D.) Against the Sabellians p.366 mentions the Father Omnipotent

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) gives thanks to Almighty God and refers to God your Father, who is in heaven. Letter of Theonas, Bishop of Alexandria, to Lucianus, the Chief Chamberlain ch.1 p.158

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) in debating Droserius calls God "Almighty" and discusses free will. Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part ch.11 p.140

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) mentions worshipping "the omnipotent God". Arnobius Against the Heathen book 1 ch.36 p.422. He mentions the Almighty Creator in book 12 ch.33 p.451

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "but also the Word itself of God the Father Omnipotent," Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John From the fourth chapter verses 7-10 p.348

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) "One God the Father Almighty, the Maker and Provider of all things" Creed of Lucian of Antioch in The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff vol.2 p.26

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Very God, in the name of the Very God, the Omnipotent from the Omnipotent, the Son in the name of the Father." Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.396.

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) says the God is the Almighty in The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 2 ch.2 p.314

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says that God is Almighty. Against the Heathen ch.29.2 p.19

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) calls God the Omnipotent in The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.10 p.180

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) calls God the omnipotent Father. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.1 p.10

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that God is omnipotent. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.2 p.225

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "by the true and omnipotent God" Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.8 p.389

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "omnipotent God" Oration on the Psalms ch.396

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.43 p.237 speaks of the omnipotent God.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.22 p.77 says God is almighty. See also ibid book 1 ch.9 p.79; bok 1 ch.11 p.80; book 1 ch.18 p.82; book 3 ch.49 p.127.

 

G3. God is sovereign / God’s sovereignty

 

Genesis 15:2,8; Psalm 68:20; Daniel 4:17,25,32; 5:21; 7:14; 2 Peter 2:1; Jude 4; many others

 

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "in whom is manifested God the Father, who is above all and in all, and God the Son, who is through all. There is a perfect Trinity, in glory and eternity and sovereignty, neither divided nor estranged." Declaration of Faith p.7

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Sing unto the Lord a new song: His sovereignty [is] from the end of the earth." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.65 p.230

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "The throne of the Lord – angels, or saints, or simply sovereign dominion. In the Psalm : ‘Thy throne, O God, is for ever and ever.’ Sate – the same as above, the angels or saints, because the Lord sits upon these.’ In the Psalm : ‘The Lord sat upon His holy seat.’". From the Oration on Our Lord’s Passion ch.9 p.761.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "For if I say He is Light, I name but His own work; if I call Him Word, I name but His sovereignty; if I call Him Mind, I speak but of His wisdom; if I say He is Spirit, I speak of His breath; if I call Him Wisdom, I speak of His offspring; if I call Him Strength, I speak of His sway; if I call Him Power, I am mentioning His activity; if Providence, I but mention His goodness; if I call Him Kingdom, I but mention His glory; if I call Him Lord, I mention His being judge; if I call Him Judge, I speak of Him as being just; if I call Him Father, I speak of all things as being from Him;" Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "not seen Him who is God over all, to know His power and sovereignty." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.6.3 p.366

Clement of Alexandria (198-202 A.D.) "For it is written in the Epistle to the Corinthians, 'Through Jesus Christ our foolish and darkened mind springs up to the light. By Him the Sovereign Lord wished us to taste the knowledge that is immortal.'" Stromata book 4 ch.17 p.429

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "Then why darest thou, while luxuriating in the bounties of the Lord, to ignore the Sovereign Ruler?' Leave my earth,' the Lord will say to thee." Exhortation to the Heathen ch.10 p.200

Clement of Alexandria (198-217/220 A.D.) (partial) "‘But ye are a chosen generation, a royal priesthood.’ That we are a chosen race by the election of God is abundantly clear. He says royal, because we are called to sovereignty and belong to Christ; and priesthood on account of the oblation which is made by prayers and instructions, by which are gained the souls which are offered to God." Fragments from Cassiodorus (fragment 1) p.572

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "It also was first with God, as God, too, was first with it; it, however, is not comparable with God, as God, too, is not to be compared with it; with God also it was the Author (of all things), and with God their Sovereign." Against Hermogenes ch.6 p.480

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, even as their substance is one and their dominion one. Whence also, with one and the same adoration, we worship the one Deity in three Persons, subsisting without beginning, uncreate, without end, and to which there is no successor. For neither will the Father ever cease to be the Father, nor again the Son to be the Son and King, nor the Holy Ghost to be what in substance and personality He is. For nothing of the Trinity will suffer diminution, either in respect of eternity, or of communion, or of sovereignty. For not on that account is the Son of God called king, because for our sakes He was made man," Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.397. (also The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.10 p.338 and ch.11 p.339)

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "may learn how the Almighty manifested His power and sovereign greatness in rooting out and utterly destroying the enemies of His name." The Manner in Which the Persecutors Died ch.1 p.301

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Justin Martyr (after 165 A.D.) Reveal to men their great and sovereign Lord." On the Sole Government of God ch.1 p.290

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.28 p.150 says that God cares for us.

 

G4. God is holy, good, or pure

 

Habakkuk 1:13; Mark 10:18; Hebrews 12:10

(implied) John 10:11

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 12:10

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) (implied, Christ) John 10:11

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 10:11

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (implied) John 10:11

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) (implied) John 10:11

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) God is "The Creator and Father of all worlds, the Most Holy, alone knows their amount and their beauty." 1 Clement ch.35 vol.1 p.14

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "since God is good, He corrects us, that we may be admonished by His Holy chastisement." 1 Clement ch.56 vol.1 p.20

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) "because they confess not the Eucharist to be the flesh of our Saviour Jesus Christ, which suffered for our sins, and which the Father, of His goodness, raised up again. Those, therefore, who speak against this gift of God, incur death" Epistle of Ignatius to the Smyrnaeans ch.7 p.89

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) vol.7 ch.10 p.380 speaks of the holy Father, and Master almighty.

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.7 mentions the "good Lord"

Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28 (130-150 A.D.) "For God, the Lord and Fashioner of all things, who made all things, and assigned them their several positions, proved Himself not merely a friend of mankind, but also long-suffering [in His dealings with them.] Yea, He was always of such a character, and still is, and will ever be, kind and good, and free from wrath, and true, and the only one who is [absolutely] good;"

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) refers to God’s grace and goodness. Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.20 p.43

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.47 p.218 mentions "the goodness and the loving-kindness of God"

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) says that God created all things from unformed matter out of His goodness. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.10 p.165

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.19 p.523 "on behalf of piety and the goodness of God."

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 28 p.87 with the rich young ruler, Jesus said none is good but God alone.

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) that "to the good that is in God, which belongs of necessity to Him, and co-exists with Him, as color with body." A Plea for Christians ch.24 p.142

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "but He [God] is good and kind, and merciful, to those who love and fear Him;" Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "for nothing was made evil by God, but all things good, yea, very good" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.17 p.101

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) says "in glory He [God] is incomprehensible, in greatness unfathomable, in height inconceivable, in power incomparable, … in goodness inimitable, in kindness unutterable." Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.89

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that since Jesus addressed the Father as good, He is truly good. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.20 p.345

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) speaks of "the goodness of God". Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.8.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) in Fragments from Cassiodorus (fragment 1) p.572 says, "‘Of all grace,’ he says, because He [God] is good, and the giver of all good things." See also The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.227-228. He also says that God is good and not the author of evil in Stromata (193-202 A.D.) book 4 ch.26 p.440

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says that the God of all is the only One good. The Instructor book 1 ch.9 p.228

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) in Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved? ch.4 p.592 uses Mark 10:17-31 to show that we are to be good and give to the poor rather than trusting in riches.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says, "For God alone is without sin; and the only man without sin is Christ, since Christ is also God." A Treatise on the Soul ch.41 p.221

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) simply says that God is good, and has pity, and likewise it is becoming for us to be good, pity others, and be peacemakers. Tertullian on Modesty ch.2 p.75 and ch.2 p.76.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) God is good and holy. Five Books Against Marcion book 1 ch.26 p.292. God is wholly good Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.13 p.308

Hippolytus of Portus (225-235/236 A.D.) likewise in the Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.2 p.50 and book 7 ch.20 p.113 uses this to prove Marcion and Gnosticism wrong. If the Father who created things is good, then all of Gnosticism falls.

Origen (235-245 A.D.) "God who is good" Homilies on Jeremiah homily 12 ch.6 p.119

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) says that if Christ deferred to God the Father, how much more would the sun refuse to have anyone bow down and worship it. Origen then adds that we should pray to the Word of God, and still more to His Father. Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.15 p.548

Novatian (250/254-256/7) "Moreover, the Lord Himself: ‘Why askest thou me concerning that which is good? God alone is good.’ … "but in the same Scriptures Christ is also asserted to be good. There is not, then, if they rightly conclude, one good, but even two good. How, then, according to the scriptural faith, is there said to be only one good? But if they do not think that it can by any means interfere with the truth that there is one Lord, that Christ also is Lord, nor with the truth that one is our. Master, that Paul also is our master, or with the truth that one is good, that Christ also is called good; on the same reasoning, let them understand that, from the fact that God is one, no obstruction arises to the truth that Christ also is declared to be God." Concerning the Trinity ch.30 p.642-643

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) quotes Habakkuk and says God is the Holy One. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.12 p.621

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "one and true Father, good, merciful, and loving-yea, Himself Goodness and Mercy and Love-rejoice in the repentance of His own sons!" Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.23 p.333

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "The plant that springs from the root is something distinct from that whence it grows up; and yet it is of one nature with it. And the river which flows from the fountain is something distinct from the fountain. For we cannot call either the river a fountain, or the fountain a river. Nevertheless we allow that they are both one according to nature, and also one in substance; and we admit that the fountain may be conceived of as father, and that the river is what is begotten of the fountain." On the One Substance p.120

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) Letter 4 Epistle to Dionysius Bishop of Rome ch.7 p.93 says that God is the spring or source of all good things, and the son is a river flowing out of Him. The word is an emanation of the mind.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) says, "Truth is un conquerable and immortal, for she is the offspring of the Good God." Dialogue on the True Faith First Part ch.13 p.56

Alexander of Lycopolis (301 A.D.) says that God is good. Of the Manichaeans ch.19 p.249.

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) says that God is the source of all good. Arnobius Against the Heathen book 12 ch.2 p.432

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) calls God "the Very Good" in Three Fragments from the homily on the Cross and Passion of Christ fragment 2 p.400

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.1 p.334 says that it is impossible to find a greater good than God.

Athanasius (318 A.D.) speaks of "the good God." Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.40 p.25. See also The Incarnation ch.1.6 p.39

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says the God is the chief good. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.1 p.101

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that God begat a pure and incorruptible Son. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.6 p.105

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) says that since the Son is with Him, the Father is always perfect, "being destitute of nothing as regards good" Epistles on the Arian Heresy ch.1.7 p.293.

 

Among heretics

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) says God is holy. book 4 ch.23 p.21

The Ebionite Epistle of Clement to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.10 p.220 says tht God is good.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.37 p.127 says that God is good.

Bardaisan/Bardesan (154-224/232 A.D.) "because in the image of Elohim was he made. Therefore have these things, in the benignity of God, been given to him, that they may minister to him for a season. It has also been given to him to be guided by his own will; so that whatever he is able to do, if he will he may do it, and if he do not will he may not do it, and that so he may justify himself or condemn. … It will therefore be manifest to you, that the goodness of God is great toward man,…" The Book of the Laws of Diverse Countries p.724-725 (Bardesan was definitely no Gnostic here.)

The Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) ch.2 p.61 says that God is good.

Mani (262-278 A.D.) says God is goodness. Disputation with Manes ch.5 p.182

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius believes in three divine beings, but discusses the good god. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.1 803 1 p.36

Valentinian heretic Droserius (c.300 A.D.) the Valentinian Gnostic, in disputing Adamantius, has Valentinian read, where the evil Thyestean banquet is alluded to. Dialogue on the True Faith 4th part ch.841a p.126

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) Homily 3 ch.57 p.248-249 they also used this verse against those who would call the Old Testament God evil. But in the Clementine literature and all Ebionite writings we have preserved, they never used this verse to deny saying that Jesus was god.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.40 p.236 says there is only one and good God, maker of the world. See also homily 2 ch.45 p.237.

 

G5. God does not speak lies / is Truth

 

Numbers 23:19; 1 Samuel 15:24; John 7:28; 14:6; Titus 1:2; Hebrews 6:18

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 6:18

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

p32 (=P. Rylands 5) Titus 1:1-15; 2:3-8 (21 verses) (150-200 A.D.) Titus 1:2 "God, who does not lie"

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) (partial) says they exchanged the truth of God for a lie. in Romans 1:25

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 7:28; 14:6

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 7:28; 14:6

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "He who has commanded us not to lie, shall much more Himself not lie; for nothing is impossible with God, except to lie." 1 Clement ch.26 vol.1 p.12 vol.9 p.237 [Actually two other things Scriptures says are impossible with God too: to deny Himself and to be tempted.]

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) (partial) "Look carefully into the Scriptures, which are the true utterances of the Holy Spirit. Observe that nothing of an unjust or counterfeit character is written in them." 1 Clement ch.45 p.17

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) (partial) says we are to walk according to the truth of the Lord. Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.5 p.34

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) says that God is not false but true [ever-truthful] God. Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.14 p.42

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.20 p.523 (implied) "To the only God invisible, the Father of truth, who sent forth to use the Saviour and Prince of incorruption, through whom also He manifested to us the truth and the heavenly life..."

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) says "Reason directs those who are truly pious and philosophical to honour and love only what is true, … For not only does sound reason direct us to refuse the guidance of those who did or taught anything wrong,…" First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.2 p.163.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says that God is Himself truth, and His word truth. discourse to Antonius Caesar ch.1 vol.8 p.753

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "those who love Him speak of Him thus: ‘Father, and God of Truth.’". discourse to Antonius Caesar p.751

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Our Lord, therefore, being the truth, did not speak lies;" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.5.1 p.417

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "For in all things God is true." Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.43

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "God, who lies not" Stromata book 6 ch.9 p.497

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) (partial) says there is one authority and truth in whom we are instructed by the Son of God. Stromata book 1 ch.20 p.323

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "The Lord is the Truth." Stromata book 2 ch.11 p.359

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "God, who can neither lie nor deceive" Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.9 p.329. See also "He cannot lie" in Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.29 p.399

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But our Lord Christ has surnamed Himself Truth, not Custom. If Christ is always, and prior to all, equally truth is a thing sempiternal and ancient." On the Veiling of Virgins ch.1 vol.4 p.27

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) says that the tabernacle "constituted types and emblems of spiritual mysteries" so that when Christ came people could see these truths fulfilled. fragment 1 Visions of Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar ch.5 p.179

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) in discussing Abraham and Isaac, "Or rather do you think of those well-known words, and say that it is impossible for him who promised to lie; be that as it may, the promise shall remain?" Homilies on Genesis homily 8 ch.1 p.137

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) "there is no truth apart from Christ who says He is the truth, and so there is no lie apart from him who is the enemy of truth." Commentary on Matthew book 12 ch.40 p.472.

However, Origen (235-245 A.D.) in discussing Jeremiah 20:7 brings up the idea that that "perhaps" God is like a father who sometimes deceives his son for the son’s best interest, or the physician who deceives the patient about the pain of the survery. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 20 ch.3.2 p.226.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.2 p.658 refers to God as "The Truth"

Bishop Januarius of Vicus Caesaris (partial) says we are to obey the truth. The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.568

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "thus the truthful word of God makes it necessary, which it has promised to set forth," Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John from the eleventh chapter verse 5 p.354

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says we cannot call God a liar. The Incarnation ch.1.7 p.39.

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (implied) says that God’s word cannot be false. The Incarnation ch.6.3 p.38 and 7.1 p.39

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "…they open their eyes of their mind and recognize God, in whom alone is the abode of truth;" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.52 p.243.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 4 ch.21 p.139 says that "what is spoken by the True God … is always true."

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.43 p.237 says that God does not lie.

Valentinian Gospel of Truth (c.150-4th century) The Gnostic Bible p.248 "Each one loves truth because truth is the mouth of the father. His tongue is the holy spirit. Whoever touches truth touches the mouth of the father by his tongue at the time when one will receive the holy spirit."

 

G6. God is a Father

 

First person Isaiah 63:16 (twice); 64:8

2 Samuel 7:14; 1 Chronicles 17:11-14; 22:10; 28:6; Psalm 2:7; 89:26; Proverbs 3:12; 30:4f; Isaiah 9:6; Jeremiah 3:4; 3:19; 31:9; Hosea 11:1; Malachi 1:6; 2:10; others

Matthew 10:32; 26:39,42; Luke 9:21-22;

2 Thessalonians 1:2; Titus 1:4; Hebrews 12:9, 1 Peter 1:2,17; others

John 15:26; 16:23,27,28,32

(implied) Hebrews 12:6-7

 

p52 (=John Rylands 457) John 18:31-35, 37-38 (c.117-138 A.D.) calls God a Father in John 8:38

p32 (=P. Rylands 5) Titus 1:1-15; 2:3-8 (21 verses) (150-200 A.D.) Titus 1:4 God the Father

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 12:9

p22 (=P. Oxyrhynchus 1228) (John 15:25-16:2; 16:21-32 17 verses) (c.250 A.D.) John 15:26; 16:23,27,28,32

p52 Matthew 26:19-52 (c.260 A.D.) Jesus speaks of the Father in Matthew 26:39

p37 Matthew 26:19-52 (225-275 A.D.) Jesus speaks of the Father in Matthew 26:39,42

p18 Revelation 1:4-7 (4 verses) (300 A.D.) "his God and Father" Revelation 1:6

p5 John 1:23-31, 33-40; 16:14-30; 20:11-17,19-20,22-25 (47 verses) (early 3rd century) John 16:23,27,28

p30 (1 Thessalonians 4:12-13, 16-17; 5:3, 8-10, 12-18, 25-28; 2 Thessalonians 1:1-2; 2:1, 9-11 25 verses) 2 Thessalonians 1:2

p9 – 1 John 4:11-12, 14-16 (3rd century A.D.) The Father sent the son. 1 John 4:14

p20 - James 2:19-3:2 (6 out of 96 letters of 3:3; 3:4-9 (3rd century A.D.) mentions the Father. James 3:9

p70 – Matthew 2:13-16; 2:22-3:1; 11:26-27; 12:4-5; 24:3-6,12-25 (3rd century A.D.) mentions the Father and the Son. Matthew 11:26-27

p115 (=Papyrus Oxyrhynchus 4499) 119 verses of Revelation. 2:1-3,13-15,27-29; 3:10-12; 5:8-9; 6:5-6; 8:3-8,11-13; 9:1-5,7-16,18-21; 10:1-4,8-11; 11:1-5,8-15,18-19; 12:1-5,8-10,12-17; 13:1-3,6-16,18; 14:1-3,5-7,10-11,14-15,18-20; 15:1,4-7 (middle to late 3rd century) Revelation 2:27

0171 Mt 10:17-23,25-32; Lk 22:44-50,52-56,61,63-64 (ca.300 A.D.) Matthew 10:32

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Matthew 26:39,42; Luke 9:21,22

 

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) John 10:37

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 1:5; 12:9

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 5:18; 4:21

p30 - 1 Thessalonians 4:12-13,16-17; 5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28; 2 Thessalonians 1:1-2; 2:1,9-11 (25 verses) (ca.225 A.D.) mentions God the Father in 2 Thessalonians 2:1

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Mentions God the Father. 1 Peter 1:2; Jude 1

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) Jesus addresses God as "My Father" Luke 9:21-22

0232 2 John 1-9 (ca.300 A.D.) mentions God the Father and the Father’s Son in 2 John 3

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) Luke 9:21-22

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) Luke 9:21-22

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Let us look steadfastly to the Father and Creator of the Universe…" 1 Clement ch.36. See also ibid ch.23 (son) 1 Clement ch.19 p.10

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 (Son of God) ch.14

Ignatius to the Ephesians (before 116 A.D.) ch.2 p.50; ch.3 p.50; ch.4 p.51; ch.5 p.51; ch.9 p.53 etc.

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) refers to "The God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ" Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.12 p.35

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) vol.7 ch.10 p.380 "We thank Thee, holy Father, … and for the knowledge and faith and immortality, which Thou madest known to us through Jesus Thy Servant;"

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) ch.1.5 p.377 (before 125 A.D.) "For the Father wants his gifts to be universally shared). The Father is also mentioned on vol.7 ch.7.1 p.379; ch.8.2 p.379; ch.9.3 p.380; ch.10.1 p.380

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.10 p.29 mentions God the Father.

Presbyters (Papias?) (95-117 A.D.) fragment 5 (2 times) mentions the Father, Son, and Spirit. fragment 5 p.154

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) mentions God, the Father of righteousness and temperance and the other virtues. First Apology of Justin ch.6 p.164

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.13 (son), ch.15 (2 times)

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Yet we do not hate you or those who, by your means, have conceived such prejudices against us; but we pray that even now all of you may repent and obtain mercy from God, the compassionate and long-suffering Father of all." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.108 p.253

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) "Your Father in heaven" Diatessaron section 10 p.59

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.3 p.518 "save refusing to deny him [Jesus] through whom we came to know the Father?" Also ch.1 vol.9 p.251 and vol.9 ch.3 p.252 mention God as a Father.

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 3 ch.6 p.35 says that God gave them to His Son. See also, Jesus received from His Father.

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) Martyrdom of Polycarp 1st sentence p.39; ch.14 p.42; ch.19 p.43

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) mentions God the Father 2 times. A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 19 p.74 mentions God as the Father at least four times.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 55 p.128 for Matthew 28:20 mentions God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) says "those who love him speak of Him thus; ‘Father, and God of Truth’" in his discourse ch.1 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.751 See also p.755

Hegesippus (170-180 A.D.) "James as he was dying prayer, ‘I beseech Thee, Lord God our Father, forgive them’" Five Books of Commentaries on the Acts of the Church section 1 p.763

Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 1 ch.3 (2 times), ch.4 p.90, book 2 ch.22 p.103; book 2 ch.34 p.108 mentions God the Father a total of 5 times.

The Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180-202 A.D.) ANF vol.9 p.285 "all [the Scillitan martyrs] together were crowned with martyrdom; and they reign with the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever."

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons) (177 A.D.) "The servants of Christ who sojourn in Vienna and Lugdunum of Gaul to the brethren throughout Asia and Phrygia, who have the same faith and hope of redemption as ourselves, peace, grace, and glory from God the Father, and from Christ Jesus our Lord. … Then at last the holy Witnesses suffered tortures beyond all description, Satan striving eagerly that some of the evil reports might be acknowledged by them." vol.8 p.778,779

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Father who is in heaven" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.9 p.369

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) mentions God the Father in many places including Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.6.

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201-205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) ch.6.4 p.706 "God the Father Omnipotent, and His Son Jesus Christ our Lord"

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) Mentions God as a Father. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch. 18 p.183

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) in Exhortation to the Heathen ch.6 p.199 (2 times) ch.10 p.202, ch.11 p.203 (5 times), and The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.209-210 (4 times)

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says God is the Father. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.5 p.191

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) mentions the Father, Son, and Spirit as well as the Trinity in numerous places. His work Against Praxeas (c.213 A.D.) is a definitive work on the Trinity.

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) says that God sent His spirit into our hearts, crying Abba, Father" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.4 p.436

Julius Africanus (235-245 A.D.) mentions God the Father in his Epistle to Aristides ch.1 p.125.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "But who is it that announces the counsel of the Father to those of His creatures…" Origen’s Commentary on John book 1 ch.42 p.320

Origen (233/234 A.D.) speaks of God our Father. Prayer ch.5.5 p.29

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "for the Father Himself constituted existence, and the being born form Him [Jesus] was the cause of all things that are produced. The Logos was in the Father Himself" The Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.29 p.150.

Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) "God the Father, the Founder and Creator of all things, who only knows no beginning, invisible, infinite, immortal, eternal, is one God." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.31 p.643

Treatise Against Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) "denying the mercy of His Father" ch.1 p.657

Treatise on Rebaptism (250/254-256/7 A.D.) "baptize them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit." ch.7 p.671

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) mentions God the Father in letter 50.3 p.348, letter 51.23 p.333, letter 54.16 p.345, and other places.

Cornelius to Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "I … do render the greatest thanks without ceasing, dearest brother, to God the Father Almighty, and to His Christ the Lord and our God and Saviour, that the Church is thus divinely protected, and its unity and holiness is not constantly nor altogether corrupted by the obstinacy of perfidy and heretical wickedness." Letter 46 p.324

Firmilian bishop of Caesarea (246-256 A.D.) "it is sufficient shortly to say in sum, that they who do not hold the true Lord the Father cannot hold the truth either of the Son or of the Holy Spirit…" Letter 74.7 p.392

Moyses, Maximum, and Nicostratus (248-257 A.D.) mention God the Father in their letter to Cyprian. Letter 25 ch.1 vol.5 p.302.

Roman presbyters and deacons (248-257 A.D.) mention God the Father in their letter to Cyprian Letter 30.7 p.311.

Felix, Jader, Polianus, and the rest of the martyrs to Cyprian of Carthage (246-256 A.D.) "…And we have given and do give thanks to God the Father Almighty through His Christ," Letter 79 p.406

Venantius of Timisa [a city of Zeugitana] "Christ the Lord and our God, going to His Father,…" The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.570.

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) in A Declaration of Faith p.7 mentions the Father, Son, and he mentions the Trinity three times in his "Declaration of Faith".

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions God as our "Father and Maker" in The Books on Nature ch.4 p.88 . He also mentions the Father and Son, and he says there was never a time when God was not the Father in is Letter to Dionysius Bishop of Rome 1.2 p.92

Dionysius of Rome (259-269 A.D.) mentions the Father and the Son in his work Against the Sabellians ch.1 in Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.7 p.365 and other places.

Bishop Lucius of Castra Galbae/Gilba quotes Matthew 28:19 about the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.566-567

Bishop Munnulus of Girba mentions the Trinity and quotes Matthew 28:19 "…in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.567

Euchratius Bishop of Thenae quotes Matthew 28:19 "…in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" and mentions heretics as blasphemy of the Trinity. The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.568

Bishop Vencentius of Thibaris also quotes Matthew 28:19 about the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. The Seventh Council of Carthage p.569

Bishop Clarus of Mascula also quotes Matthew 28:19 about the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.572

Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.) teaches how the Son relates to God the Father in Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines ch.1 p.155.

Pierius (275 A.D.), presbyter of Alexandria taught about the Father and son in his fragment in Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.157.

Theonas Bishop of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) mentions God your Father in Epistle to Lucianus the Chief Chamberlain ch.1 p.158.

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) says "The Father of the Word – that is, of Christ?" in questioning Marinus. Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part d 14 p.145

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "God is the parent and father of our sons" Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.47-48 p.451-452

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "God is the Father of Ages" Arnobius Against the Heathen book 1 ch.34 p.421

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "Finally, as He Himself is the judge appointed by the Father, on account of His assumption of humanity…" Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John from the First chapter verse 16 p.345. See also from the Fifth chapter no.8,9 p.350

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) "One God the Father Almighty, the Maker and Provider of all things" Creed of Lucian of Antioch in The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff vol.2 p.26

Peter, Bishop of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) Jesus prayed to His Father. Canonical Epistle 9 p.273

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) God is a Father The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 1 ch.3 p.312

Theophilus (events c.315 A.D.) "And, when he [Habib] was arrived at the place where they were going to burn him, he stood up and prayed, as did all those who came out with him; and he said, ‘O King Christ, since Thine is this world, and Thine the world to come, behold and see, that, while I might have fled from these afflictions, I did not flee, in order that I might not fall into the hands of Thy justice: may this fire, in which I am to be burned, serve me for a recompense before thee, so that I may be delivered from the fire that is not quenched; and receive thou my spirit into Thy presence, through the Divine Spirit, O glorious Son of the adorable Father!’" Martyrdom of Habib the Deacon p.694

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "God, the Father of the human race". The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.18 p.67. Mention of the His Son in The Divine Institutes ch.17 p.65

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) Men should acknowledge [God] their Father and Lord. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.7 p.17

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But he who shall follow the guidance of reason will understand that there cannot be a Lord except one, nor a Father except one. For if God, who made all things, is also Lord and Father, He must be one only, so that the same may be the head and source of all things." Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.2 p.224. See also ibid ch.34 p.235.

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) says Jesus said, "I am in the Father, and the Father in Me." Deposition of Arius ch.3 p.70

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.487 says God is a Father.

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "Before Thee was no other god begotten of God the Father;" Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.6 p.387

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) Later left Christianity and became a Gnostic. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.4 p.66; ch.5 (2 times) p.67; ch.7 p.169. "…being Himself the Father of both sensible and invisible things." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.4 p.66.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 1 ch.7 p.224 says the God is a Father. Se also homily 2 ch.45 p.237.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.57 p.248 speaks of God the Father.

The Ebionite Epistle of Clement to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.2 p.218 says that God is "Father of All"

The Ebionite Epistle of Peter to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) starts off with "Peter to James, the lord and bishop of the holy church, under the Father of all, through Jesus Christ,…" It end with "prayed to the Father and God of all, to whom be glory for ever. Amen" ch.5 p.217

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.7 p.78 speaks of "God the Father". See also ibid book 4 ch.36 p.142; book 6 ch.10p.155.

Elkesites (a type of Ebionites) (before 236 A.D.) (implied Father of the Son) baptized in the named of the Most High God, and in the name of His Son, the Mighty King. (in Hippolytus’ Refutation of All Heresies book 19 ch.10 p.132)

Nag Hamadi Apocalypse of Peter (3rd century A.D.) Nag Hamadi Library in English p.373 Jesus mentions His Father.

Mani (262-278 A.D.) says the God is a Father. Disputation with Manes ch.5 p.182. See also ibid ch.13 p.187

The First Form of the Gospel of Thomas (shorter Greek version) ch.19 p.398 has Jesus saying "I must be about my Father’s business" It concludes with "And Jesus advanced in wisdom, and stature, and grace. To whom be glory for ever and ever. Amen."

The Second Form of the Gospel of Thomas (longer Greek version) ch.11 p.399 says that Mary "rejoiced and glorified Him [Jesus], with the Father and the Holy Spirit, now and ever, and forevermore. Amen."

The Latin Form of the Gospel of Thomas (after 235 A.D.) ch.15 p.404 mentions "God the Father Almighty". It ends with "He is the Son of God throughout all the world. To Him is due all glory and honour for ever, who lives and reigns God through all ages of ages. Amen."

Other Gnostics (c.150-4th century) "His purpose is your eternal life. Your perfection is incorruptible. Be rich in god the father" Songs of Solomon Song 9 p.364

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tractate (200-250 A.D.) part 1 ch.1 p.40 "As for what we can say about the things which are exalted, what is fitting is that we begin with the Father, who is the root of the Totality," See also ch.15 p.92.

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius mentions the good god as "The Father of Christ". Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.23 p.66

Marinus (c.300 A.D.) a Bardesene, in disputing with Adamantius, said "the Father together with the Word" created man. Dialogue on the True Faith 4th part ch.850a p.171-145

Acts of Thomas (early form) (pre-Nicene) p.536 "they shall glorify the Father of the universe".

The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185 A.D.) ch.2 p.106 speaks of a Father God.

There are more besides these too among heretics.

 

G7. The Trinity: one God in three ‘Persons’

 

(partial) Matthew 28:19

 

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) (partial) Matthew 28:19

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) (partial) Matthew 28:19

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) (partial) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles) (before 125 A.D.) vol.7 ch.7 p.379 (partial) Baptize in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) (partial) says that we worship and adore the Father, Son, and the prophetic Spirit. He did not use the word Trinity though. First Apology of Justin ch.6 p.164

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.60 p.183 (partial) mentions the Father as the first, the Son as the second, and the Spirit as the third.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) (partial) in discussing baptism "For, in the name of God, the Father and Lord of the universe, and of our Saviour Jesus Christ, and of the Holy Spirit…" First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.61 p.183

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) (partial) says Polycarp to God, Jesus Christ the beloved Son, and the Holy Ghost be glory now and to all coming ages. Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.14 p.42

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 55 p.128 (partial) for Matthew 28:20 in the Great Commisson refers to "The Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit"

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) (partial) "The Holy Spirit Himself also, which operates in the prophets, we assert to be an effluence of God, flowing from Him, and returning back again like a beam of the sun. Who, then, would not be astonished to hear men who speak of God the Father, and of God the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, and who declare both their power in union and their distinction in order, called atheists?" A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133 (He does not actually use the word Trinity though.)

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "For, as we acknowledge a God, and a Son his Logos, and a Holy Spirit, united in essence, - the Father, the Son, the Spirit, because the Son is the Intelligence, Reason, Wisdom of the Father, and the Spirit an effluence, as light from fire;" A Plea for Christians ch.24 p.141

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) says the Father, Son, and Spirit have distinction in unity. A Plea for Christians ch.12 p.134 Note that Athenagoras talked about the Trinity in many places, and he discusses everything except he did not use the word "Trinity".

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "In like manner also the three days which were before the luminaries [sun, moon, and stars] are types of the Trinity (Greek triad), of God, and His Word, and His wisdom." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.15 p.101.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "The Church, though dispersed throughout the whole world, even to the ends of the earth, has received from the apostles and their disciples this faith: [She believes] in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven, and earth, and the sea, and all things that are in them; and in one Christ Jesus, the Son of God, who became incarnate for our salvation; and in the Holy Spirit, who proclaimed through the prophets the dispensations of God, and the advents, and the birth from a virgin, and the passion [death], and the resurrection from the dead, and the ascension into heaven in the flesh of the beloved Christ Jesus, our Lord, and his [future] manifestation from heaven in the glory of the Father ‘to gather all things in one,’ and to raise up anew all flesh of the whole human race, in order that to Christ Jesus, our Lord, and God, and Savior, and King, according to the will of the invisible Father, ..." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.2 p.330. (He does not actually use the word Trinity though.)

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) says "the Word, namely the Son, was always with the Father; and that Wisdom also, which is the Spirit, was present with Him, anterior to all creation. He then goes on quoting Proverb 3:19,20 and so forth, showing that the Holy Spirit is the third person. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.3 p.488

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs (180 A.D.) ANF vol.9 p.285 (partial) "all [the Scillitan martyrs] together were crowned with martyrdom; and they reign with the Father and the Son and the Holy Ghost, for ever and ever." (Mention of the three, but no mention of the word Trinity.)

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "So that when he says, ‘Around the king of all, all things are, and because of Him are all things; and he [or that] is the cause of all good things; and around the second are the things second in order; and around the third, the third,’ I understand nothing else than the Holy Trinity to be meant; for the third is the Holy Spirit, and the Son is the second, by whom all things were made according to the will of the Father." Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.468

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) mentioned the Trinity (Latin trinitas) numerous times. One place where he talked about the Trinity, the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit is in Tertullian on Modesty ch.21 p.99. See also ibid ch.8 p.82.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says mentions that it is through the Trinity that the Father is glorified. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.14 p.228

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "so the washing with water which is symbolic of the soul cleansing herself from every stain of wickedness, is no less in itself to him who yields himself to the divine power of the invocation of the Adorable Trinity, the beginning and source of divine gifts; for ‘there are diversities of gifts.’" Commentary on John book 6 ch.17 p.366

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) (implied) speak of the three hypostases, the Father, Son and Holy Spirit. Commentary on John book 2 ch.6 p.328

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.7 p.671 (partial) mentions being baptized in the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Ghost. (He does not use the word Trinity though.)

The schismatic Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) wrote a whole Treatise Concerning the Trinity.

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) while against Novatian, also teaches the Trinity. "‘Go ye and preach the Gospel to the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost.’ That is, that that same Trinity which operated figuratively in Noah’s days through the dove, now operates in the church spiritually through the disciples." ch.3 p.658

Cyprian of Carthage (256 A.D.) after quoting Jesus speaking Matthew 28:18-19, says "He [Jesus] suggests the Trinity, in whose sacrament the nations were to be baptized." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 72 ch.5 p.380.

Firmilian of Caesarea in Cappadocia to Cyprian of Carthage (256 A.D.) mentions the Trinity. Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.11 p.393

Bishop Munnulus of Girba mentions the Trinity and quotes Matthew 28:19 "…in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.567

Euchratius Bishop of Thenae quotes Matthew 28:19 "…in the name of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" and mentions heretics as blaspheming the Trinity. The Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.568

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) in A Declaration of Faith p.7 mentions the Father, Son, and he mentions the "Trinity" three times.

A Sectional Statement of Faith (c.240-265 A.D.) (probably by Gregory Thaumaturgus, but it does not say) mentions the Trinity in ch.5 p.41 ch.7 p.7; ch.18 p.45; ch.20 p.45

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) mentions the Trinity by name twice in Letter 4 ch.8 p.93.

Dionysius bishop of Rome (259-269 A.D.) "For the doctrine of the foolish Marcion, which cuts and divides the monarchy into three elements, is assuredly of the devil, and is not of Christ’s true disciples… For these [true disciples] indeed rightly know that the Trinity is declared in the divine Scripture, but that the doctrine that there are three gods is neither taught in the Old nor the New Testament." Dionysius of Rome Against the Sabellians (ANF vol.7) ch.1 p.365

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (partial) "the Creator and Lord of every visible and invisible creature, the only-begotten Son, and the Word co-eternal with the Father and the Holy Spirit, and of the same substance with them, according to His divine nature, our Lord and God, Jesus Christ,…" fragment 5 p.282

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "For the kingdom of the Father, of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost is one, even as their substance is one and their dominion one. Whence also, with one and the same adoration, we worship the one Deity in three Persons, subsisting without beginning, uncreate, without end, and to which there is no successor. For neither will the Father ever cease to be the Father, nor again the Son to be the Son and King, nor the Holy Ghost to be what in substance and personality He is. For nothing of the Trinity will suffer diminution, either in respect of eternity, or of communion, or of sovereignty. For not on that account is the Son of God called king, because for our sakes He was made man," Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.397. (See also The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.10 p.338 and ch.11 p.339)

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "Then the Lord, the third day after His death, rose again, thus bringing man to a knowledge of the Trinity. Then all the nations of the human race were saved by Christ. ... Moreover, He being made like to man whom He had saved, ascended to the height of heaven, to offer before His Father, not gold or silver, or precious stones, but the man whom He had formed after His own image and similitude; and the Father, raising Him to His right hand, hath seated Him upon a throne on high, and hath made Him to be judge of the peoples,..." Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 5 p.302

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.492 (partial) "Father, Son, and Holy Spirit"

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) mentions "the Sacred Trinity". Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.2 p.384

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.1 p.107 (partial) mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

The Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) (partial) ch.15 p.93 mentions the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit.

 

G8. God knows all / even the secret things

 

Psalm 44:21; 139; John 21:17; 1 Corinthians 14:25

Jeremiah 23:24 "‘Can anyone hide in the secret places so that I cannot see him?’ declares the LORD."

(partial) Isaiah 44:7

(partial) Luke 12:6

 

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) (partial) Luke 12:6

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 21:17

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 21:17

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 21:17

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Let us reflect how near He is, and that none of the thoughts or reasonings in which we engage are hid from Him." 1 Clement ch.21 p.11

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) "There is nothing which is hid from God, but our very secrets are near to Him." Letter of Ignatius to the Ephesians ch.15 p.56

Ignatius of Antioch (c.100-107/116 A.D.) "And all such conduct has reference not to man, but to God, who knows all secrets." Letter to the Magnesians ch.3 p.60

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) vol.7 ch.9 p.519 "of a sincere heart; for He knows all things beforehand, and is acquainted with"

Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians (100-155 A.D.) ch.7 p.34 mentions the all-seeing God.

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) The First Apology of Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) ch.44 p.177 says that God foreknows all that shall be done by all men.

Justin Martyr "wherever that is, quick to behold and quick to hear, having neither eyes nor ears, but being of indescribable might; and He sees all things, and knows all things, and none of us escapes His observation; and He is not moved or confined" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.127 p.263

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) (partial) says that God is witness to what we think and say both by night and by day, and since He is Light, He sees all things in our heart. A Plea for Christians ch.31 p.146

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 2 commandment fourth ch.3 p.22 "For the Lord, knowing the heart, and foreknowing all things, knew the weakness of men and the manifold wiles of the devil, that he would inflict some evil on the servants of God, and would act wickedly towards them."

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) ch.9 p.760 "The eyes of the Lord-the Divine inspection: because He sees all things. Like that in the apostle: For all things are naked and open in His eyes."

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "God, not only to be everywhere present, but also to see all things and to hear all…" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.3 p.95

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that God foreknew all things. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.29.2 p.502

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) says that the depth of the riches of God is unsearchable, referring to Isaiah 54:1 and Galatians 4:27. Irenaeus Against Heresies (182-188 A.D.) book 1 ch.10.3 p.331

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) discusses at length that God sees everything and says that there can be nothing secret from God. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.32 p.193.

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) (implied) "God has no need of information." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.33 p.193.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) says people cannot escape from "the all-seeing word". The Instructor book 3 ch.8 p.282. He also quotes Jeremiah 23:23,24 as by Jeremiah in Stromata (193-202 A.D.) book 5 ch.14 p.472

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For God knows all things-not those only which exist, but those also which shall be-and how each thing shall be." Stromata book 6 ch.17 p.517. He says that God knows and perceives all things in Stromata book 7 ch.7 p.538. See also Stromata book 7 ch.7 p.533

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Does not the light of power shine down to the very bottom of the whole soul; ‘the map of knowledge,’ as the Scripture says, searching ‘the recesses’? God is all ear and all eye, if we may be permitted to use these expressions." Stromata book 7 ch.7 p.533

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) calls God "all-wise". Exhortation to the Heathen ch.1 p.171

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) God foreknew all things. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.5 p.301

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "If, then, God will judge the secrets of men-both of those who have sinned in the law, and of those who have sinned without law (inasmuch as they who know not the law yet do by nature the things contained in the law) -surely the God who shall judge is He to whom belong both the law, and that nature which is the rule to them who know not the law. But how will He conduct this judgment? ‘According to my gospel,’ says (the apostle), ‘by (Jesus) Christ.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.13 p.457

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "He who knows the secrets of all, and searcheth the thoughts of the hearts, revealed to him by means of the image the things that were to be. And He hid from him the vision, in order that the counsels of God might not be interpreted by the wise men of Babylon, but that by the blessed Daniel, as a prophet of God, things kept secret from all might be made manifest." Scholia on Daniel ch.29 p.183

Theodotus probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) says that God is passionless, good, knowing all things, foreknowing all things. Excerpts of Theodotus ch.21 p.45

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Christ Jesus, who knows the things in the hearts of men" Commentary on Matthew ch.10.14 p.421

Origen (233/234 A.D.) God knows all before it happens. Prayer ch.5.2 p.77

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "lineaments that are described. For when the eyes are spoken of, it is implied that He sees all things; and when the ear, it is set forth that He hears all things; and when the finger, a certain energy of His will is opened up;" Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.616

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Moreover, if, whereas it is the property of none but God to know the secrets of the heart, Christ beholds the secrets of the heart; and if, whereas it belongs to none but God to remit sins, the same Christ remits sins;" Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.13 p.622

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.8 p.659 "its meaning is assuredly with respect to future time-to the time at which the Lord shall begin to judge the secrets of men-to the time at which we must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says that God is everywhere present, and hears and sees all. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 4 ch.4 p.448

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Concerning these the Discerner and Searcher of hidden things judges, and He will quickly come and judge of the secrets and hidden things of the heart." Epistles of Cyprian letter 53 ch.3 p.337

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) says that God sees all things. Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John from the Sixth chapter 9 p.351

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "Moreover, that for the announcement of the New Testament those bring creatures had eyes within and without, shows the spiritual providence which both looks into the secrets of the heart, and beholds the things which are coming after that are within and without." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter v.8 p.349

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "by Him who regards not the outward appearance, as man does, but the innermost secrets of the heart." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.17 p.119

 

Among heretics

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 4 ch.20 p.20 (partial) says that nothing is hidden from Him.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) (partial) book 5 ch.59 p.181 says the Prophet knows all things.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 14 ch.13 p.315 says that God knows all things. It mentions the all-seeing God in homily 4 ch.14 p.254 and homily 8 ch.19 p.274. See also homily 2 ch.50 p.238.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date ) Homily 3 ch.55 p.248 "And to those who believe, as the Scriptures say, that He does not see all things, He said, ‘Pray in secret, and your Father, who seeth secret things, will rewards you."

 

G9. God is everywhere

 

Psalm 139

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) refers to Psalm 139:7-10 as Scripture, showing that God is everywhere. 1 Clement ch.28 vol.1 p.12 (See also vol.9 p.237)

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "God, not only to be everywhere present, but also to see all things and to hear all…" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.3 p.95

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says that God is everywhere in referring to Psalm 139:7-10. Stromata book 4 ch.22 p.434

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) Therefore, persuaded always that God is everywhere, and fearing not to speak Stromata book 7 ch.8 p.537

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) in discussing Jeremiah 23:23-24 says that God fills the heaven and earth. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.8 p.194

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) "He can neither survey all nor know individuals. Thou errest, O man, and art deceived; for from where is God afar off, when all things heavenly and earthly, and which are beyond this province of the universe, are known to God, are full of God? Everywhere He is not only very near to us, but He is infused into us. Therefore once more look upon the sun: it is fixed fast in the heaven, yet it is diffused over all lands equally; present everywhere, it is associated and mingled with all things; its brightness is never violated. How much more God, who has made all things, and looks upon all things, from whom there can be nothing secret, is present in the darkness, is present in our thoughts, as if in the deep darkness." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.32 p.193. See also ch.19 p.183.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that God is existent everywhere. Against Hermogenes ch.44 p.501

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "this is not a separation; it is nothing but the divine dispensation. We know, however, that God is in the bottomless depths, and exists everywhere;" Against Praxeas ch.23 p.619

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "illimitable Spring that bears life to all men, and has no end, was covered by poor and temporary waters! He who is present everywhere, and absent nowhere-who is incomprehensible to angels and invisible to men-comes to the baptism" Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.2 p.235

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "…ancient Jewish writings, which we also use, but especially from those which were composed after the time of Jesus, and which are believed among the churches to be divine." Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.45 p.482

Origen (233/234 A.D.) (implied) "Do not I [God] fill heaven and earth." Prayer homily 23 ch.3 p.78

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) God is everywhere. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6,7 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.616

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says that God is everywhere present, and hears and sees all. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 4 ch.4 p.448

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (implied) says that the mercy of God is everywhere great. fragments 1.1 p.280

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says that God is everywhere. The Incarnation ch.8.1 p.40. See also ibid ch.1.7 p.7

Arnobius Against the Heathen (297-303 A.D.) book 1 ch.31 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.6 p.421 says God is unrestricted in locality, movement, and condition.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that the spirit and influence of God are diffused everywhere. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.2 p.42. See also On the Workmanship of God ch.16 p.296

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) says that Christ ‘forsooth is working everywhere." He proves this by showing that while Jesus’ body was on the cross, his soul was in Hades, yet tombs were opening, and there was darkness covering the earth. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 3 ch.6 p.301

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) (implied) book 2 ch.22 p.103 says the Prophet is with us at all times.

 

G10. God does not change / is unchangeable

 

Malachi 3:6a

(partial) James 1:17

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) mentions "an enduring and unchangeable glory" of the Father, and Jesus Christ, our God." Ignatius’ Letter to the Ephesians preface p.49

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) says that God is unchangeable and eternal. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.13 p.167

Melito of Sardis (philosopher) (170-177/180 A.D.) God does not change, while everything else changes. ch.1 vol.8 p.751

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) says that God is uncreated and unalterable. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.4 p.94. See also book 1 ch.3 p.90

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says that God is "always remaining the same unchangeable Being." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.34.2 p.411

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) says that God would not be blessed if He were subject to change. To the Nations book 2 ch.6 p.134. See also Against Praxeas (c.213 A.D.) ch.27 p.623

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) argues how God does not change or need to undergo transformation, as Celsus thinks Christians say. Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.14 p.502

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) God does not change Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.4 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.614

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Because God is unchangeable, but humans are changeable; God is immortal, but humans mortal…" Dialogue on the True Faith Third Part ch.9 b p.119

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) refers to Jesus as "the living Word, Wisdom, Life, True Light, Way, Truth, Resurrection, Door, unchangeable and unalterable, the immutable likeness of the Godhead,... the firstborn of all creation, ... the Divine Logos, ... born of a virgin, according to the Scriptures, and became man, the Mediator between God and man, ... who suffered for us, and rose for us the third day, and ascended into heaven and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and again is coming with glory and power to judge the quick and the dead." Creed of Lucian of Antioch in The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff vol.2 p.26-27

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (partial) Christ is unchanging. Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.41.1 p.26

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that God is incapable of suffering, unchangeable, incorruptible, blessed and eternal. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.9 p.55.

Alexander of Alexandria (321 A.D.) quotes Malachi 3:6, "I am the Lord, I change not" Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 2.3 p.298. See also Epistle 1 ch.12 p.295.

Alexander of Alexandria (321 A.D.) speaks of God "ummutabe nature". Epistles on the Arian Heresy ch.1.7 p.293

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.54 p.122 says that God is unchangeable.

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tractate (200-250 A.D.) ch.2 p.60-61 syas that God is "unchanged"

 

G11. Majesty or glory of God

 

Psalm 19:1; Zechariah 2:5; Micah 5:4

Matthew 24:30; Mark 13:26; Luke 2:9; 21:27; John 1:14; 2:14; 7:18; 12:28; 17:5; Romans 1:23; 3:7,23; 11:36; 15:7; 16:27; 1 Corinthians 10:31; 2 Corinthians 1:20; 4:6; 4:15; 8:19; Galatians 1:5; Ephesians 3:21; Philippians 4:19; Colossians 1:17; 2 Thessalonians 1:9; Titus 2:13; Hebrews 1:3; 1 Peter 4:13,14; 2 Peter 1:17

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Hebrews 1:3

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 1:14; 12:28

 

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. Mentions both Christ’s majesty and the majestic glory of God the Father. 2 Peter 1:16-17

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 2:14; 12:28

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. John 12:28; 17:5

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) Majesty of God. 1 Clement ch.16 p.9 and ch.59 p.21. "The heavens declare the glory of God" 1 Clement ch.27 p.12

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Abraham was specially honoured, and was called the friend of God; yet he, earnestly regarding the glory of God, humbly declared, ‘I am but dust and ashes.’" 1 Clement ch.17 p.9

Letter of Ignatius to the Romans preamble p.73 (-107/116 A.D.) mentions the majesty of the Most high Father.

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.10 p.29 "nor can any one by these things become an imitator of God. But these things do not at all constitute His majesty. On the contrary he who takes upon himself the burden of his neighbour; he who, in whatsoever respect he may be superior, is ready to benefit another who is deficient; he who, whatsoever things he has received from God, by distributing these to the needy, becomes a god to those who receive [his benefits]: he is an imitator of God."

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "He would come forth from the highest heavens, and again return to the same places, in order that you may recognise Him as God coming forth from above, and man living among men; and [how it is declared] that He will again appear, and they who pierced Him shall see Him, and shall bewail Him. [The words] are these: ‘The heavens declare the glory of God, and the firmament shows His handiwork. Day unto day utters speech, and night unto night shows knowledge: They are not speeches or words whose voices are heard. Their sound has gone out through all the earth, and their words to the ends of the world.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.64 p.230

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) "To Him who is able to bring us all by His grace and goodness into his everlasting kingdom, through His only-begotten Son Jesus Christ, to Him be glory, and honour, and power, and majesty, for ever. Amen." Martyrdom of Polycarp ch.20 p.43

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) Section 2 lines 17-18 p.46 quotes Luke 2:9 (the glory of the Lord shone all around)

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "it is a greater thing to know beforehand that which has not yet come to pass; but, viewed relatively to the majesty and wisdom of God, both are according to nature, and it is equally easy to know beforehand things that have not yet come into existence, and to know things which have been dissolved." On the Resurrection of the Dead ch.2 p.150

Theophilus to Autolycus (168-181/188 A.D.) book 1 ch.3 p.89 says "in glory He [God] is incomprehensible, in greatness unfathomable, in height inconceivable, in power incomparable, … in goodness inimitable, in kindness unutterable."

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) "but we wear one living with eternal flowers from God, since we, being both ate and secure in the liberality of our God, are animated to the hope of future felicity by the confidence of His present majesty." The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.38 p.197. See also ibid ch.19 p.184.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "glory to the Father" Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.10.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "But if human wisdom, as it remains to understand, is the glorying in knowledge, hear the law of Scripture: ‘Let not the wise man glory in his wisdom, and let not the mighty man glory in his might; but let him that glory in the Lord.’" The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.218-219

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "It will therefore follow, that by Him who is invisible we must understand the Father in the fullness of His majesty, while we recognise the Son as visible by reason of the dispensation of His derived existence; even as it is not permitted us to contemplate, the sun, in the full amount of his substance which is in the heavens, but we can only endure with our eyes a ray, by reason of the tempered condition of this portion which is projected from him to the earth. Against Praxeas ch.14 p.609

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "temper the strength of His majesty, which would no doubt" Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.27 p.318

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) discusses the overpowering majesty of God in creation in Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.43 p.40

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes by name Psalm 45 "…Gird Thy sword on Thy thigh, O mighty One, with Thy beauty and Thy majesty…." Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.56 p.421

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "And since by the gaze of our eyes we cannot see Him, we rightly learn of Him from the greatness, and the power, and the majesty of His works. ‘For the invisible things of Him,’ says the Apostle Paul, ‘from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by those things which are made, even His eternal power and godhead; so that the human mind, learning hidden things from those that are manifest, from the greatness of the works which it should behold, might with the eyes of the mind consider the greatness of the Architect.’ [allusion t Romans 1:20a] Of whom the same apostle, ‘Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory.’ [1 Timothy 1:17]" Concerning the Trinity ch.3 p.614. See also ibid ch.3 p.613.

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.10 p.673 "And yet, O excellent man, let us attribute and allow to the heavenly agencies their power, and let us concede to the condescension of the divine majesty its appropriate operations; and understanding how great is the advantage therein, let us gladly acquiesce in it."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "our brethren, protected by the majesty of the Lord, may be preserved safe from perils of this kind." Epistles of Cyprian letter 59 ch.4 p.355-356

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258) "And king Ahab endeavoured to oppress Elias, who firmly and bravely asserted the majesty of God." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second book ch.11 p.520.

Roman Clergy to Cyprian (250-251 A.D.) "entreat the divine majesty, and ask peace for the Church’s name." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 30 ch.6 p.310

Another Felix of Uthina at the Seventh Council of Carthage (258 A.D.) p.568 "able to do so much as the adorable and venerable majesty of our Lord Jesus"

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "Now, since Christ has not only promised it, but also shown by His virtues, which were so great, that it can be made good, what strange thing do we do, and on what grounds are we charged with folly, if we bow down and worship His name and majesty from whom we expect to receive both these blessings, that we may at once escape a death of suffering, and be enriched with eternal life?" Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.34 p.447

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "Behold, He shall come with clouds, and every eye shall see Him." For He who at first came hidden in the manhood that He had undertaken, shall after a little while come to judgment manifest in majesty and glory." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter verse 7 p.344

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Thy goings have been seen, O God; even the goings of my God, my King, in the sanctuary; but at the second time seated on the clouds, in terrible majesty, by angels and powers attended." Orations on the Psalms ch.5 p.396

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (partial Christ not God) "falling on the ground I adored the majesty of Christ," p.264

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "to acknowledge and honour the majesty of the one and only true God." The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.1 p.10.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "God, therefore, the contriver and founder of all things, as we have said in the second book, before He commenced this excellent work of the world, begat a pure and incorruptible Spirit, whom He called His Son. And although He had afterwards created by Himself innumerable other beings, whom we call angels, this first-begotten, however, was the only one whom He considered worthy of being called by the divine name, as being powerful in His Father’s excellence and majesty. But that there is a Son of the Most High God, who is possessed of the greatest power," The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.6 p.105

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "corresponding to His [the Son’s] excellence and majesty." The Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.42 p.238. See also ibid ch.67 p.251.

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) says that Christ was "raised from the dead, taken up into heaven, seated at the right hand of majesty" Epistle on the Arian Heresy ch.12 p.295

 

Among heretics

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 3 ch.18 p.16 speaks of the majesty of the Lord.

 

G12. God is a jealous God

 

Exodus 20:5; 34:14; Deuteronomy 4:24; 5:9; 6:15; Joshua 24:19; Nahum 1:2; Zechariah 8:1; 1 Corinthians 10:22

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) 1 Corinthians 10:22 "trying to arouse the Lord’s jealousy"

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) says that the Israelites moved God to jealousy with their idolatry. Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.119 p.258

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (implied) explains the false reason some Gnostics give for God saying that He is a jealous God. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.29 p.354

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy about God being jealous. "And again he says: ‘Ye provoked me to jealousy with those that are no gods, and angered me with your idols: and I will provoke you to jealousy with that which is no nation, and with a foolish nation will I anger you.’ Because they forsook the God who is, and worshipped and served the gods who are not; and they slew the prophets of God, and prophesied for Baal, who was the idol of the Canaanites." Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.95.

Tertullian (205 A.D.) quotes Deuteronomy 6:12 as from the Law. "because the Lord thy God is also a jealous God among you," Scorpiace ch.2 p.635.

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) "For God is ‘jealous’, and is One who is not contemptuously derided" Tertullian on Modesty ch.2 p.76

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "and lastly, He is a jealous God." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.25 p.389

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "the prediction from the song in Deuteronomy regarding the calling of the Gentiles, which is as follows, being spoken in the person of the Lord "They have moved Me to jealousy with those who are not gods; they have provoked Me to anger with their idols: and I will move them to jealousy with those who are not a people;" Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.78 p.464

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) says of Jesus "for He is the Son of a jealous God." Commentary on John 10 no.19 p.400

Cyprian of Carthage (256 A.D.) "It is written, ‘The Lord thy God is a jealous God.’" Epistles of Cyprian Letter 72 ch.10 p.381

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.492 "jealous God"

 

G13. God is uncreated

 

Genesis 1:1 "In the beginning, God..."

John 1:1 (In the beginning was the word..."

 

(implied) God alone Isaiah 44:8,24

(implied) John 1:3; Colossians 1:16

(implied) Titus 1:2 (before the beginning of time)

 

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 1:1

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 1:1

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 1 ch.1-5 p.43 quotes John 1:1-5.

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "But, since our doctrine acknowledges one God, the Maker of this universe, who is Himself uncreated (for that which is does not come to be, but that which is not) but has made all things by the Logos which is from Him, we are treated unreasonably in both respects, in that we are both defamed and persecuted." A Plea for Christians ch.4 p.131

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "That we are not atheists, therefore, seeing that we acknowledge one God, uncreated, eternal, invisible, impassible, incomprehensible, illimitable, who is apprehended by the understanding only and the reason, who is encompassed by light, and beauty, and spirit, and power ineffable, by whom the universe has been created through His Logos, and set in order, and is kept in being-I have sufficiently demonstrated. [I say ‘His Logos’], for we acknowledge also a Son of God." A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133

Rhodon (c.180 A.D.) (implied) "On my [Rhodon’s] thereupon conjuring him to speak the truth, he [the heretic Apelles] solemnly declared that he was expressing his real sentiments; and that he did not know ‘how’ there could be one uncreated God, but that he believed the fact." p.766

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (implied) "But Plato and those of his school acknowledge indeed that God is uncreated, and the Father and Maker of all things; but then they maintain that matter as well as God is uncreated, and aver that it is coeval with God. But if God is uncreated and matter uncreated, God is no longer, according to the Platonists, the Creator of all things, nor, so far as their opinions hold, is the monarchy of God established. And further, as God, because He is uncreated, is also unalterable; so if matter, too, were uncreated, it also would be unalterable, and equal to God; for that which is created is mutable and alterable, but that which is uncreated is immutable and unalterable. And what great thing is it if God made the world out of existent materials? For even a human artist, when he gets material from some one, makes of it what he pleases. But the power of God is manifested in this, that out of things that are not He makes whatever He pleases; just as the bestowal of life and motion is the prerogative of no other than God alone." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.4 p.95

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "And he [God] is without beginning, because He is ungebotten." Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "If, however, any one do not discover the cause of all those things which become objects of investigation, let him reflect that man is infinitely inferior to God; that he has received grace only in part, and is not yet equal or similar to his Maker; and, moreover, that he cannot have experience or form a conception of all things like God; but in the same proportion as he who was formed but to-day, and received the beginning of his creation, is inferior to Him who is uncreated, and who is always the same, in that proportion is he, as respects knowledge and the faculty of investigating the causes of all things, inferior to Him who made him. For thou, O man, art not an uncreated being, nor didst thou always co-exist with God, as did His own Word;" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.25.3 p.396-397

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "For He Himself was not made by any, and by Him all things were made." Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.4

Maximus of Jerusalem (185-196 A.D.) "There cannot exist two uncreated substances at one and the same time". See also, "we are driven to the conclusion that there is only one uncreated substance." fragment 1 vol.8 p.767 He also says that God is uncreated on p.771.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "Why, then, foolish and silly men (for I will repeat it), have you, defaming the supercelestial region, dragged religion to the ground, by fashioning to yourselves gods of earth, and by going after those created objects, instead of the uncreated Deity, have sunk into deepest darkness?" Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.188

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "any other being than God alone who is unbegotten and uncreated." Against Hermogenes ch.18 p.493

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "So far as a human being can form a definition of God, I adduce one which the conscience of all men will also acknowledge,-that God is the great Supreme existing in eternity, unbegotten, unmade without beginning, without end." Five Books Against Marcion book 1 ch.3 p.273

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "the uncreated nature of God" Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.38 p.514

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "does the Almighty and Supreme God seem to you to be something new; and do those who adore and worship Him seem to you to support and introduce an unheard-of, unknown, and upstart religion? Is there anything older than Him? or can anything be found preceding Him in being, time, name? Is not He alone uncreated, immortal, and everlasting? Who is the head and fountain of things? is not He?" Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.72 p.461

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Well, then, I do not suppose you are ignorant that it is impossible for two uncreated things to exist together, although you seem to have expressed nearly as much as this in an earlier part of the conversation. Assuredly we must of necessity say one of two things: either that God is separate from matter, or, on the other hand, that He is inseparable from it." (Orthodoxus is speaking) Concerning Free Will p.358

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "‘One God, who is alone, most mighty, uncreated.’ This is the only supreme God, who made the heaven, and decked it with lights.’" The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.6 p.16

 

Among heretics

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tractate (200-250 A.D.) (implied) part 1 ch.2 p.60-61, "For he is unbegotten, and there is no other who begot him, nor another who created him."

 

G14. God is Light

 

Isaiah 49:6; 60:19,20; John 1:4-9; John 8:12; 2 Corinthians 4:6; 1 John 1:5

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) 2 Corinthians 4:6

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 1:4-9

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 1:4-9

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "but maintain that this power is indivisible and inseparable from the Father, just as they say that the light of the sun on earth is indivisible and inseparable from the sun in the heavens; as when it sinks, the light sinks along with it; so the Father, when He chooses, say they, causes His power to spring forth, and when He chooses, He makes it return to Himself." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.128 p.264

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 1 ch.1-5 p.43 quotes John 1:1-5.

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) says that God is witness to what we think and say both by night and by day, and since He is Light, He sees all things in our heart. A Plea for Christians ch.31 p.146

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "For if I say He is Light, I name but His own work; if I call Him Word, I name but His sovereignty; if I call Him Mind, I speak but of His wisdom; if I say He is Spirit, I speak of His breath; if I call Him Wisdom, I speak of His offspring; if I call Him Strength, I speak of His sway; if I call Him Power, I am mentioning His activity; if Providence, I but mention His goodness; if I call Him Kingdom, I but mention His glory; if I call Him Lord, I mention His being judge; if I call Him Judge, I speak of Him as being just; if I call Him Father, I speak of all things as being from Him;" Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "condition of existence to them; so those who fly from the eternal light of God, which contains in itself all good things" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.39.4 p.523

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "But John himself also in this same Epistle says, ‘God is love: ‘ pointing out the excellences of God, that He is kind and merciful; and because He is light, makes men righteous," fragment 3 Cassiodorus’ fragment from 1 John p.574

Clement of Alexandria (198-217/220 A.D.) (implied) "therefore, we also, repenting of our sins, renouncing our iniquities, purified by baptism, speed back to the eternal light, children to the Father." The Instructor book 1 ch.6 p.217

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) says that "God is light." On Repentance ch.6 p.661

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "We have been taught that He proceeds forth from God, and in that procession He is generated; so that He is the Son of God, and is called God from unity of substance with God. For God, too, is a Spirit. Even when the ray is shot from the sun, it is still part of the parent mass; the sun will still be in the ray, because it is a ray of the sun-there is no division of substance, but merely an extension. Thus Christ is Spirit of Spirit, and God of God, as light of light is kindled. The material matrix remains entire and unimpaired, though you derive from it any number of shoots possessed of its qualities; so, too, that which has come forth out of God is at once God and the Son of God, and the two are one." Apology ch.28 p.41

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) (partial) "‘The light of Thy countenance, O Lord, hath been displayed upon us.’ Now the countenance (or person) of the Lord here is Christ." Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.454

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "-after me, indeed, in time, but before me by reason of the inaccessible and unutterable light of divinity. ‘There comes One mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear: He shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost, and with fire.’" Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.3 p.235

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "The Saviour is here called simply light. But in the Catholic Epistle of this same John we read that God is light." Commentary on John book 2 no.18 p.336

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "He, treating of Deity, stated to His true disciples the doctrine regarding God; and we, discovering traces of such teaching in the Scripture narratives, take occasion from such to aid our theological conceptions, hearing it declared in one passage, that "God is light, and in Him there is no darkness at all;’ and in another, ‘God is a Spirit, and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth.’" Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.71 p.460

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "For neither members nor the offices of members are needful to Him to whose sole judgment, even unexpressed, all things serve and are present. For why should He require eyes who is Himself the light? or why should He ask for feet who is everywhere?" Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.616

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.12 p.661 "the Lord is my light."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "the world has shone forth irradiated by the light of the Lord." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 3 ch.1 p.437

Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.) explains how the son is an emanation of the Father, as a reflection of light, or as the steam of water. Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines ch.1 vol.6 p.155.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "if they all agree that the light of the world, our Lord, rose on that one night" Letter to Bishop Basilides canon 1 p.95

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "But God is eternal light, having neither beginning nor end. And along with Him there is the reflection, also without beginning, and everlasting. The Father, then, being eternal, the Son is also eternal, being light of light; and if God is the light, Christ is the reflection; and if God is also a Spirit, as it is written, ‘God is a Spirit,’ Christ, again, is called analogously Spirit." On John 8 no.12 p.120

Victorinus of Petau (-307 A.D.) "Creator as the immaculate light shines in the midst of it" Commentary on the Apocalypse from the 21 and 22 chapters no.16 p.359

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (implied) "But these men seem to me quite as bad a one who should traduce the sun when covered by clouds, while yet wondering at this light, seeing how the whole of creation is illumined by him. For as the light is noble, and the sun, the chief cause of light, is nobler still, so, as it is a divine thing for the whole world to be filled with his knowledge, it follows that the orderer and chief cause of such and achievement is God and the Word of God." Against the Heathen ch.1 no.5-6 p.4

 

Among heretics

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tractate (200-250 A.D.) ch.4 "and the god of those who exist, the light of those whom he illumines"

Naaseni Gospel of Thomas (188-236) ch.83 The Gnostic Scriptures p.394-395 "And the light within these (images) is hidden by the image of the father’s light: it will be disclosed. And his image is hidden by his light."

 

G15. God of Jesus/Christ

 

Ephesians 1:3, 17; 1 Peter 1:3; Hebrews 1:9

Revelation 1:6 (God of Jesus)

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Ephesians 1:3,17

p18 Revelation 1:4-7 (4 verses) (300 A.D.) "his God and Father" Revelation 1:6

p114 (Hebrews 1:7-12) (6 verses) (3rd century A.D.) Hebrews 1:9

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 53 p.125 "for I [Jesus] have not ascended uet unto my Father: go to my brethren, and say unto them, I ascend unto my Father and your Father, and my God and your God."

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "‘whilst he has not his own righteousness, which is of the law, but that which is through Him,’ i.e. Christ, "the righteousness which is of God.’ Then, say you, according to this distinction the law did not proceed from the God of Christ. Subtle enough!" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.20 p.473

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "And if, to quote another passage, ‘Thus saith the Lord to my Lord Christ,’ the Lord who speaks to the Father of Christ must be a distinct Being. Moreover, when the apostle in his epistle prays, ‘That the God of our Lord Jesus Christ may give unto you the spirit of wisdom and of knowledge,’ He must be other (than Christ), who is the God of Jesus Christ, the bestower of spiritual gifts. And once for all, that we may not wander through every passage, He ‘who raised up Christ from the dead, and is also to raise up our mortal bodies,’ must certainly be, as the quickener, different from the dead Father, or even from the quickened Father, if Christ who died is the Father." Against Praxeas ch.28 p.625

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "by Christ Himself, as when in the Gospel He confessed Him to be His Father and His God. For He speaks thus: ‘I go to my Father and your Father, and to my God and your God.’ [John 20:17]" Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.6 p.226

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) in discussing Jesus going to the Temple, (His Father’s house), and driving out the moneychangers says, "How, too, could the disciples, if the house was not that of the same God with the God of Christ," Commentary on John book 10 ch.19 p.400

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "and him who with a profane will boldly rebels against the Church, or with impious voice blasphemes against the Father and God of Christ and the Creator of the whole world." Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.22 p.395

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) quotes Psalm 45:7 as "God, Thy God, etc. Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 1 ch.3 p.292

 

G16. Most High God

 

(El Elyon in Hebrew)

Genesis 14:18,19,20,22; Psalm 9:17; 57:2; 78:56; 91:1; Daniel 3:26; 4:17,24,32,34; 5:18,21; 7:18,22,25,27; Hosea 7:16; 11:7

Mark 5:7; Luke 1:32,35,76; 6:35; 8:28; Acts 7:48

Most high: Numbers 24:16; Deuteronomy 32:8; 2 Samuel 22:14; Psalm 9:2; 21:7; 46:4; 50:14; 56:2; 73:11; 77:10; 78:17; 82:6; 83:18; 91:9; 92:1,8; Lamentations 3:35,38

Lord Most High Psalm 7:17; 47:2

God most High: Psalm 57:2

(implied) Isaiah 40:18,25

 

p4 Luke 1:58-59; 1:62-2:1,6-7; 3:8-4:2,29-32,34-35; 5:3-8; 5:30-6:16 (c.150-175 A.D.) Luke 1:76

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) Luke 6:35; 8:28

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Luke 6:35

Sinaitic Old Syriac most of the four gospels (3rd/4th century) Luke 1:76; 6:35

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Were Ananias, and Azarias, and Michael shut up in a furnace of fire by those who observed the great and glorious worship of the Most High? Far from us be such a thought!" 1 Clement ch.45 p.17

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Offer unto God the sacrifice of praise, and pay they vows unto the Most High." 1 Clement ch.52 vol.1 p.19

Ignatius of Antioch (100-107/116 A.D.) (partial) obtained mercy, through the majesty of the Most High Father, and Jesus Christ," [Greek version] Letter of Ignatius to the Romans preamble p.73

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) "the Holy Ghost speaks of this people, saying that they are all sons of the Highest;" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.124 p.261. See also ibid ch.31 p.210.

Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) p.276 The Holy Spirit acknowledged Jesus to be the Son of the Most High God.

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 1.33 p.44 mentions the "Most High"

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "The Lord … the Most High gave voice" On Pascha stanza 98 p.64.

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) calls Melcisedek was the first priests of all priests of the Most High God. Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.31 p.107

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And on this account all things have been [by general consent] placed under the sway of Him who is styled the Most High, and the Almighty. By calling upon Him, even before the coming of our Lord, men were saved both from most wicked spirits, and from all kinds of demons, and from every sort of apostate power." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.6.2 p.365

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "I will stretch forth my hand to the most high God, who made the heaven and the earth." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.5.5. p.467

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "And by the Spirit the Father is called Most high and Almighty and Lord of hosts;" Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.8

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Melchizedek king of Salem, priest of the most high God," Stromata book 4 ch.25 p.439

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "It was therefore always the Son (of whom we read) under the designation of the Almighty and Most High God, and King, and Lord." Against Praxeas ch.21 p.616

Hippolytus of Portus (225-234/5 A.D.) quotes Daniel 7, including "most high". Interpretation of the visions of Daniel and Nebuchadnezzar ch.2 p.178

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) speaks of God as the "Highest" Instructions of Commodianus ch.3 p.203.

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions God Most High. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 15 ch.6.1 p.164

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "To explain this fully, and to justify the conduct of the Christians in refusing homage to any object except the Most High God, and the First-born of all creation, who is His Word and God, we must quote this from Scripture, ‘All that ever came before Me are thieves and robbers: but the sheep did not hear them;’ and again, ‘The thief cometh not, but for to steal, and to kill, and to destroy;’" [John10:8-10] Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.70 p.639

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in the priest Melchizedek we see prefigured the sacrament of the sacrifice of the Lord, according to what divine Scripture testifies, and says, ‘And Melchizedek, king of Salem, brought forth bread and wine.’ Now he was a priest of the most high God, and blessed Abraham. And that Melchizedek bore a type of Christ, the Holy Spirit declares in the Psalms" Epistles of Cyprian letter 62.4 p.359 See also Treatise 12 (3 places) and Treatise 8.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "God, therefore, the contriver and founder of all things, as we have said in the second hook, before He commenced this excellent work of the world, begat a pure and incorruptible Spirit, whom He called His Son. And although He had afterwards created by Himself innumerable other beings, whom we call angels, this first-begotten, however, was the only one whom He considered worthy of being called by the divine name, as being powerful in His Father’s excellence and majesty. But that there is a Son of the Most High God, who is possessed of the greatest power," The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.6 p.105

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says "Most High God". The Divine Institutes book 1 prefact page 9. ibid book 1 ch.1 p.10.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (implied) "Supreme God" The Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.49 p.242

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.490 speaks of the Most High.

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 16 ch.17 p.316 mentions the "Most High".

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-250 AD.) book 2 ch.42 p.109 "For the Most High God, who alone holds the power of all" See also ibid book 1 ch.21 p.83.

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 10 (Testament of Asher) ch.2 p.31 says not to swear falsely "against the Most High"

Elkesites/Elchesaites (a type of Ebionites) (before 236 A.D.) (implied Father of the Son) baptized in the named of the Most High God, and in the name of His Son, the Mighty King. (in Hippolytus’ Refutation of All Heresies book 19 ch.10 p.132)

 

G17. The Godhead

 

Acts 17:29; Romans 1:20; Colossians 2:9

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Colossians 2:9

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) part 2 commandment tenth ch.1 p.26 "Those, on the other hand, who have the fear of God, and search after Godhead and truth,"

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "On these accounts He came to us; on these accounts, though He was incorporeal, He formed for Himself a body after our fashion, -appearing as a sheep, yet still remaining the Shepherd; being esteemed a servant, yet not renouncing the Sonship; being carried in the womb of Mary, yet arrayed in the nature of His Father; treading upon the earth, yet filling heaven; appearing as an infant, yet not discarding the eternity of His nature; being invested with a body, yet not circumscribing the unmixed simplicity of His Godhead; being esteemed poor, yet not divested of His riches; needing sustenance inasmuch as He was man, yet not ceasing to feed the entire world inasmuch as He is God; putting on the likeness of a servant, yet not impairing the likeness of His Father." From the Discourse on the Cross p.756

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "And they [Valentinian Gnostics] state that it was clearly on this account that Paul said, ‘And He Himself is all things;’ and again, ‘All things are to Him, and of Him are all things;’ and further, ‘In Him dwelleth all the fullness of the Godhead;’ and yet again, ‘All things are gathered together by God in Christ.’ Thus do they interpret these and any like passages to be found in Scripture." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.3.4 p.320

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "like the fragments of the loaves, but having partaken of the Lord’s blessing, and breathed into them the resurrection of Godhead through the power of the Word." Stromata book 6 ch.11 p.501-502

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "Meanwhile He has received from the Father the promised gift, and has shed it forth, even the Holy Spirit-the Third Name in the Godhead, and the Third Degree of the Divine Majesty;" Against Praxeas ch.30 p.627

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Let us with similar care consider also this aspect of the question, whether diversity (in the Godhead) can at any rate contain two, since equality therein failed to do so. Here again the same rule about the great Supreme will protect us, inasmuch as it settles the entire condition of the Godhead. Now, challenging, and in a certain sense arresting the meaning of our adversary, who does not deny that the Creator is God, I most fairly object against him that he has no room for any diversity in his gods, because, having once confessed that they are on a par, he cannot now pronounce them different; not indeed that human beings may not be very different under the same designation, be because the Divine Being can be neither said nor believed to be God, except as the great Supreme." Five Books Against Marcion book 1 ch.6 p.275

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "that the Saviour, uniting his Godhead, like pure wine, with the flesh in the Virgin, was born of her at once God and man without confusion of the one in the other." Exegetical fragment 1 Another fragment p.175

Origen (225-2545 A.D.) quotes Romans 1:20. Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.47 p.483

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "‘For the invisible things of Him,’ says the Apostle Paul,’ from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by those things which are made, even His eternal power and godhead;’" [Romans 1:20] Concerning the Trinity ch.3 p.614

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "and therein also to express my thanksgivings to the Godhead," Panegyric to Origen argument 2 p.22

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "The Word of God experiences some passion if the Godhead feels shame." (Adamantius is speaking) Dialogue on the True Faith fourth part d 14 p.144. See also ibid p.145.

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) refers to Jesus as "the living Word, Wisdom, Life, True Light, Way, Truth, Resurrection, Door, unchangeable and unalterable, the immutable likeness of the Godhead,... the firstborn of all creation, ... the Divine Logos, ... born of a virgin, according to the Scriptures, and became man, the Mediator between God and man, ... who suffered for us, and rose for us the third day, and ascended into heaven and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and again is coming with glory and power to judge the quick and the dead." Creed of Lucian of Antioch in The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff vol.2 p.26-27

Athanasius (318 A.D.) mentions the Godhead in a number of places, including The Incarnation of the Word ch.44.3 p.60 and ch.48 p.63. See also Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.21.3 p.15

Alexander of Alexandria (321 A.D.) mentions "His [Christ’s] eternal Godhead and unutterable glory with the Father". Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.1 p.291. See also ibid ch.12 p.296.

Alexander of Alexandria (321 A.D.) mentions the Godhead in Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.12 p.295

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 1 ch.6 p.224 "And in order that He [Jesus] might be believed that He uttered these things full of the Godhead," Se also homily 9 ch.16 p.278.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 1 ch.12 "How shall you be able to obtain pardon, who scorn him who is sent to speak to you of the Godhead of God?"

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 4 ch.36 p.142 "substance of the Godhead, which excels all things;"

 

G18. Living God

 

Deuteronomy 5:26; Joshua 3:10; 1 Samuel 17:26,33; 2 Kings 19:4,16; Psalm 42:2; 84:2; Isaiah 37:4,17; Jeremiah 10:10; 23:36; Daniel 6:20,26; Hosea 1:10

Matthew 16:26; 26:63; John 6:69; Acts 14:15; Romans 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:3; 6:16; 1 Thessalonians 1:9; 3:15; 4:10; 6:27; Hebrews 3:22; 9:14; 10:31; 12:22; Revelation 7:2

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) (partial – For the word of God) Romans 9:26; 2 Corinthians 3:3; 6:26; 1 Thessalonians 1:9

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 6:69

p75 Luke 3:18-22; 3:33-4:2; 4:34-5:10; 5:37-6:4; 6:10-7:32; 7:35-39,41-43; 7:46-9:2; 9:4-17:15; 17:19-18:18; 22:4-24,53; John 1:1-11:45; 48-57; 12:3-13:1,8-9; 14:8-29;15:7-8; (175-225 A.D.) John 6:69

p45 Chester Beatty I – 833 verses (4 gospels + Acts) (200-225 A.D.) Acts 14:15

p13 Hebrews 2:14-5:5; 10:8-22; 10:29-11:13; 11:28-12:17 (225-250 A.D.) Hebrews 3:22

Sinaitic Old Syriac most of the four gospels (3rd/4th century) Matthew 26:63

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Ignatius (100-107/116 A.D.) "infinite meekness of the Living God." Letter to the Philadelphians ch.1 p.79

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.20 p.523 "But let it not even trouble your mind, that we see the unrighteous possessed of riches and the servants of God straitened. Let us, therefore, brothers and sisters, believe; in a trial of the living God we strive and are exercised in the present life, that we may obtain the crown in that which is to come. No one of the righteous received fruit speedily, but waits for it. For if God tendered the reward of the righteous in a trice, straightway were it commerce that we practised, and not godliness."

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) part 3 Similitude 6 ch.2 p.36-37 "‘This,’ he answered, ‘is the angel of luxury and deceit: he wears out the souls of the servants of God, and perverts them from the truth, deceiving them with wicked desires, through which they will perish; for they forget the commandments of the living God, and walk in deceits and empty luxuries; and they are ruined by the angel, some being brought to death, others to corruption:’"

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 20.10 p.74 calls Jesus "son of the living God"

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons) (177 A.D.) p.782 "that He might persuade those who trust in Him that every one that has suffered for the glory of Christ has eternal communion with the living God."

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "and let not that which is only made be put by thee in the place of Him who is not made, but let Him, the ever-living God, be constantly present to thy mind." fragment 1 p.753

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "But this is the attribute of God, the Highest and Almighty, and the living God, not only to be everywhere present, but also to see all things and to hear all, and by no means to be confined in a place;" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.4 p.95

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) says Daniel said, "‘Because I do not worship idols made with hands, but the living God, who established the heaven and the earth and has dominion over all flesh.’ Again did he say, ‘I will adore the Lord my God, because He is the living God.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.5.2 p.467

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "It shall come to pass that in the place where it was called not my people, there shall they be called sons of the Living God." Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.93.

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "‘for we trust in the living God, who is the Saviour of all men, especially of those who believe.’" Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Satan will not be at liberty to do anything against the servants of the living God unless the Lord grant leave," Fleeing Persecution ch.2 p.117

Tertullian (213 A.D.) (implied) says that God lives. Tertullian on Monogamy ch.7 p.64. See also Tertullian on Modesty (208-220 A.D.) ch.15 p.90.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-2335/236 A.D.) "By this Spirit Peter spake that blessed word, ‘Thou art the Christ, the Son of the living God.’" Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.9 p.237

Origen (235-245 A.D.) mentions "the Living God" Homilies on Jeremiah homily 4 ch.2 p.34

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) "To Those Who Resist the Law of Christ the Living God." Instructions of Commodianus ch.26 p.207

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) "Hosea teaches clearly: ‘And it shall be, that in the place in which it was said to them, Ye are not my people, they shall be called the children of the living God:’"

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Or when the voice from heaven is: ‘I have both glorified Him, and I will glorify Him again?’ Or when by Peter it is answered and said: ‘Thou art the Son of the living God?’" Concerning the Trinity ch.26 p.637

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.9 p.672 "For when he [Peter], together with the others, had been asked by the Lord what he thought about Him, that is, whom he thought Him to be, and had first of all confessed the truth, saying that He was the Christ the Son of the living God,"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "‘Thou hast the word of eternal life; and we believe, and are sure, that Thou art the Son of the living God.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 68.8 p.374

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) mentions the Living God. Dialogue on the True Faith ch.27 p.187

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) "That you may know how you ought to behave yourself in the Church of the living God." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the first chapter verse 16 p.345

Athanasius (318 A.D.) mentions the Living God. Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.34.3 p.23

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Avoid unlawful services, and serve the living God. Abstain from adultery and impurity; bring up a pure generation of children; do not kill: for the Immortal will be angry with every one who may sin." Treatise on the Anger of God ch.22 p.278

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "For on this account he is called anthropos, because he looks upward. But he looks upward who looks up to the true and living God, who is in heaven;" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.25 p.230

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Justin Martyr (after 168 A.D.) "For it was necessary, I think, that he who was to be the ruler and leader of the Hebrew people should first of all know the living God." Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.21 p.281

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.491 "O Christ Jesus, the Son of the Living God, my help in the fire, my help among the wild beasts, Thou are glorified for ever."

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies homily 1 ch.16 p.227 "to the honour of the living God, being magnanimously not ashamed, nor"

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 17 ch.18 p.323 appealed to scripture to judge truth.

The Ebionite Protoevangelium of James (145-248 A.D.) ch.20 p.365 "And Salome [a midwife] put in her finger, and cried out, and said: Woe is me for mine iniquity and mine unbelief, because I have tempted the living God; and, behold, my hand is dropping off as if burned with fire." See also ibid ch.11 p.363

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 1 ch.38 p.87 "…by the command of the living God [Moses] went up to a certain mountain, and there died."

Acts of Thomas (early form) (pre-Nicene) p.537 mentions the living God.

 

G19. God is invisible

 

Colossians 1:15; 1 Timothy 1:17

(implied) Hebrews 11:27

(partial) Romans 1:20

1 John 4:12

 

p9 (1 John 4:11-12,14-17 ) (third century) No one has ever seen God (1 John 4:12)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Ignatius of Antioch (100-107/116 A.D.) "And especially, we ought to bear all things for the sake of God, that He also may bear with us. Be ever becoming more zealous than what thou art. Weigh carefully the times. Look for Him who is above all time, eternal and invisible, yet who became visible for our sakes; impalpable and impassible, yet who became passible on our account; and who in every kind of way suffered for our sakes." Letter of Ignatius to Polycarp ch.3 p.94

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.20 p.523 "To the only God invisible, the Father of truth, who sent forth to use the Saviour and Prince of incorruption, through whom also He manifested to us the truth and the heavenly life..."

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "That we are not atheists, therefore, seeing that we acknowledge one God, uncreated, eternal, invisible, impassible, incomprehensible, illimitable, who is apprehended by the understanding only and the reason, who is encompassed by light, and beauty, and spirit, and power ineffable, by whom the universe has been created through His Logos, and set in order, and is kept in being-I have sufficiently demonstrated. [I say ‘His Logos’], for we acknowledge also a Son of God." A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 1 vision first ch.3 p.10 "Lo, the God of powers, who by His invisible strong power and great wisdom has created the world,"

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.7 p.27 "but truly God Himself, who is almighty, the Creator of all things, and invisible, has sent from heaven, and placed among men, [Him who is] the truth, and the holy and incomprehensible Word, and has firmly established Him in their hearts."

Meleto/Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "and let not that which is only made be put by thee in the place of Him who is not made, but let Him, the ever-living God, be constantly present to thy mind. For thy mind itself is His likeness: for it too is invisible and impalpable, and not to be represented by any form, yet by its will is the whole bodily frame moved." fragment 1 p.753

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) says that God is not visible Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.5 p.90

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Moses, then, the blessed and faithful servant of God, declares that He who appeared to Abraham under the oak in Mamre is God, sent with the two angels in His company to judge Sodom by Another who remains ever in the supercelestial places, invisible to all men, holding personal intercourse with none, whom we believe to be Maker and Father of all things; for he speaks thus: ‘God appeared to him under the oak in Mamre, as he sat at his tent-door at noontide.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.56 p.223

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "The Lawgiver is present, yet you do not see Him;" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.12 p.200

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) answers the charge that Gnostics claim the Father is invisible, yet Old Testament prophets had seen God, so that it is a different God. He says that nothing is impossible with God, and even men, both in visions and after being made immortal will be able to see the invisible God. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.5-8 p.488-490

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) (partial) "After this invisible manner, therefore, did they see God, as also Esaias says," and quotes Isa 6:5. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.8 p.490

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that God is invisible. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.5,6

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) says that God cannot be seen. The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.18 p.183.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And it is the name of God that is expressed; since, as the Son sees the goodness of the Father, God the Saviour works, being called the first principle of all things, which was imaged forth from the invisible God first, and before the ages, and which fashioned all things which came into being after itself." Stromata book 5 ch.6 p.453. See also Stromata book 5 ch.11 p.462

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) calls God the Father "the Almighty, Invisible God" Against Praxeas ch.16 p.612

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) quotes 1 Timothy 1:17 in Against Praxeas ch.15 p.611

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "It will therefore follow, that by Him who is invisible we must understand the Father in the fullness of His majesty,…" Against Praxeas ch.14 p.609

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Whatever attributes therefore you require as worthy of God, must be found in the Father, who is invisible and unapproachable," Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.27 p.

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/235 A.D.) "When He wills, He does; and when He thinks, He executes; and when He speaks, He manifests; when He fashions, He contrives in wisdom. For all things that are made He forms by reason and wisdom-creating them in reason, and arranging them in wisdom. He made them, then, as He pleased, for He was God. And as the Author, and fellow-Counsellor, and Framer of the things that are in formation, He begat the Word; and as He bears this Word in Himself, and that, too, as (yet) invisible to the world which is created, He makes Him visible; (and) uttering the voice first, and begetting Him as Light of Light, He set Him forth to the world as its Lord, (and) His own mind; and whereas He was visible formerly to Himself alone, and invisible to the world which is made, He makes Him visible in order that the world might see Him in His manifestation, and be capable of being saved." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.10 p.227

Martyrdom of the Holy Martyrs (before 250 A.D.) (ANF vol.1) ch.2 p.305 "Not so; because the God of the Christians is not circumscribed by place; but being invisible, fills heaven and earth,"

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "to those to whom He communicates Himself by His Word, as He does to the Word Himself; or even if He is ‘substance’, yet He is said be in His nature ‘invisible’, in these words respecting our Saviour, who is said to be ‘the image of the invisible God,’ while from the term ‘invisible’ it is indicated that He is ‘immaterial.’" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.64 p.603

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also Paul to the Colossians: ‘Who is the image of the invisible God,’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second book ch.1 p.516

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "There is one Lord, Only of the Only, God of God, Image and Likeness of Deity, Efficient Word, Wisdom comprehensive of the constitution of all things, and Power formative of the whole creation, true Son of true Father, Invisible of Invisible, and Incorruptible of Incorruptible, and Immortal of Immortal and Eternal of Eternal." A Declaration of Faith p.7

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "visible and invisible creature, the only-begotten Son, and the Word co-eternal" fragment 7 p.282

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "Of whom the same apostle, ‘Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory.’" [1 Timothy 1:17] Concerning the Trinity ch.3 p.614

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.19 p.677 (implied) "And the Spirit, indeed, continues to this day invisible to men, as the Lord says, "The Spirit breathes where He will; and thou knowest not whence He cometh, or whither He goeth."

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "O greatest, O Supreme Creator of things invisible! O Thou who art Thyself unseen, and who art incomprehensible! Thou art worthy, Thou art verily worthy-if only mortal tongue may speak of Thee-that all breathing and intelligent nature should never cease to feel and to return thanks; that it should throughout the whole of life fall on bended knee, and offer supplication with never-ceasing prayers." Arnobius Against the Heathen book 1 ch.31 p.421

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says that God is invisible. Against the Heathen ch.29 p.19

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (partial) says that God is incorporeal, incorruptible, and immortal. Against the Heathen ch.22 p.16

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Therefore God is to be worshipped, that by means of religion, which is also justice, man may receive from God immortality, nor is there any other reward of a pious mind; and if this is invisible, it cannot be presented by the invisible God with any reward but that which is invisible." Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.69 p.252-253

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) "and of the forms that are in matter; He is invisible, impalpable, being Himself" Tatian’s Address to the Greeks ch.4 p.66

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies homily 1 ch.6 p.224 "One in Judaea, beginning in the spring season, was preaching to the Jews the kingdom of the invisible God, and saying that whoever of them would reform his manner of living should enjoy it."

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 1 ch.6 p.224 and homily 11 ch.4 p.285 says that God is invisible.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 8 ch.58 p.181 "How much more must it be, that no one can know the mind or the work of the invisible and incomprehensible God, unless He Himself send a prophet to declare His purpose,"

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) ch.4 p.61 says that God is invisible.

 

G20. God is inscrutable/unsearchable

 

Job 5:9; Psalm 145:3; Romans 11:33

(implied, unsearchable riches of Christ) Ephesians 3:8

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Romans 11:33; (implied) Ephesians 3:8

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "For in reference to these points, and others of a like nature, the apostle exclaims: ‘Oh! the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God; how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.10.3 p.331

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "With whom the apostle agreeing exclaims, "Oh the depth of the riches both of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!" Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.2 p.298

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "beginning from the time that he is yoked along with the man who was foreknown and foreordained to believe at that time, the judgments of God, which are unspeakable and unsearchable and like to the depths, fitly bringing together all this harmonious relationship-angels with men." Commentary on Matthew book 13 no.28 p.491

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "so that rightly we also are now disposed to exclaim with the apostle, as he admires both the Architect and His works: ‘Oh the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! how inscrutable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!’ And the rest." Concerning the Trinity ch.8 p.618

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in the Epistle of Paul to the Romans: ‘Oh the depth of the riches of the wisdom and knowledge of God! How incomprehensible are His judgments, and how unsearchable are His ways!’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 third book ch.53 p.547

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (implied) says that God is incomprehensible by eyes and minds. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.58 p.246

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 8 ch.60 p.181 "for, being mortal, he shall not be able to trace the counsel of God, and to scan immensity itself."

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 8 ch.58 p.181 (implied) "How much more must it be, that no one can know the mind or the work of the invisible and incomprehensible God, unless He Himself send a prophet to declare His purpose,"

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) ch.2 p.61 says that God is inscrutable.

Valentinian The Gospel of Truth (c.150-4th century A.D.) ch.1 p.40 says that God is unknowable and incomprehensible.

The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185 A.D.) ch.2 p.106 says that God is unsearchable.

 

G21. God had no beginning / was unoriginated

 

Hebrews 7:3

John 1:2 (implied)

2 Timothy 1:9 (implied)

Titus 1:2 (implied)

1 John 2:13-14 (implied)

Revelation 21:6 (implied)

Revelation 22:13 (implied)

 

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) "when it is manifest that God, the Parent of all, has neither beginning nor end-that He who gives birth to all gives perpetuity to Himself-that He who was before the world, was Himself to Himself instead of the world?" The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.18 p.183

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "the most ancient philosophy and primeval prophecy; and among intellectual ideas, what is oldest in origin, the timeless and unoriginated First Principle, and Beginning of existence"-the Son-from whom we are to learn the remoter Cause, the Father, of the universe, the most ancient and the most beneficent of all;" Stromata book 7 ch.1 (=ch.50 on-line) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 p.523

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) calls the Father the timeless and unoriginated First Principle Stromata book 7 ch.1 (=ch.50 on-line) Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.3 p.523

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "For Matter will be such a God as He-being unmade, unborn, without beginning, and without end. God will say, ‘I am the first!’ Yet how is He the first, when Matter is co-eternal with Him? Between co-eternals and contemporaries there is no sequence of rank. Is then, Matter also the first? ‘I,’ says the Lord, ‘have stretched out the heavens alone.’" Against Hermogenes ch.6 p.480

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "So far as a human being can form a definition of God, I adduce one which the conscience of all men will also acknowledge,-that God is the great Supreme existing in eternity, unbegotten, unmade without beginning, without end." Five Books Against Marcion book 1 ch.3 p.273

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For there is one God in whom we must believe, but unoriginated, impassible, immortal, doing all things as He wills, in the way He wills, and when He wills." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.8 p.226

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Thus God the Father, the Founder and Creator of all things, who only knows no beginning, invisible, infinite, immortal, eternal, is one God; to whose greatness, or majesty, or power, I would not say nothing can be preferred, but nothing can be compared; of whom, when He willed it, the Son, the Word," Concerning the Trinity ch.31 p.643

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "O blessed One, who inhabited the undefiled seats of heaven without beginning, who governed all things by everlasting power, O Father, with Thy Son, we are here, receive us also within the gates of life." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 11 ch.2.24 p.353

Lactantius (c.303-c.325 A.D.) (implied) "And since He [God] is possessed of sensibility, intelligence, providence, power, and vigour, He is able to create and make both animated and inanimate objects, because He has the means of making everything. But matter cannot always have existed, for if it had existed it would be incapable of change. For that which always was, does not cease always to be; and that which had no beginning must of necessity be without an end. Moreover, it is easier for that which had a beginning to be without an end, than for that which had no beginning to have an end. Therefore if matter was not made, nothing can be made from it. But if nothing can be made from it, then matter itself can have no existence. For matter is that out of which something is made. But everything out of which anything is made, inasmuch as it has received the hand of the artificer, is destroyed, and begins to be some other thing. Therefore, since matter had an end, at the time when the world was made out of it, it also had a beginning. For that which is destroyed was previously built up; that which is loosened was previously bound up; that which is brought to an end was begun. If, then, it is inferred from its change and end, that matter had a beginning, from whom could that beginning have been, except from God? God, therefore, is the only being who was not made; and therefore He can destroy other things, but He Himself cannot be destroyed." The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.9 p.54-55

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 177 A.D.) "For matter is not, like God, without beginning, nor, as having no beginning, is of equal power with God; it is begotten, and not produced by any other being, but brought into existence by the Framer of all things alone." Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.5 p.67

Gnostics (c.150-4th century) believed there was one being with no beginning. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.2.1 p.317

The Gnostic Marcus (c.150-188 A.D.) according to Irenaeus. "This was done in the following terms: When first the unoriginated, inconceivable Father, who is without material substance, and is neither male nor female, willed to bring forth that which is ineffable to Him, and to endow with form that which is invisible, He opened His mouth, and sent forth the Word similar to Himself, who, standing near, showed Him what He Himself was, inasmuch as He had been manifested in the form of that which was invisible. Moreover, the pronunciation of His name took place as follows:-He spoke the first word of it, which was the beginning [of all the rest], and that utterance consisted of four letters. He added the second, and this also consisted of four letters. Next He uttered the third, and this again embraced ten letters." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 1 ch.14.1 p.336

Manes (262-278 A.D.) Archelaus speaking about Manes. "If you are desirous of being instructed in the faith of Manes by me, attend to me for a short space. That man worships two deities, unoriginated, self-existent, eternal, opposed the one to the other. Of these he represents the one as good, and the other as evil, and assigns the name of Light to the former, and that of Darkness to the latter." Disputation with Manes ch.6 p.182

 

G22. God is incorruptible

 

Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17 (incorruptible aphthartou)

2 Timothy 1:10 (incorruption aphtharsian)

(implied) Acts 2:27,31

(partial) 1 Corinthians 15:42,50,53,54; 1 Peter 1:4,23

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Letter of Ignatius of Antioch to the Romans ch.7 p.77 (-107/116 A.D.) (partial) "I desire the bread of God, the heavenly bread, the bread of life, which is the flesh of Jesus Christ, the Son of God,… and I desire the drink of God, namely His blood, which is incorruptible love and eternal life."

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.9 p.28 "He Himself took on Him the burden of our iniquities, He gave His own Son as a ransom for us, the holy One for transgressors, the blameless One for the wicked, the righteous One for the unrighteous, the incorruptible One for the corruptible, the immortal One for them that are mortal. For what other thing was capable of covering our sins than His righteousness? By what other one was it possible that we, the wicked and ungodly, could be justified, than by the only Son of God? O sweet exchange! O unsearchable operation! O benefits surpassing all expectation! that the wickedness of many should be hid in a single righteous One, and that the righteousness of One should justify many transgressors!"

The Apology of Aristides (125 or 138-161 A.D.) ch.15 p.277 (partial) mentions that we should worship God the Creator, give hear to His incorruptible words, to escape from condemnation and punishment, and be found as heirs of life everlasting.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "for God alone is unbegotten and incorruptible, and therefore He is God" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.5 p.197

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "He the Creator, incorruptible" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.36 p.109

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "blessed and incorruptible God" Stromata book 5 ch.11 p.460

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "These sensations in the human being are rendered just as corrupt by the corruptibility of man’s substance, as in God they are rendered incorruptible by the incorruption of the divine essence." Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.16 p.310

Hippolytus of Portus (225-235/236 A.D.) (implied) "For whereas the Word of God was without flesh, He took upon Himself the holy flesh by the holy Virgin, and prepared a robe which He wove for Himself, like a bridegroom, in the sufferings of the cross, in order that by uniting His own power with our mortal body, and by mixing the incorruptible with the corruptible, and the strong with the weak, He might save perishing man. The web-beam, therefore, is the pass on of the Lord upon the cross, and the warp on it is the power of the Holy Spirit, and the woof is the holy flesh wrought (woven) by the Spirit, and the thread is the grace which by the love of Christ binds and unites the two in one, and the combs or (rods) are the Word; and the workers are the patriarchs and prophets who weave the fair, long, perfect tunic for Christ; and the Word passing through these, like the combs or (rods), completes through them that which His Father willeth." Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.4 p.205. See also Refutation of All Heresies book 4 ch.2 p.49.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "For even the Stoics were unable distinctly to comprehend the natural idea of God, as of a being altogether incorruptible and simple, and uncompounded and indivisible. And with respect to His having descended among men, He was ‘previously in the form of God;’" Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.14 p.503

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "He is therefore also both immortal and incorruptible, neither conscious of any kind of loss nor ending. For because He is incorruptible, He is therefore immortal; and because He is immortal, He is certainly also incorruptible,-each being involved by turns in the other, with itself and in itself, by a mutual connection, and prolonged by a vicarious concatenation to the condition of eternity; immortality arising from incorruption, as well as incorruption coming from immortality." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.4 p.615

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "God may not be corrupted by them, because He cannot be corrupted." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.5 p.616

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "true Son of true Father, Invisible of Invisible, and Incorruptible of Incorruptible, and Immortal of Immortal and Eternal of Eternal. And there is One Holy Spirit, having His subsistence from God, and being made manifest by the Son, [to wit to men:] Image of the Son," A Declaration of Faith p.7

Gregory Thaumaturgus [or Dionysius of Alexandria] (240-265 A.D.) (partial) "But as to those everlasting and incorruptible things which God hath firmly established, it is not possible either to take aught from them or to add aught to them. And to men in general, those things, in sooth, are fearful and wonderful;" Metaphrase of Ecclesiastes ch.3 p.11

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "In truth, our evil comes out of our want of resemblance to God, and our ignorance of Him; and, on the other hand, our great good consists in our resemblance to Him. And, therefore, our conversion and faith in the Being who is incorruptible and divine, seems to be truly our proper good, and ignorance and disregard of Him our evil;" fragment of Work of Methodius Against Porphyry p.382

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied) argues against Gnostics that both God and Satan cannot be incorruptible. Dialogue on the True Faith in God Third part p.114-115

Lucian of Antioch (c.300-311 A.D.) (partial, implied referring to Christ) refers to Jesus as "the living Word, Wisdom, Life, True Light, Way, Truth, Resurrection, Door, unchangeable and unalterable, the immutable likeness of the Godhead,... the firstborn of all creation, ... the Divine Logos, ... born of a virgin, according to the Scriptures, and became man, the Mediator between God and man, ... who suffered for us, and rose for us the third day, and ascended into heaven and sitteth on the right hand of the Father, and again is coming with glory and power to judge the quick and the dead." Creed of Lucian of Antioch in The Creeds of Christendom by Philip Schaff vol.2 p.26-27

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says that God is incorporeal, incorruptible, and immortal. Against the Heathen ch.22.3 p.16

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (implied, said of Word of God, not God) says that Christ was impassable and incorruptible. Incarnation of the Word ch.54 p.65

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that God is incapable of suffering, unchangeable, incorruptible, blessed and eternal. The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.9 p.55

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "For if God is a title of the highest power, He must be incorruptible, perfect, incapable of suffering, and subject to no other being; therefore they are not gods whom necessity compels to obey the one greatest God." The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.3 p.13

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "God, who is incorruptible," The Divine Institutes book 7 ch.3 p.197

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that God is incorruptible. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.3 p.225

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 8 ch.58 p.181 (implied) "Hence I think it ridiculous when men judge of the power of God in natural ways, and think that this is possible and that impossible to Him, or this greater and that less, while they are ignorant of everything; who, being unrighteous men, judge the righteous God; unskilled, judge the contriver; corrupt, judge the incorruptible; creatures, judge the Creator." See also book 2 ch.14 p.101.

Valentinian The Gospel of Truth (200-250 A.D.) ch.1.31 p.46 says that God is incorruptible.

Other Gnostics (c.150-4th century) "His purpose is your eternal life. Your perfection is incorruptible. Be rich in god the father" Songs of Solomon Song 9 in The Gnostic Bible p.364

The Bardesene Marinus (c.300 A.D.) in disputing with Adamantius, said that God only was incorruptible. Dialogue on the True Faith 3rd part ch.8 p.117

 

G23. God is eternal

 

1 Timothy 1:17; Hebrews 1:12

The Father is eternal in Psalm 90:2; 93:2.

The Son is eternal in Hebrews 7:3; 13:8

The Spirit is eternal in Hebrews 9:14.

 

p114 (Hebrews 1:7-12) (6 verses) (3rd century A.D.) Hebrews 1:12

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you, and with all everywhere that are the called of God through Him, by whom be to Him glory, honour, power, majesty, and eternal dominion, from everlasting to everlasting." 1 Clement ch.49 p.18

Ignatius (-107/116 A.D.) (implied) "His grace to fully convince the unbelieving that there is one God, who has manifested Himself by Jesus Christ His Son, who is His eternal Word,..." Letter of Ignatius Letter to the Magnesians ch.8 p.62

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "and that we reasonably worship Him, having learned that He is the Son of the true God Himself, and holding Him in the second place, and the prophetic Spirit in the third, we will prove. For they proclaim our madness to consist in this, that we give to a crucified man a place second to the unchangeable and eternal God, the Creator of all; for they do not discern the mystery that is herein, to which, as we make it plain to you, we pray you to give heed." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.13 p.166-167

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "That we are not atheists, therefore, seeing that we acknowledge one God, uncreated, eternal, invisible, impassible, incomprehensible, illimitable, who is apprehended by the understanding only and the reason, who is encompassed by light, and beauty, and spirit, and power ineffable, by whom the universe has been created through His Logos, and set in order, and is kept in being-I have sufficiently demonstrated. [I say ‘His Logos’], for we acknowledge also a Son of God." A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) speaks of the eternal God. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.3

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A,D.) "but now manifested by the prophetic Scriptures, according to the command of the eternal God," Stromata book 5 ch.10 p.459

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "…for I have but one true Lord, the God omnipotent and eternal, who of Lord of the emperor as well." Apology ch.34 p.43

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "they killed the Son of their Benefactor, for He is coeternal with the Father." Expository Treatise Against the Jews ch.7 p.220

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied, eternal power) "But Paul, as a lover of truth, says of certain wise men among the Greeks, when their statements are true, that ‘although they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful.’ And he bears witness that they knew God, and says, too, that this did not happen to them without divine permission, in these words: ‘For God showed it unto them;’ dimly alluding, I think, to those who ascend from things of sense to those of the understanding, when he adds, ‘For the invisible things of God from the creation of the world are Clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, even His eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse: because that, when they knew God, they glorified Him not as God, neither were thankful.’" [Romans 1:19-21a] Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.47 p.483

Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) "God the Father, the Founder and Creator of all things, who only knows no beginning, invisible, infinite, immortal, eternal, is one God." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.31 p.643. See also ibid ch.3 p.614.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "which will abide with us always, eternal with God in the kingdom of heaven." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.15 p.488

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "Being the brightness of the eternal Light, He Himself also is absolutely eternal." Letter 4 Letter to Dionysius, bishop of Rome ch.3 p.92

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "I believe in One God, creator and Maker of all things; and in God the Word, Who was born of Him, of the same Essence, and exists eternally." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.2 p.37

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (implied, alternate translation) "There is One God, Creator and Architect of everything, in whom I believe, and his Word, his essence, is even co-eternal." Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.2 (on-line)

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) "the Creator and Lord of every visible and invisible creature, the only-begotten Son, and the Word co-eternal with the Father and the Holy Spirit, and of the same substance with them, according to His divine nature, our Lord and God, Jesus Christ,…" fragment 5 p.282

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "Whence also, with one and the same adoration, we worship the one Deity in three Persons, subsisting without beginning, uncreate, without end, and to which there is no successor. For neither will the Father ever cease to be the Father, nor again the Son to be the Son and King, nor the Holy Ghost to be what in substance and personality He is. For nothing of the Trinity will suffer diminution, either in respect of eternity, or of communion, or of sovereignty." Oration on Psalms ch.5 p.397. (also The Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.10 p.338 and ch.11 p.339)

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (implied) Christ is the eternal Word. Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.41.3 p.26

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But if destruction is far removed from God, because He is incorruptible and eternal, it follows that the divine power is incapable of division." The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.3 p.12

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) says that God is eternal. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.3 p.225

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) (implied, eternal Godhead) "ignoring altogether the passages in which His eternal Godhead and unutterable glory with the Father is set forth." Epistle on the Arian Heresy letter 1 ch.1 p.291

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) speaks of the "King Eternal" Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.8 p.388

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) "For the heavenly Logos, a spirit emanating from the Father and a Logos from the Logos-power, in imitation of the Father who begat Him made man an image of immortality, so that, as incorruption is with God, in like manner, man, sharing in a part of God, might have the immortal principle also." Tatian’s Address to the Greeks ch.7 p.67

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.54 p.128 says that God is eternal.

The Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) ch.3 p.61 says that the Father is eternal.

 

G24. God is the Ancient of Days

 

Daniel 7:22

Isaiah 43:13 (partial) "Yes, and from ancient days I am he."

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-365 A.D.) "I saw in the vision of the night, and, behold, one like the Son of man coming with the clouds of heaven; and He came to the Ancient of days, and stood before Him. And they who stood by brought Him near;" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.31 p.209

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "He is the Beginning and Creator of all things : in Daniel. The white hair of the Lord, because He is ‘the Ancient of Days:’ as above." From the Oration on Our Lord’s Passion vol.8 p.760

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Then, too, is this same individual beheld as the Son of man coming in the clouds of heaven, and drawing near to the Ancient of Days, and receiving from Him all power and glory, and a kingdom. ‘His dominion,’ it is said, ‘is an everlasting dominion, and His kingdom shall not perish.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.11 p.491

Clement of Alexandria (198-217/220 A.D.) "since He is the eternal aged One, He who is older than all things. Prophecy has called him the ‘Ancient of days; and the hair of His head was as pure wool,’ says the prophet." The Instructor book 3 ch.3 p.275

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days;" Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.7 p.326

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "coming with the clouds of heaven, and came to the Ancient of days, and was" Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.22 p.209

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.17 p.662 "Ancient of days sat upon it, and His clothing was as it were snow,"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "coming in the clouds of heaven, came even to the Ancient of days, and stood" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.26 p.525

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "For the prophet said in addition: And came even to the Ancient of days, and was presented to Him. He called the Most High God the Ancient of days, whose age and origin cannot be comprehended; for He alone was from generations, and He will be always to generations. But that Christ, after His passion and resurrection, was about to ascend to God the Father," The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.12 p.111

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) quotes Daniel 7:13 as by Daniel. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.21 p.123

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "Upon all this that righteous man, waxing bold and yielding to the exhortation of the mother of God, who is the handmaid of God in regard to the things which pertain to men, received into his aged arms Him who in infancy was yet the Ancient of days, and blessed God," Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.8 p.388

 

G25. God is Spirit

 

John 4:24a

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that God is Spirit. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.5

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "man is the image of God, that is, of spirit; for God is spirit." Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.9 p.304

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes all of John 4:24 and 1 John 1:5 as scripture. Origen Against Celsus book 2 ch.71 p.460

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) God is spirit Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.7 Ante-Nicene Fathers vol.8 p.616

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) quotes all of John 4:24. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.616

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) quotes John 4:24a. Letter to Dionysius bishop of Rome p.92

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) (author unknown but could be Gregory Thaumaturgus) quotes John 4:24 in A Sectional Confession of Faith ch.10 p.43.

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) quotes John 4:24a in Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.4 p.66

 

G26. God / Jesus is immortal

 

1 Timothy 6:16 (immortality athanasian);

... Romans 1:23; 1 Timothy 1:17 and 2 Timothy are actually incorruptible.

 

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.9 p.28 "He Himself took on Him the burden of our iniquities, He gave His own Son as a ransom for us, the holy One for transgressors, the blameless One for the wicked, the righteous One for the unrighteous, the incorruptible One for the corruptible, the immortal One for them that are mortal. For what other thing was capable of covering our sins than His righteousness? By what other one was it possible that we, the wicked and ungodly, could be justified, than by the only Son of God? O sweet exchange! O unsearchable operation! O benefits surpassing all expectation! that the wickedness of many should be hid in a single righteous One, and that the righteousness of One should justify many transgressors!"

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "that he may know himself, how mortal and weak he is; while he also understands respecting God, that He is immortal and powerful to such a degree as to confer immortality upon what is mortal, and eternity upon what is temporal;" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.20.2 p.450

Novatian (250/254-256/7 A.D.) "God the Father, the Founder and Creator of all things, who only knows no beginning, invisible, infinite, immortal, eternal, is one God." Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.31 p.643

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "And since by the gaze of our eyes we cannot see Him, we rightly learn of Him from the greatness, and the power, and the majesty of His works. ‘For the invisible things of Him,’ says the Apostle Paul," from the creation of the world, are clearly seen, being understood by those things which are made, even His eternal power and godhead; so that the human mind, learning hidden things from those that are manifest, from the greatness of the works which it should behold, might with the eyes of the mind consider the greatness of the Architect. Of whom the same apostle, ‘Now unto the King eternal, immortal, invisible, the only God, be honour and glory.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.3 p.614

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (partial) "from that heavenly sublimity to earthly things, the Son of God did not scorn to put on the flesh of man, and although He Himself was not a sinner, to bear the sins of others. His immortality being in the meantime laid aside, He suffers Himself to become mortal, so that the guiltless may be put to death" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.6 p.485

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "true Son of true Father, Invisible of Invisible, and Incorruptible of Incorruptible, and Immortal of Immortal and Eternal of Eternal. And there is One Holy Spirit, having His subsistence from God, and being made manifest by the Son, [to wit to men:] Image of the Son," A Declaration of Faith p.7

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) "Because God is unchangeable, but humans are changeable; God is immortal, but humans mortal…" Dialogue on the True Faith Third Part ch.9 b p.119

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "does the Almighty and Supreme God seem to you to be something new; and do those who adore and worship Him seem to you to support and introduce an unheard-of, unknown, and upstart religion? Is there anything older than Him? or can anything be found preceding Him in being, time, name? Is not He alone uncreated, immortal, and everlasting? Who is the head and fountain of things? is not He?" Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.72 p.461

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "should never cease to feel and to return thanks; that it should throughout the whole of life fall on bended knee, and offer supplication with never-ceasing prayers. For Thou art the first cause; in Thee created things exist, and Thou art the space in which rest the foundations of all things, whatever they be. Thou art illimitable, unbegotten, immortal, enduring for aye, God Thyself alone," Arnobius Against the Heathen book 1 ch.31 p.421

Athanasius (c.318 A.D.) says that God is incorporeal, incorruptible, and immortal. Against the Heathen ch.22 p.16

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Avoid unlawful services, and serve the living God. Abstain from adultery and impurity; bring up a pure generation of children; do not kill: for the Immortal will be angry with every one who may sin." Treatise on the Anger of God ch.22 p.278

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.45 p.237 says that God is immortal.

The Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) ch.2 p.61 says that God is immortal.

 

G27. God / Jesus before birth was incorporeal

 

(partial, Implied) John 1:14 The Word became flesh

(partial) John 3:8 Holy Spirit is like the wind

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "On these accounts He came to us; on these accounts, though He was incorporeal, He formed for Himself a body after our fashion, -appearing as a sheep, yet still remaining the Shepherd; being esteemed a servant, yet not renouncing the Sonship; being carried in the womb of Mary, yet arrayed in the nature of His Father; treading upon the earth, yet filling heaven; appearing as an infant, yet not discarding the eternity of His nature; being invested with a body, yet not circumscribing the unmixed simplicity of His Godhead; being esteemed poor, yet not divested of His riches; needing sustenance inasmuch as He was man, yet not ceasing to feed the entire world inasmuch as He is God; putting on the likeness of a servant, yet not impairing the likeness of His Father." From the Discourse on the Cross p.756

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) writes that Xenophenes of Colophon rightly says, "that God is one and incorporeal," Stromata book 5 ch.14 p.470

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (implied) quotes John 1:14. Fragments from Commentaries Another Fragment p.175.

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Since we hold that the great God is in essence simple, invisible, and incorporeal," Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.38 p.626

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says that God is incorporeal, incorruptible, and immortal. Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.22 p.16. See also Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.29.1 p.19

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (implied) "but as corporeal offerings are necessary for corporeal beings, so manifestly an incorporeal sacrifice is necessary for an incorporeal being. But God has no need of those things" Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.58 p.246

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "Therefore God sent down from heaven His incorporeal Son to take flesh upon Him in the Virgin’s womb" Epistles on the Arian Heresy Epistle 5 ch.5 p.300

 

G28. God’s Holy Name

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "grant to every soul that calleth upon His glorious and holy Name, faith, fear, peace, patience, long-suffering, self-control, purity, and sobriety, to the well-pleasing of His Name, through our High Priest and Protector, Jesus Christ, by whom be to Him glory, and majesty, and power, and honour, both now and for evermore. Amen." 1 Clement ch.58 p.21

Didache (before 125 A.D.) (ANF vol.7) ch.10 p.380 "thus give thanks: 2. ‘We thank Thee, holy Father, for Thy holy name which Thou’"

Shepherd of Hermas (c.150 A.D.) third part simultude 9 ch.12 p.47 "‘I saw, sir,’ I replied. ‘In like manner,’ he continued, ‘no one shall enter into the kingdom of God unless he receive His holy name.’"

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "‘For it behoves those who praise in the holy name of the Lord,’ according to the prophet, ‘to rejoice in heart, seeking, the Lord.’" Stromata book 6 ch.10 p.499

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "hostile to the devil, arming us against the spiritual enemies of all wickedness and concupiscence, and cutting us off from the dearest objects for the sake of God’s holy name." Five Books Against Marcion book 3 ch.14 p.333

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.10 p.660 "‘This is the people of the Lord, I have spared them, because of my holy name, which the house of Israel despised among the nations.’"

 

G29. Sun / beam / ray analogy of the Trinity

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.5 p.139-140 (partial) "For if He [Jesus] had not come in the flesh, how could men have been saved by beholding Him? Since looking upon the sun which is to cease to exist, and is the work of His hands, their eyes are not able to bear his rays."

Justin Martyr (138-165 A.D.) "is called a Man, and a human being, because He appears strayed in such forms as the Father pleases; and they call Him the Word, because He carries tidings from the Father to men: but maintain that this power is indivisible and inseparable from the Father, just as they say that the light of the sun on earth is indivisible and inseparable from the sun in the heavens; as when it sinks, the light sinks along with it; so the Father, when He chooses, say they, causes His power to spring forth, and when He chooses, He makes it return to Himself." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.128 p.264

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "The Holy Spirit Himself also, which operates in the prophets, we assert to be an effluence of God, flowing from Him, and returning back like a beam of the son." A Plea for Christians ch.10 p.133

Athenagoras "For, as we acknowledge a God, and a Son his Logos, and a Holy Spirit, united in essence, - the Father, the Son, the Spirit, because the Son is the Intelligence, Reason, Wisdom of the Father, and the Spirit an effluence, as light from fire;" A Plea for Christians ch.24 p.141

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) (partial, sun is Christ, not the Father) "-Christ, the Sun of the Resurrection, He ‘who was born before the morning star,’ and with His beams bestows life." Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.196

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "We have been taught that He proceeds forth from God, and in that procession He is generated; so that He is the Son of God, and is called God from unity of substance with God. For God, too, is a Spirit. Even when the ray is shot from the sun, it is still part of the parent mass; the sun will still be in the ray, because it is a ray of the sun-there is no division of substance, but merely an extension. Thus Christ is Spirit of Spirit, and God of God, as light of light is kindled. The material matrix remains entire and unimpaired, though you derive from it any number of shoots possessed of its qualities; so, too, that which has come forth out of God is at once God and the Son of God, and the two are one." Apology ch.28 p.41

Hippolytus of Portus (222-234/245 A.D.) "I do not mean that there are two Gods, but that it is only as light of light, or as water from a fountain, or as a ray from the sun. For there is but one power, which is from the All; and the Father is the All, from whom cometh this Power, the Word. And this is the mind which came forth into the world, and was manifested as the Son of God." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.11 p.227

Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.) explains how the Son is an emanation of the Father, as a reflection of light, or as the steam of water. Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines ch.1 vol.6 p.155.

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "Since, therefore, the Father makes the Son, and the Son the Father, they both have one mind, one spirit, one substance; but the former is as it were an overflowing fountain, the latter as a stream flowing forth from it: the former as the sun, the latter as it were a ray extended from the sun. And since He is both faithful to the Most High Father, and beloved by Him, He is not separated from Him; just as the stream is not separated from the fountain, nor the ray from the sun: for the water of the fountain is in the stream, and the light of the sun is in the ray: just as the voice cannot be separated from the mouth, nor the strength or hand from the body." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.29 p.132

 

After Nicea, Athanasius also used this illustration.

 

Among heretics

The modern (orthodox) Christian writer R.C. Sproul claims Sabellius used this illustration, but I do not see it in the writings about Sabellius.

 

G30. God is all-seeing

 

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.)"beseeching in our supplications the all-seeing God ‘not to lead us into temptation,’ as the Lord has said: ‘The spirit truly is willing, but the flesh is weak.’" Letter to the Philippians ch.7 p.34-35

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "wherever that is, quick to behold and quick to hear, having neither eyes nor ears, but being of indescribable might; and He sees all things, and knows all things, and none of us escapes His observation; and He is not moved or confined" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.127 p.263

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) says that God is witness to what we think and say both by night and by day, and since He is Light, He sees all things in our heart. A Plea for Christians ch.31 p.146

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) ch.9 p.760 "The eyes of the Lord-the Divine inspection: because He sees all things. Like that in the apostle: For all things are naked and open in His eyes."

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "God, not only to be everywhere present, but also to see all things and to hear all…" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.3 p.95

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) says God "is the Invisible, who sees all things; incapable of being contained, who contains all things; needing nothing, whom all things need, and by whom they are; incomprehensible, everlasting, unmade," Stromata book 6 ch.5 p.489

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "No doubt about it, we, who receive our awards under the judgment of an all-seeing God," Apology ch.45 p.50

Origen (233/234 A.D.) sees all things before they came to be. Prayer ch.5.2 p.27

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "lineaments that are described. For when the eyes are spoken of, it is implied that He sees all things; and when the ear, it is set forth that He hears all things; and when the finger, a certain energy of His will is opened up;" Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.616

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) says that God is everywhere present, and hears and sees all. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 4 ch.4 p.448

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) says that God sees all things. Commentary on the Apocalypse of the Blessed John from the Sixth chapter 9 p.351

 

G31. Genesis 1:26 refers to the Father & Son

 

Genesis 1:26

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.6 p.140 "For the Scripture says concerning us, while He speaks to the Son, "Let Us make man after Our image, and after Our likeness; and let them have dominion over the beasts of the earth, and the fowls of heaven, and the fishes of the sea."

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "In saying, therefore, ‘as one of us, ‘[Moses] has declared that [there is a certain] number of persons associated with one another, and that they are at least two. For I would not say that the dogma of that heresy which is said to be among you (The Jews had their own heresies which supplied many things to the Christian heresies) is true, or that the teachers of it can prove that [God] spoke to angels, or that the human frame was the workmanship of angels. But this Offspring, which was truly brought forth from the Father, was with the Father before all the creatures." Dialogue of Justin Martyr with Trypho, a Jew ch.62 p.228

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "It was not angels, therefore, who made us, nor who formed us, neither had angels power to make an image of God, nor any one else, except the Word of the Lord, nor any Power remotely distant from the Father of all things. For God did not stand in need of these [beings], in order to the accomplishing of what He had Himself determined with Himself beforehand should be done, as if He did not possess His own hands. For with Him were always present the Word and Wisdom, the Son and the Spirit, by whom and in whom, freely and spontaneously, He made all things, to whom also He speaks, saying, ‘Let Us make man after Our image and likeness;’" [Genesis 1:26] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.1 p.487

Tertullian (c.213 A.D.) "If the number of the Trinity also offends you, as if it were not connected in the simple Unity, I ask you how it is possible for a Being who is merely and absolutely One and Singular, to speak in plural phrase, saying, ‘let us make man in our own image, and after our own likeness;’ whereas He ought to have said, ‘Let me make man in my own image, and after my own likeness,’ as being a unique and singular Being? In the following passage, however, ‘Behold the man is become as one of us,’ He is either deceiving or amusing us in speaking plurally, if He is One only and singular. Or was it to the angels that He spoke, as the Jews interpret the passage, because these also acknowledge not the Son? Or was it because He was at once the Father, the Son, and the Spirit, that He spoke to Himself in plural terms, making Himself plural on that very account? Nay, it was because He had already His Son close at His side, as a second Person, His own Word, and a third Person also, the Spirit in the Word, that He purposely adopted the plural phrase, ‘Let us make;’ and, ‘in our image;’ and, ‘become as one of us.’" Against Praxeas ch.12 p.606

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "In the first place, because all things were made by the Word of God, and without Him was nothing made. Now the flesh, too, had its existence from the Word of God, because of the principle, that here should be nothing without that Word. ‘Let us make man,’ said He, before He created him, and added, ‘with our hand,’ for the sake of his pre-eminence, that so he might not be compared with the rest of creation." On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.5 p.549

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Since then he is the image of the Creator (for He, when looking on Christ His Word, who was to become man, said, ‘Let us make man in our own image, after our likeness’), how can I possibly have another head but Him whose image I am? For if I am the image of the Creator there is no room in me for another head" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.8 p.445

Origen (250-254 A.D.) "For the Son of God, ‘the First-born of all creation,’ although He seemed recently to have become incarnate, is not by any means on that account recent. For the holy Scriptures know Him to be the most ancient of all the works of creation; for it was to Him that God said regarding the creation of man, ‘Let Us make man in Our image, after Our likeness.’" Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.37 p.560

Novatian (250-257 A.D.) "For who does not acknowledge that the person of the Son is second after the Father, when he reads that it was said by the Father, consequently to the Son, ‘Let us make man in our image and our likeness;’ and that after this it was related, ‘And God made man, in the image of God made He him?’ Or when he holds in his hands: ‘The Lord rained upon Sodom and Gomorrah fire and brimstone from the Lord from heaven?’" Concerning the Trinity ch.26. p.636

Athanasius (c.318 A.D.) "But in fact He did not do so; but He gives the command thus: "Let us make man," and "let the green herb come forth." By which God is proved to be speaking about them to some one at hand: it follows then that some one was with Him to Whom He spoke when He made all things. 6. Who then could it be, save His Word? For to whom could God be said to speak, except His Word? Or who was with Him when He made all created Existence, except His Wisdom, which says "When He was making the heaven and the earth I was present with Him?" But in the mention of heaven and earth, all created things in heaven and earth are included as well. 7. But being present with Him as His Wisdom and His Word, looking at the Father He fashioned the Universe, and organised it and gave it order; and, as He is the power of the Father, He gave all things strength to be, as the Saviour says "What things soever I see the Father doing, I also do in like manner." And His holy disciples teach that all things were made "through Him and unto Him;’" Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.46 p.29

 

Among heretics

The Gnostic Saturnilus (c.150 A.D.) (partial) quotes Genesis 1:26 but says it is the Father and angels. (in Hippolytus Refutation of All Heresies (222-235/236 A.D.) book 7 ch.16 p.109.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 3 ch.55 p.248 says that God is all-seeing.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 4 ch.31 p.141 says that God is all-seeing.

 

G32. The fragrance of Heaven / God / Christ / the Holy Spirit

 

2 Corinthians 2:15-16 (implied) (we are the aroma of Christ)

 

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) vol.8 p.781 "And they [the martyrs] breathed at the same time the fragrance of Christ, so that some even thought that they were anointed with this world’s perfume."

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "for as much as He is Himself perfect fragrance, needing nothing either within or without; but the noblest sacrifice to Him is for us to know who stretched out and vaulted the heavens, and fixed the earth in its place like a centre, who gathered the water into seas and divided the light from the darkness, who adorned the sky with stars and made the earth to bring forth seed of every kind, who made animals and fashioned man." A Plea for Christians ch.13 p.135

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) (partial, sarcastic about believers who don’t fast.) "your cook the priest, and your fragrant smell the Holy Spirit, and your condiments spiritual gifts, and your belching prophecy." On Fasting ch.16 p.113

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "‘And hath raised her seven pillars;’ that is, the fragrant grace of the all-holy Spirit, as Isaiah says: ‘And the seven spirits of God shall rest upon Him,’" On Proverbs 9:1 p.175

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "And, moreover, she must be undefiled and unpolluted, as a garden sealed, in which all the odours of the fragrance of heaven are grown, that Christ alone may come and gather them, blooming with incorporeal seeds." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 7 ch.1 p.331

 

Among heretics

Sethians (c.150-4th century) "It is not spirit, as a current of wind or a certain gentle breeze which may be felt, but just as if some fragrance of ointment or incense made out of a refined mixture,-a power diffusing itself by some impulse of fragrance which is inconceivable and superior to what one can express." according to Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.7 p.142

 

G33. God is above all

 

Ephesians 4:6

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) "For the Lord is great, and greatly to be praised: He is to be feared above all the gods. For all the gods of the nations are demons but the Lord made the heavens." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.73 p.235

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181 A.D.) "But He is Lord, because He rules over the universe; Father, because he is before all things; Fashioner and Maker, because He is creator and maker of the universe; the Highest, because of His being above all; and Almighty, because He Himself rules and embraces all. For the heights of heaven, and the depths of the abysses, and the ends of the earth, are in His hand, and there is no place of His rest." Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.4 p.90

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Now, that this God is the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, Paul the apostle also has declared, [saying,] ‘There is one God, the Father, who is above all, and through all things, and in us all.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.2.1 p.361

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) above which no other God. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.5.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "Well, if imperfect, how could the work of a perfect God-above all, that work being man-be imperfect?" Stromata book 6 ch.12 p.502

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "What will be principal, if that is not which is above all things, before all things, and from which all things proceed? By possessing these He is God alone, and by His sole possession of them He is One." Against Hermogenes ch.4 p.479

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says that Christ is over all. Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.2 p.224

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (Partial, above all in italics) "It is the Father who commands, and the Son who obeys, and the Holy Spirit who gives understanding: the Father who is above all, and the Son who is through all, and the Holy Spirit who is in all." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.14 p.228

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) mentions the Supreme God. Instructions of Commodianus ch.68 p.216

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Supreme God through the High Priest, who is above all the angels, the living" Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.4 p.544

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) But the Jews, who live according to the law of Moses, although they may not know how to receive the secret meaning of the law, which is conveyed in obscure language, will not maintain that either the heaven or the angels are God." Origen Against Celsus book 5 ch.7 p.546

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "For since it belongs to God alone to be above all things, it follows that the name which is that God’s who is above all things, is above every name; which name by consequence is certainly His who, although He was ‘in the form of God, thought it not robbery for Him to be equal with God.’" Concerning the Trinity ch.22 p.633

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "There is one body and one Spirit, even as ye are called in one hope of your calling; one Lord, one faith, one baptism; one God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in us all.’" [Ephesians 4:6] Epistles of Cyprian Letter 74 ch.24 p.396

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "in whom is manifested God the Father, who is above all and in all, and God the Son, who is through all." Declaration of Faith p.7

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "and if such disposition relates also to what is in consideration hidden as if by settled purpose, how say some that the Lord, who is above all these things, bears a gnomic will?" Commentary on Luke ch.22 v.44-48 no.44 p.116

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) calls God the "supreme Majesty". Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.46 p.241

 

Among heretics

Cerinthus (c.150 A.D. -) "Cerinthus, however, himself having been trained in Egypt, determined that the world was not made by the first God, but by a certain angelic power. And this power was far separated and distant from that sovereignty which is above the entire circle of existence, and it knows not the God (that is) above all things." According to Hippolytus Refutation of All Heresies book 10 ch.17 p.147

Justinus (c.150 A.D. -) and other Gnostics believed in a being above all. "Now the oath [of Justinian heretics] is couched in these terms: ‘I swear by that Good One who is above all, to guard these mysteries, and to divulge them to no one, and not to relapse from the Good One to the creature.’" Hippolytus (222-235/236 A.D.) Refutation of All Heresies book 5 ch.22 p.73

 

G34. God is a consuming fire

 

Deuteronomy 4:24; Deuteronomy 9:3; Hebrews 12:29

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) quotes the Psalm 50 (Psalm 49 to him) as by David. "Out of Zion is the perfection of His beauty. God, even our God, shall come openly, and shall not keep silence. Fire shall burn before Him" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.22 p.205

Hippolytus of Portus (225-234/5 A.D.) "The Lord thy God is a burning and consuming fire." The Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.27 p.88

Theodotus the probable Montanist (ca.240 A.D.) says God is called "a consuming fire," Excerpts of Theodotus ch.26 p.46

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Our God is a consuming fire." Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.70 p.605 (He also mentions this in 5 other places too.).

Origen (235-245 A.D.) says that God is a consuming fire. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 16 ch.6.1 p.174

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (partial, not consuming) says that God is a fire. Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.6 p.617

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (says that Aeschylus calls God a consuming fire.) "Aeschylus, in expounding… expressed himself also as follows… He seems as a consuming fire that burns Unsated;" Justin on the Sole Government of God ch.2 p.290

 

Among heretics

Mani (262-278 A.D.) "The God of the Old Testament is the inventor of evil, who speaks thus of Himself: ‘I am a consuming fire.’" (Manes is speaking) fragment from Cyril of Disputation with Manes ch.1 p.234

 

G35. God or His power is incomparable

 

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) says "in glory He [God] is incomprehensible, in greatness unfathomable, in height inconceivable, in power incomparable, … in goodness inimitable, in kindness unutterable." Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.89

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) says that no one else is like God. Exhortation to the Heathen ch.6 p.192

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "He [Hermogenes] declares that God’s attribute is still safe to Him, of being the only God, and the First, and the Author of all things, and the Lord of all things, and being incomparable to any-qualities which he straightway ascribes to Matter also. He is God, to be sure. God shall also attest the same; but He has also sworn sometimes by Himself, that there is no other God like Him." Against Hermogenes ch.6 p.480

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "For the divine is just the same after the incarnation that it was before the incarnation; in its essence infinite, illimitable, impassible, incomparable, unchangeable, inconvertable, self-potent, and, in short, subsisting in essence alone the infinitely worthy good." Against Beron and Helix fragment 1 p.232

Alexander of Alexandria (313-326 A.D.) "For just as it has been shown that His inexplicable subsistence excels by an incomparable excellence all other things to which He has given existence, so also His Sonship, which is according to the nature of the Godhead of the Father, transcends, by an ineffable excellence, the sonship of those who have been adopted by Him." Epistles on the Arian Heresy Letter 1 ch.7 p.293

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) "the kingdom of the Lord, and above all, the incomparable majesty of Almighty God-though I am acquainted with these things, yet am I not therefore by any means perfect;" Epistle of Ignatius to the Trallians [Latin version] ch.5 p.68

 

Among heretics

Revised Valentinian Tripartite Tract (200-250 A.D.) ch.4 p.66 says that God is incomparable.

 

G36. God is blessed

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things; and blessed be His glorious name for ever, and for ever and ever;" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.34 p.211

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "But Zacharias prophesying, exclaimed, ‘Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for He hath visited and redeemed His people," Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.10.2 p.424

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "‘Blessed be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who by His great mercy hath regenerated us.’ For if God generated us of matter, He afterwards, by progress in life, regenerated us." (Latin translation by Cassiodorus) Comments on 1 Peter ch.1:3 p.571

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says that "God is blessed forever." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.6 p.225

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Blessed be the Lord God of truth!" Letters of Cyprian Letter 73 ch.9 p.389

 

Among corrupt of spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (afte 117 A.D.) "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians [Latin translation] ch.1 p.49

pseudo-Hippolytus (after 235 A.D.) "For they judged that each psalm closing with the words, ‘Blessed be the Lord, Amen, amen,’ formed the conclusion of a book." On the Psalms book 1 ch.8 p.201

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "as in the Psalms it is sung: ‘Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, and the whole earth shall be filled with His glory.’" Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.5 p.387

 

G37. God/The Father is perfect

 

Saying the law or Christ is perfect is not included here.

 

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 9.21 p.58 says that the Father is perfect.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "For the Uncreated is perfect, that is, God." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.38.3 p.522

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "and that the Father of all alone is perfect, for the Son is in Him, and the Father is in the Son; it is time for us in due course to say who our Instructor is." The Instructor book 1 ch.7 p.222

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "But as God is eternal and rational, so, I think, He is perfect in all things. ‘Be ye perfect, even as your Father which is in heaven is perfect.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 1 ch.24 p.289

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "It remains, therefore, that that which is ‘after the image of God’ must be understood to be in our ‘inner man,’ which is also renewed, and whose nature it is to be ‘after the image of Him who created it,’ when a man becomes ‘perfect,’ as ‘our Father in heaven is perfect,’ and hears the command, ‘Be ye holy, for I the Lord your God am holy,’ and learning the precept, ‘Be ye followers of God,’ receives into his virtuous soul the traits of God’s image." Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.63 p.602

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "Thus there is never in Him [God] any accession or increase of any part or honour, lest anything should appear to have ever been wanting to His perfection, nor is any loss sustained in Him, lest a degree of mortality should appear to have been suffered by Him. But what He is, He always is; and who He is, He is always Himself; and what character He has, He always has." Concerning the Trinity ch.4 p.614

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Be ye therefore perfect, even as your Father in heaven is perfect.’" Treatise of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.5 p.485

Methodius (c.270-311/312 A.D.) "‘We must not then say that God is perfect, and Creator, and Almighty, through the world?’’No; for He must surely by Himself, and not by the world, and that changeable, be found perfect by Himself. ‘Quite so.’" Extracts from the Work on Thing Created ch.2 p.379

Lactantius (c.303-325/325 A.D.) "But if man, in whom nothing is perfect, nevertheless effects more by skill than his feeble strength would permit, what reason is there why it should appear to you incredible, when it is alleged that the world was made by God, in whom, since He is perfect, wisdom can have no limit, and strength no measure?" The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.9 p.56

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) "Wherefore ‘He makes His sun to rise upon the evil and on the good, and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust;’ of whose kindness the Lord, wishing us also to be imitators, says, ‘Be ye perfect, even as also your Father that is in heaven is perfect.’" Epistle of Ignatius to the Philadelphians (Latin version) ch.3 p.80

 

Among heretics

The Gnostic Valentinus (c.150 A.D.) "For the Father, who is perfect, ought to be celebrated by a perfect number, and ten is a perfect number, because this is first of those (numbers) that are formed by plurality, (and therefore) perfect." according to Hippolytus (222-234/235 A.D.) Refutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.24 p.85

 

 

God’s IMMINENCE

 

Gi1. God is worthy

 

2 Samuel 22:4; 1 Chronicles 16:25; Psalm 18:3; 48:1; 96:4; 145:3; Hebrews 3:3; Revelation 4:11; 5:9,12

 

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "For that which is not accordant with His will is so either as being unjust or as unworthy of Him." On the Resurrection of the Dead ch.10 p.153

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) (implied) "For God having made all things by His Word, and having reckoned them all mere bye-works, reckons the creation of man to be the only work worthy of His own hands." Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.18 p.101

Irenaeus of Lyons (180-188 A.D.) "For, to attribute the substance of created things to the power and will of Him who is God of all, is worthy both of credit and acceptance." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.10.4 p.370

Clement of Alexandria (183-217/220 A.D.) "God alone is wise, from whom cometh wisdom, and alone perfect, and therefore alone worthy of praise." The Instructor book 1 ch.10 p.233

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "Proper also was it that there should be something worthy of knowing God. What could be found so worthy as the image and likeness of God?" Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.6 p.301

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Celsus next assails the doctrine of the resurrection, which is a high and difficult doctrine, and one which more than others requires a high and advanced degree of wisdom to set forth how worthy it is of God;" Origen Against Celsus book 7 ch.31 p.623

Treatise on Rebaptism (250-258 A.D.) ch.15 p.676 "So that the same Spirit is, moreover, sometimes found to be upon those who are unworthy of Him; not certainly in vain or without reason, but for the sake of some needful operation; as He was upon Saul, upon whom came the Spirit of God, and he prophesied."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in the Apocalypse: "And I saw in the midst of the throne, and of the four living creatures, and in the midst of the elders, a Lamb standing as if slain, having seven horns and seven eyes, which are the seven spirits of God sent forth throughout all the earth. And He came and took the book from the right. hand of God, who sate on the throne. And when He had taken the book, the four living creatures and the four and twenty elders cast themselves before the Lamb, having every one of them harps and golden cups full of odours of supplications, which are the prayers of the saints; and they sang a new song, saying, Worthy art Thou, O Lord, to take the book, and to open its seals: for Thou wast slain, and hast redeemed us with Thy blood from every tribe, and people, and nation; and Thou hast made us a kingdom unto our God, and hast made us priests, and they shall reign upon the earth." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second book ch.15 p.522

Alexander of Lycopolis (301 A.D.) (partial) "But I think it far more dignified and worthy of the excellence of God," Of the Manichaeans ch.12 p.246

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "And yet it is agreed on that Christ performed all those miracles which He wrought without any aid from external things, without the observance of any ceremonial, without any definite mode of procedure, but solely by the inherent might of His authority; and as was the proper duty of the true God, as was consistent with His nature, as was worthy of Him," Arnobius Against the Heathen book 1 ch.44 p.425

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "-We Christians are nothing else than worshippers of the Supreme King and Head, under our Master, Christ. If you examine carefully, you will find that nothing else is implied in that religion. This is the sum of all that we do; this is the proposed end and limit of sacred duties. Before Him we all prostrate ourselves, according to our custom; Him we adore in joint prayers; from Him we beg things just and honourable, and worthy of His ear." Arnobius Against the Heathen book 1 ch.27 p.419

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "He raised the bodies of the dead as they lay prostrate; and calling them aloud by their names, He brought them back from death. What is more suitable to God, what more worthy of the wonder of all ages, than to have recalled the life which has run its course, to have added times to the completed times of men, to have revealed the secrets of death?" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.26 p.128

 

Gi2. God needs nothing from us

 

Acts 17:25

Psalm 50:9-13 (implied)

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "The Lord, brethren, stands in need of nothing; and He desires nothing of any one, except that confession be made to Him." 1 Clement ch.52 p.19

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) supposing that they can give anything to Him who stands in need of nothing,

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "for He is in want of nothing. But to a Being absolutely in need of nothing, no one of His works can contribute anything to His own use. Neither, again, did He make man for the sake of any of the other works which He has made." On the Resurrection of the Dead ch.12 p.155

Theophilus (168-181/188 A.D.) created is also needy; but he that is uncreated stands in need of nothing. God, Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.10 p.98

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "God, however, standing in no need of anything from man." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.16.3 p.481. See also book 4 ch.14.1 p.478

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "Now, God alone is in need of nothing, and rejoices most when He sees us" The Instructor book 3 ch.1 p.271

Tertullian (c.207 A.D.) "need of nothing if you "attend upon the Lord;" Tertullian To His Wife book 1 ch.1 p.39

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) whereas God stands in need of nothing." To this he adds, as if saying something" Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.52 p.597

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) (partial) "In Isaiah: ‘For what purpose to me is the multitude of your sacrifices? saith the Lord: I am full; I will not have the burnt sacrifices of rams, and fat of lambs, and blood of bulls and goats." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 ch.1.16 p.512

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "not old and has need of nothing, He resting in Himself, and in the very light" Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 6 ch.1 p.329

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "because He stands in need of nothing, but on account of man, who might fitly make use of them." The Divine Institutes book 7 ch.4 p.199

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Justin Martyr "and power, being in need of nothing else; but the fashioner frames his" Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.22 p.282

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.488 says God needs nothing from us.

 

Gi3. God is just / not unjust

 

Deuteronomy 32:4; 2 Chronicles 12:6; Job 36:3; Psalm 9:6; 33:5; 45:6; 99:4; 101:1; 140:12; 29:26; Isaiah 5:16; 30:18; 42:4; 61:8; Jeremiah 10:24; 30:11; 48:28; Ezekiel 33:19-20

Matthew 12:18; Luke 11:42; 18:7-8; Romans 3:25-26; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; 1 John 1:9; Revelation 15:3; 16:5,7; 19:2,11

partial: Malachi 2:17

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "In like manner do those men, filled with a satanic spirit, bring innumerable accusations against our Creator, who has both given to us the spirit of life, and established a law adapted for all; and they will not admit that the judgment of God is just." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.26.2 p.555

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "But that God is good, all willingly admit; and that the same God is just, I require not many more words to prove," The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.227

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "you who learn of a God who is both supremely good as well as just; supremely good from His own (character), just in consequence of ours." On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.14 p.554

Tertullian (205 A.D.) "As therefore God is a just God, He spared not impious" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.23 p.386

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "For he who believes that the Scriptures are true, and that God is just, must necessarily endeavour, if he be honest, to show how God, in using such expressions, may be distinctly understood to be just." de Principiis [Greek] book 3 ch.9 p.309

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.13 p.221 says that God is righteous and just, and punishes justly. Se also homily 2 ch.43 p.237.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 4 ch.14 p.138 says that God is just.

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "grace of Christ and God is justified in baptism. For Anna is, by interpretation, grace" Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.12 p.392

 

Gi4. God will judge/reward people’s secrets / secret things

 

(Only mentioning that God knows secrets is not counted here)

 

Romans 2:16

1 Corinthians 14:25

 

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "If, then, God will judge the secrets of men-both of those who have sinned in the law, and of those who have sinned without law (inasmuch as they who know not the law yet do by nature the things contained in the law) -surely the God who shall judge is He to whom belong both the law, and that nature which is the rule to them who know not the law. But how will He conduct this judgment? ‘According to my gospel,’ says (the apostle), ‘by (Jesus) Christ.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.13 p.457

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) "universally, everything that is done with the consciousness in the doer that he will be glorified by men, has no reward from Him who beholds in secret, and renders the reward to those who are pure, in secret." Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.15 p.444

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) (partial) "Moreover, if, whereas it is the property of none but God to know the secrets of the heart, Christ beholds the secrets of the heart; and if, whereas it belongs to none but God to remit sins, the same Christ remits sins;" Concerning the Trinity ch.13 p.622

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.8 p.659 "its meaning is assuredly with respect to future time-to the time at which the Lord shall begin to judge the secrets of men-to the time at which we must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "He looks through secret things… judge" Epistles of Cyprian Letter 8 p.289

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Concerning these the Discerner and Searcher of hidden things judges, and He will quickly come and judge of the secrets and hidden things of the heart." Epistles of Cyprian letter 53 ch.3 p.337

Victorinus of Petau (martyred 304 A.D.) (partial) "Moreover, that for the announcement of the New Testament those bring creatures had eyes within and without, shows the spiritual providence which both looks into the secrets of the heart, and beholds the things which are coming after that are within and without." Commentary on the Apocalypse from the fourth chapter v.8 p.349

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (implied) "by Him who regards not the outward appearance, as man does, but the innermost secrets of the heart." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.17 p.119

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial) says that God is a judge to the ungodly. The Divine Institutes book 1 ch.1 p.10

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial) says that God is judge. "may gain for himself incorruptible treasures by good works, that he may be able, with God for his judge, to gain for the merits of his virtue either the crown of faith, or the reward of immortality." Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.73 p.255

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 8 ch.48 p.170 and book 10 ch.48 p.204 says that God judges secret things.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) (partial) book 2 ch.36 p.107 says that God is a judge

 

Gi5. God punishes

 

Genesis 3:14-19; 4:13; 15:14; Exodus 32:34; Leviticus 18:25; 26:18,28; Deuteronomy 22:18; 1 Samuel 15:2; 2 Samuel 7:14; Job 21:19; 37:13; Psalm 59:5; 89:32; 94:10; Isaiah 10:12; 13:11; 24:21; 26:21; 27:1; Jeremiah 5:9; 29; 6:15; 9:9,25; 11:22; 14:10; 21:14; 23:34; 27:8; Ezekiel 5:8-10; Zechariah 10:3;

(implied) Zephaniah 3:15

Matthew 25:36; Acts 7:7; 2 Corinthians 10:6; 1 Thessalonians 4:6; 2 Thessalonians 1:8-9; Hebrews 2:2; 4:18; 10:29; 12:6; Jude 7; Revelation 17:1

punish Babylon Jeremiah 25:12

 

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "and through his instrumentality, God punished Egypt" 1 Clement ch.17 p.10

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.20 p.149 (implied) "But the way of darkness is crooked, and full of cursing; for it is the way of eternal death with punishment, in which way are the things that destroy the soul, viz., idolatry, over-confidence, the arrogance of power, hypocrisy, double-heartedness, adultery, murder, rapine, haughtiness, transgression, deceit, malice, self-sufficiency, poisoning, magic, avarice, want of the fear of God."

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.6 p.518 "For if we do the will of Christ, we shall find rest; otherwise, nothing shall deliver us from eternal punishment, if we disobey His commandments."

Shepherd of Hermas (c.150 A.D.) book 3 Similitude 6 ch.3 p.37 "‘This,’ he replied, ‘is the angel of punishment; and he belongs to the just angels, and is appointed to punish. He accordingly takes those who wander away from God, and who have walked in the desires and deceits of this world, and chastises them as they deserve with terrible and diverse punishments.’"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "God alone is unbegotten and incorruptible, and therefore He is God, but all other things after Him are created and corruptible. For this reason souls both die and are punished:" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.5 p.197

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp (c.169 A.D.) ch.2 p.39 (not counted) "And, looking to the grace of Christ, they despised all the torments of this world, redeeming themselves from eternal punishment by [the suffering of] a single hour. For this reason the fire of their savage executioners appeared cool to them. "

Athenagoras (177 A.D.) "God has not made us as sheep or beasts of burden, a mere by-work, and that we should perish and be annihilated. On these grounds it is not likely that we should wish to do evil, or deliver ourselves over to the great Judge to be punished." A Plea for Christians ch.31 p.146

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "The anger and wrath of the Lord - the vengeance of the Deity upon sinners, when He bears with them with a view to punishment, does not at once judge them according to strict equity. As in the Psalm: ‘In His anger and in His wrath will He trouble them.’" On the Lord’s Passion p.761

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) p.780 (partial) "But she [Biblias], in the midst of the tortures, came again to a sound state of mind, and awoke as it were out of a deep sleep; for the temporary suffering reminded her of the eternal punishment in Gehenna,"

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "Yes; He [God] is angry with those who act wickedly, but He is good, and kind, and merciful, to those who love and fear Him; for He is a chastener of the godly, and father of the righteous; but he is a judge and punisher of the impious." Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.90

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "He pronounced no curse against Adam personally, but against the ground, in reference to his works, as a certain person among the ancients has observed: ‘God did indeed transfer the curse to the earth, that it might not remain in man.’ But man received, as the punishment of his transgression, the toilsome task of tilling the earth, and to eat bread in the sweat of his face, and to return to the dust from whence he was taken." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.23.3 p.456

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "And God does not inflict punishment from wrath, but for the ends of justice; since it is not expedient that justice should be neglected on our account." The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.226

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "No doubt about it, we, who receive our awards under the judgment of an all-seeing God, and who look forward to eternal punishment from Him for sin, -we alone make real effort to attain a blameless life," Apology ch.45 p.50

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "For as the apostle declares that the Lord will come ‘to take vengeance on them that know not God and that obey not the gospel, who,’ he says, ‘shall be punished with everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of His power’ [2 Thessalonians 1:8-9] -it follows that, as He comes to inflict punishment, He must require ‘the flaming fire.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.16 p.463

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "and how the sudden appearing of the Lord shall be revealed froth heaven; and what the conflagration of the whole world shall be; and what the glorious and heavenly kingdom of the saints is to be, when they reign together with Christ; and what the punishment of the wicked by fire." Treatise of Christ and Antichrist ch.5 p.205

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) "Dost thou, last of all, hope to laugh at the God of heaven and the Ruler of the sky, by whom all things were made? Thou ragest, thou art mad, and now thou takest away the name of God, from whom, moreover, thou shalt not escape; and He will award punishments according to your deeds. Now I would have you be cautious that thou come not to the burning of fire. Give thyself up at once to Christ, that goodness may attend thee." Instructions of Commodianus ch.28 p.208

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) For if ‘we must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ, that each one may receive the things done in the body, according to what he hath done, whether it be good or bad,’ let each one with all his power do what he can so that he may not receive punishment for more evil things done in the body, Commentary on Matthew book 13 ch.30 p.493

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) Still, nevertheless, God indulgently tempered his punishment by cursing, not so much himself, as his [Adam’s] labours upon earth. Concerning the Trinity ch.1 p.612

Treatise on Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.13 p.675 "Then, finally, contrary to their notion, they are condemned to eternal punishment by Christ, the Son of God the Father omnipotent, the Creator whom they have blasphemed, when God shall begin to judge the hidden things of men according to the Gospel by Christ Jesus, because they did not believe in Him, although they were washed in His name."

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Whence also divine Scripture threatens a like punishment to such in another place, and says, ‘For the day of the Lord of hosts shall be upon every one that is injurious and proud, and upon every one that is lifted up, and lofty.’" Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.2 p.339

Cornelius to Cyprian (c.246-256 A.D.) "That nothing might be wanting to the future punishment of this wretched man, when cast down by the powers of God," Epistles of Cyprian Letter 47 p.324

Sattius of Sicilibba at the Seventh Council of Carthage (256 A.D.) p.569 (implied) "For since, in the day of judgment, they are sins which are punished, there is nothing which the heretics can fear from Christ’s judgment, if they have already obtained remission of their sins."

Theognostus of Alexandria (260 A.D.) "Theognostus of Alexandria, moreover, himself adds words to this effect: He who has offended against the first term and the second, may be judged to deserve smaller punishment; but he who has also despised the third, can no longer find pardon. For by the first term and the second, he says, is meant the teaching concerning the Father and the Son; but by the third is meant the doctrine committed to us with respect to the perfection and the partaking of the Spirit." Seven Books of Hypotyposes or Outlines ch.1 vol.6 p.155.

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "shall speak with the weakest voice, like the tiniest bird; and all the impure women shall sink into the earth; and cities and their blood-stained governments shall wait for the vengeance that comes from above, while the most bitter and bloody of all times hangs over them like a blossoming almond, and continuous punishments impend like a multitude of flying locusts, and the transgressors are cast out of the way like a black and despicable caper-plant." Metaphrase of Ecclesiastes ch.12 p.17

Methodius of Olympas (270-311/312 A.D.) "But virtue is lovable and praiseworthy, God having appointed a law for the punishment of the wicked. Therefore there is no Fate." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 8 ch.16 p.343

Athanasius (318 A.D.) (implied) "We repeat then what we said before, that just as men denied God, and worship things without soul, so also in thinking they have not a rational soul, they receive at once the punishment of their folly, namely, to be reckoned among irrational creatures: and so, since as though from lack of a soul of their own they superstitiously worship soulless gods, they are worthy of pity and guidance." Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.34 p.22

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "And presently Valerian also, in a mood alike frantic, lifted up his impious hands to assault God, and, although his time was short, shed much righteous blood. But God punished him in a new and extraordinary manner, that it might be a lesson to future ages that the adversaries of Heaven always receive the just recompense of their iniquities." The Manner in Which the Persecutors Died ch.5 p.302

 

Among heretics

Tatian (died 172 A.D.) And each of these two orders of creatures was made free to act as it pleased, not having the nature of good, which again is with God alone, but is brought to perfection in men through their freedom of choice, in order that the bad man may be justly punished, having become depraved through his own fault, but the just man be deservedly praised for his virtuous deeds, since in the exercise of his free choice he refrained from transgressing the will of God. Such is the constitution of things in reference to angels and men. Address of Tatian to the Greeks ch.7 p.67

The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185 A.D.) ch.27 p.120 (partial, not say by God) mentions eternal punishment.

Bardesan/Bardesaines of Syria (154-224/232 A.D.) "say that whatsoever a man does he does of his own will, in the exercise of the freedom which has been given to him, and that the faults and blemishes and other untoward things which befall him he receives as punishment from God." The Book of the Laws of Divers Countries p.727

 

Gi6. God is not mocked

 

Galatians 6:7

 

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) "Knowing, then, that ‘God is not mocked,’" Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.5 p.34

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ. Be not deceived; God is not mocked." The Instructor book 3 ch.12 p.294

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "God is not mocked." Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.4 p.438

Origen (235-245 A.D.) quotes Galatians 6:7. Homilies on Jeremiah Homily 20 ch.3.3 p.226-227.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "If, however, any one should delude us with the pretence of repentance, God, who is not mocked, and who looks into man’s heart, will judge of those things which we have imperfectly looked into," Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.18 p.331

 

Gi7. God sends evildoers delusion(s)

 

2 Thessalonians 2:11

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "quote 2 Thessalonians 2:8. "‘And therefore God will send them the working of error, that they may believe a lie; that they all may be judged who did not believe the truth, but gave consent to iniquity.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 5 ch.25.3 p.554

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "saved; for which cause God shall send them an instinct of delusion (to believe a lie)" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.16 p.464

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "and ‘the sending of the strong delusion,’ on those who despise and mock, as well as upon those who are ignorant of Him;" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.16 p.464

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says that God sends delusions that they should believe lies. Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.63 p.218

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes 2 Thessalonians 2:1-12. Origen Against Celsus book 6 ch.47 p.595

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they should" Epistles of Cyprian letter 54 ch.13 p.343

Adamantius (c.300 A.D.) (partial) "The Creator God blinds these who come to Him without faith. Now observe how Christ (who, you say, is superior to the Creator) orders unbelievers to be cast out ‘into outer darkness. Where there will be weeping, and gnashing of teeth.’" Dialogue on the True Faith Second Part ch.21 p.108

 

Gi8. God can be offended

 

Ezekiel 8:6-18

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Let us reflect how near He is, and that none of the thoughts or reasonings in which we engage are hid from Him. It is right, therefore, that we should not leave the post which His will has assigned us. Let us rather offend those men who are foolish, and inconsiderate, and lifted up, and who glory in the pride of their speech, than [offend] God." 1 Clement ch.21 p.11

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "The Creator, on the contrary, was able to proclaim these duties and rewards by Christ, in order that man, who by sinning had offended his God, might toil on (in his probation), and by his perseverance in asking might receive, and in seeking might find, and in knocking might enter." Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.6 p.351

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "was not of so much consequence to gain the short moments of life, and so incur eternal punishment from an offended God." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 11 ch.10 p.505. See also letter 54 ch.8 p.341

Theonas of Alexandria (282-300 A.D.) "Consider that every command of the emperor which does not offend God has proceeded from God Himself; and execute it in love as well as in fear, and with all cheerfullness."

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "With which sin and crime God was offended, and justly visited the impious and ungrateful people with severe punishments, and made them subject to the law which He had given by Moses." The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.10 p.108

 

Gi9. God is merciful

 

Exodus 20:6; Numbers 14:18; 1 Chronicles 16:34; Psalm 115:1; 116:5; 118:1; 119:41; Jonah 4:2; Luke 1:72; 6:36; 18:13; Hebrews 4:16, Romans 9:16,18,23, others

 

Green Collection #425 Romans 9:18-21 some Romans 10 (early 3rd century) Romans 9:18

Sinaitic Syriac (SyrS) (3rd/4th century) Matthew 1:1-6:10, 7:3-12:4; 12:6-25; 12:29-16:15; 18:11-20:24; 21:20-25:15; 25:17-20,25-26; 25:32-28:7; Mark 1:12-44; 2:21-4:17; 5:1-26; 6:5-16:18; Luke 1:36-5:28; 6:12-24:52; John 1:25-47; 2:16-4:37; 5:6-25; 5:46-18:31; 19:40-end. Luke 1:72

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) contains most of the Old Testament.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "Let us then draw near to Him with holiness of spirit, lifting up pure and undefiled hands unto Him, loving our gracious and merciful Father, who has made us partakers in the blessings of His elect." 1 Clement ch.29 p.13

Polycarp (100-155 A.D.) (implied) "forgive, and it shall be forgiven unto you; be merciful, that ye may obtain mercy; with what measure ye mete, it shall be measured to you again;" Polycarp’s Letter to the Philippians ch.2 p.33

2 Clement (c.150 A.D.) ch.1 p.517 "mercifully saved us, observing the many errors in which we were entangled,"

Shepherd of Hermas (c.150 A.D.) book 2 commandment 4th ch.3 p.22 "The Lord, therefore, being merciful, has had mercy on the work of His hand,"

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "For we see that the Almighty God is kind and merciful, causing His sun to rise on the unthankful and on the righteous, and sending rain on the holy and on the wicked; all of whom He has taught us He will judge." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.96 p.247

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 9.19-20 p.58 quotes Luke 6:36, says that the Father is merciful.

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (177 A.D.) p.782 "while that God who wishes not the death of the sinner, but mercifully calls to repentance, put sweetness: into their souls."

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "The Lord God is merciful and gracious, and long-suffering, and of great commiseration, and true, and keeps justice and mercy for thousands, forgiving unrighteousness, and transgressions, and sins." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.20.8 p.490

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that God is merciful. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.8

Caius (190-217 A.D.) "For our merciful God and Lord Jesus Christ was not willing that a witness of His own sufferings should perish, being without the Church" Against the Heresy of Artemon ch.2 p.602

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "For the Lord is merciful and pitiful; and gracious is the Lord to all" Stromata book 2 ch.15 p.363

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) "No doubt the Lord is ‘kind’ to ‘the unthankful,’ rather than to the ignorant! and ‘merciful’ to the ‘reprobates’" Tertullian on Modesty ch.10 p.84

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) quotes Jonah 4:2. Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.24 p.315

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) "Thou art become a penitent; pray night and day; yet from thy Mother the Church do not far depart, and the Highest will be able to be merciful to thee." Instructions of Commodianus ch.49 p.212

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "when we have found that all thoughtful persons must say in their prayers, that ‘the earth is full of the mercy of the Lord,’ and that ‘the mercy of the Lord is upon all flesh;’ and that God, being good, ‘maketh His sun to arise upon the evil and the good, and sendeth His rain upon the just and the unjust;’ and that He encourages us to a similar course of action, in order that we may become His sons, and teaches us to extend the benefits which we enjoy, so far as in our power, to all men?" Origen Against Celsus book 4 ch.28 p.508

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "For that God is angry, arises from no vice in Him. But He is so for our advantage; for He is merciful even then when He threatens, because by these threats men are recalled to rectitude." Concerning the Trinity ch.5 p.615

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.9 p.659-660 "be ye converted to the Lord your God: for He is merciful, and one who pities with great compassion?’"

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "and although we deserved more for our sins, yet the most merciful Lord has so moderated all things, that all which has happened has rather seemed a trial than a persecution." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 3 ch.5 p.438

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "[Novatian] who has brought into the world a most impious doctrine concerning God, and calumniates our most merciful Lord Jesus Christ as if He were unmerciful;" Epistle 8 to Dionysius p.103

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) (implied) "Nay, my opponent says, if God is powerful, merciful, willing to save us, let Him change our dispositions, and compel us to trust in His promises. This, then, is violence, not kindness nor the bounty of the Supreme God, but a childish and vain strife in seeking to get the mastery. For what is so unjust as to force men who are reluctant and unwilling, to reverse their inclinations; to impress forcibly on their minds what they are unwilling to receive, and shrink from; to injure before benefiting, and to bring to another way of thinking and feeling, by taking away the former?" Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.65 p.458-459

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (implied) (He is saying this to justify despising God’s patience) "Wretch that I am! I have not remembered that God observes the mind, and hears the voice of the soul. I turned consciously to sin, saying to myself, God is merciful, and will bear with me; and when I was not instantly smitten, I ceased not, but rather despised His forbearance, and exhausted the long-suffering of God." fragment 7 p.283

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "God thus mercifully bringing to our race the needful help in due season," Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 1 ch.2 p.311

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But since God is kind and merciful to His people, He sent Him to those very persons whom He hated, that He might not close the way of salvation against them for ever, but might give them a free opportunity of following God," The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.11 p.110

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Ignatius (after 117 A.D.) "God, be merciful to me a sinner" Letter to the Magnesians (Latin translation) ch.12 p.64

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 6 ch.9 p.25 says that God is mercifula nd full of compassion.

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "Or what for God, who delights in man, is more magnificent than this merciful assumption of the manhood," Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.6 p.387

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.491 "Wherefore God sent His own Son, whom I preach, and in whom I teach men to rest their hope, who alone has had compassion upon a world led astray, that they many be no longer under judgment, O proconsul, but may have faith, and the fear of God, and the knowledge of holiness, and the love of truth." (Paul is speaking)

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Epistle of Clement to James (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) ch.8 p.219 speaks of God’s eternal mercy.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.45 p.237 says that God is merciful.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 5 ch.13 p.146 says that God is merciful.

Valentinian The Gospel of Truth (c.150-4th century A.D.) ch.1.24 p.43 says that the Father is merciful.

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) (partial, not the good god) a self-labeled follower of Marcion, in his debate with Adamantius says that there are three principles: the good, the creative (the Demiurge), and the evil. He says the Demiurge is compassionate and merciful. Dialogue on the True Faith first part 805 3d p.39

The Sethian Gnostic Apocryphon of John (c.150-185 A.D.) ch.20 p.116 says that God is merciful.

 

Gi10. God wants repentance not sinner’s death

 

Ezekiel 18:23,32; 2 Peter 3:9

 

p77 (Matthew 23:30-39) (200 A.D.) (implied) Matthew 23:37b Jesus had longed to gather them under His wings.

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "The ministers of the grace of God have, by the Holy Spirit, spoken of repentance; and the Lord of all things has himself declared with an oath regarding it, "As I live, saith the Lord, I desire not the death of the sinner, but rather his repentance;" 1 Clement ch.8 vol.1 p.7 Also vol.9 p.231

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) (implied) "that He continually proclaims them, in order that, even in this way, if you repented, you might please Him," Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.27 p.208

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons) (177 A.D.) alludes to Ezekiel 18:23,32. "while that God who wishes not the death of the sinner, but mercifully calls to repentance, put sweetness into their souls." vol.8 p.782

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) quotes specifically mentions Ezekiel and quotes Ezekiel 18:23,32 that God desires repentance, not the death of a sinner. Theophilus to Autolycus book 3 ch.11 p.114

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) mentions that God does not desire the death of the sinner but rather that they would repent. The Instructor book 1 ch.8 p.224; Also Stromata (193-202 A.D.) book 2 ch.21 p.376, and book 6 ch.6 p.491. See also Exhortation to the Heathen (c.195 A.D.) ch.10 p.197 and ch.1 p.172.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (partial) quotes Ezekiel 18:4-9. The Instructor book 1 ch.10 p.233

Tertullian (205 A.D.) alludes to Ezekiel 38:11 that God would rather have someone repent than the death of a sinner. Scorpiace ch.1 p.634

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) "Besides, it were unworthy of God and of His mercy, who prefers the repentance of a sinner to his death, that they should have easier return into (the bosom of) the Church who have fallen in heat of passion, than they who have fallen in hand-to-hand combat." Tertullian on Modesty ch.22 p.100-101

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "How prompt in pardoning David on his confession of his sin -preferring, indeed, the sinner’s repentance to his death, of course because of His gracious attribute of mercy." Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.11 p.452

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "He prefers mercy to sacrifice; be feared because He dislikes sin; be loved, because He prefers the sinner’s repentance to his death; be feared, because He dislikes sinners who do not repent." Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.13 p.308

Origen (235-245 A.D.) (implied) says that God does not delight in the destruction of living things. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 2 ch.1.1 p.23

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) quotes as by Ezekiel ch.36:17-23 followed by referring to Ezekiel 18:23-32. ch.10 p.660. It quotes Ezekiel 18:30-32 in ch.18 p.663.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) alludes to Ezekiel 18:32 that God desires repentance, not the death of a sinner. Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.4 p.485

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) alludes to Ezekiel 18:23,32 that God does not desire the death of the wicked but rather repentance. Letter 3 ch.10 p.100

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) (partial) discusses how God desires to show mercy to sinners, except those who persist in error. Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.67 p.151

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 10 ch.49 p.205 refers to Ezekiel 18:33. God does not want death, but conversion.

 

Gi11. God / Christ is heals /is healer

 

Matthew 8:14-15; 8:16; 8:17

 

Letter to Diognetus (c.130 A.D.) ch.9 p.28 "He [God] desired to lead us to trust in His kindness, to esteem Him our Nourisher, Father, Teacher, Counsellor, Healer, our Wisdom, Light, Honour, Glory, Power, and Life"

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "But the good Instructor, the Wisdom, the Word of the Father, who made man, cares for the whole nature of His creature; the all-sufficient Physician of humanity, the Saviour, heals both body and soul." The Instructor book 1 ch.2 p.210

Tertullian (198-202 A.D.) "So amply sufficient a Depositary of patience is God. If it be a wrong which you deposit in His care, He is an Avenger; if a loss, He is a Restorer; if pain, He is a Healer; if death, He is a Reviver." Of Patience ch.15 p.716

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "He was therefore the very Christ of Isaiah, the healer of our sicknesses. ‘Surely,’ says he, ‘He hath borne our griefs and carried our sorrows.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 4 ch.8 p.354

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "‘This is my beloved Son’ - He who is hungry, and yet maintains myriads; who is weary, and yet gives rest to the weary; who has not where to lay His head, and yet bears up all things in His hand; who suffers, and yet heals sufferings; who is smitten, and yet confers liberty on the world; who is pierced in the side, and yet repairs the side of Adam." Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.8 p.237

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And I am persuaded these things contain reasons concerning the verse kinds of souls which Jesus vivifies and heals." Commentary on Matthew book 11 ch.17 p.445

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "And along with these you will investigate when the Saviour heals of Himself and unasked by any one, as for example, the paralytic; for these cures, when compared with one another for this very purpose," Commentary on Matthew book 13 ch.3 p.477

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in Isaiah: ‘The Spirit of the Lord is upon me; on account whereof He hath anointed me: He hath sent me to tell good tidings to the poor; to heal the bruised in heart, to preach deliverance to the captives, and sight to the blind, to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord, and the day of retribution.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.10 p.519

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "But let us commit the praises and hymns in honour of the King and Superintendent of all things, the perennial Fount of all blessings, to the hand of Him who, in this matter as in all others, is the Healer of our infirmity," Oration and Panegyric to Origen argument 4 p.24

 

Gi12. God is our protector

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "the well-pleasing of His Name, through our High Priest and Protector, Jesus Christ, by whom be to Him glory, and majesty, and power, and honour, both now and for evermore." 1 Clement ch.58 p.21

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Why do you not rather on this, the side of constancy and trust in God, say, I do my part; I depart not; God, if He choose, will Himself be my protector?" Fleeing Persecution ch.5 p.119

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) (implied) "And with reference to the view that they have angels from birth, one might quote, ‘He who separated me from my mother’s womb,’ and, ‘From the womb of my mother thou hast been my protector,’" Commentary on Matthew book 13 no.27 p.491

Novatian (250/254-257 A.D.) "And because the Lord was about to depart to the heavens, He gave the Paraclete out of necessity to the disciples; so as not to leave them in any degree orphans, which was little desirable, and forsake them without an advocate and some kind of protector." Treatise on the Trinity ch.29 p.640

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Neither should you think that he is father to your children who is both changeable and infirm, but you should obtain Him who is the eternal and unchanging Father of spiritual children. Assign to Him your wealth which you are saving up for your heirs. Let Him be the guardian for your children; let Him be their trustee; let Him be their protector, by His divine majesty, against all worldly injuries." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 8 ch.19 p.481

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "But why should I utter such lamentations? There lives still the Saviour of all men, even of the half-dead and the despoiled, the Protector and Physician for all, the Word, that sleepless Keeper of all." Oration and Panegyric to Origen ch.17 p.38

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "with authority, the God of Abraham, the Protector of Isaac, the Holy One of Israel, the Instructor of Moses" Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.6 p.387

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.490 speaks of God miraculously delivering Thecla.

 

Gi13. God is our refuge

 

Deuteronomy 32:27; 2 Samuel 22:3,31; Psalm 2:12; 5:11; 9:9; 16:1; 17:7; 18:2; 31:2; 34:8; 36:7; 46:1; 62:8; 71:1; 91:2; 144:2; Proverbs 30:5

 

4Q29 (= 4QDeut b) (Deuteronomy 29:24-27; 30:3-14; 31:9-17, 31:24-32:3) (dated 150-100 B.C.)

Vaticanus (B) (325-350 A.D.) contains all of Deuteronomy. It has most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.)

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "great Creator and Lord of all has appointed to exist in peace and harmony; while He does good to all, but most abundantly to us who have fled for refuge to His compassions through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom be glory and majesty for ever and ever." 1 Clement ch.20 p.11

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "But Israel was His name from the beginning, to which He altered the name of the blessed Jacob when He blessed him with His own name, proclaiming thereby that all who through Him have fled for refuge to the Father, constitute the blessed Israel." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.125 p.262

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "Let none of you worship the sun, but set his desires on the Maker of the sun; nor deify the universe, but seek after the Creator of the universe. The only refuge, then, which remains for him who would reach the portals of salvation is divine wisdom. From this, as from a sacred asylum, the man who presses after salvation, can be dragged by no demon." Exhortation to the Heathen ch.4 p.190

Commodianus (c.240 A.D.) "So Christ is fought against, even as Caesar is obeyed. Seek the refuge of the king, if thou hast been a delinquent. Do thou implore of Him; do thou prostrate confess to Him: He will grant all things whose also are all our things. The camp being replaced, beware of sinning further; do not wander long as a soldier through caves of the wild beasts. Let it be sin to thee to cease from unmeasured doing." Instructions of Commodianus ch.52 p.213

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "all the gods of the heathen are greedy demons, which flit around sacrifices and blood, and other sacrificial accompaniments, in order to deceive those who have not taken refuge with the God who is over all," Origen Against Celsus book 3 ch.37 p.479

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) (partial) "Now it is certain that those who have taken refuge and rested under the Spirit, and under the shadow of the Word, shall not be alarmed, nor frightened by him who troubles the hearts of men." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 10 ch.5 p.350

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) quotes "and the Lord is become my refuge." as of David in the 93rd Psalm. The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.18 p.121

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 11 ch.1 p.32 Joseph says, "He [God] rescued me."

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 11 ch.9 p.33 Joseph says, "And the Lord guarded me from her [Potiphar’s wife’s] devices."

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.490 says God is our refuge.

 

Gi14. God is our deliverer

 

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) "the light of those that are in darkness; the deliverer of those that are captive" On Faith vol.8 ch.4 p.756

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "therefore, when Paul sets forth human infirmity, he says: ‘For I know that there dwelleth in my flesh no good thing,’ showing that the ‘good thing’ of our salvation is not from us, but from God. And again: ‘Wretched man that I am, who shall deliver me from the body of this death?’ [Romans 7:24] Then he introduces the Deliverer, [saying, ] ‘The grace of Jesus Christ our Lord.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.20.3 p.450

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Therefore eternal and divine things are to be followed, and all things must be done after the will of God, that we may follow the divine footsteps and teachings of our Lord, who warned us, and said, ‘I came down from heaven, not to do my own will, but the will of Him that sent me.’ But if the servant is not greater than his lord, and he that is freed owes obedience to his deliverer, we who desire to be Christians ought to imitate what Christ said and did. It is written, and it is read and heard, and is celebrated for our example by the Church’s mouth, ‘He that saith he abideth in Christ." Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 2 ch.7 p.432

Arnobius (297-303 A.D.) "in that we hold Him [the Supreme Ruler] fast who assures us that He will be our deliverer from such danger, embrace Him, and entrust our souls to His care, if only that interchange is right? You rest the salvation of your souls on yourselves, and are assured that by your own exertions alone you become gods; but we, on the contrary hold out no hope to ourselves from our own weakness, for we see that our nature has no strength, and is overcome by its own passions in every strife for anything." Arnobius Against the Heathen book 2 ch.32 p.446

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "For He is the Deliverer, and Judge, and Avenger, and King, and God, whom we call Christ" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.19 p.122

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "I have seen Him who is by nature my Lord and Deliverer;" Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.8 p.389

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) speaks of the "King Eternal" Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.8 p.388

Acts of Paul and Thecla (before 207 A.D.) p.490 speaks of the God delivering Thecla.

 

Gi15. God/Christ rejoices over us

 

Zephaniah 3:17

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Jesus endured the cross because of the joy set before Him. Hebrews 12:2

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.11 p.29 says that the Word [Jesus] rejoices over the faithful.

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "For, Behold, I [God] make Jerusalem a rejoicing, and My people a joy; and I shall rejoice over Jerusalem, and be glad over My people." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.81 p.239

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 3 ch.12 p.17 "Vigour arose within you, and ye grew strong in faith; and the Lord, seeing your strength, rejoiced."

Melito of Sardis (170-177/180 A.D.) (implied) "His [God’s] delight in the prayers or works of the saints." From the Oration on our Lord’s Passion vol.8 ch.9 p.760

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) (implied) says that scripture "celebrates us" The Instructor book 1 ch.5 p.212

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "‘When He prepared the heavens,’ so says (the Scripture), ‘I was present with Him; and when He strengthened above the winds the lofty clouds, and when He secured the fountains which are under the heaven, I was present...I daily rejoiced in His presence; for He rejoiced when He had finished the world, and amongst the sons of men did He show" [Proverbs 8:27-31] Against Hermogenes ch.18 p.487

Origen (235-245 A.D.) (implied) shows that God rejoices over us. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 15 ch.4.1 p.161

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "God rejoices in our faith alone, in our innocency alone, in our truth alone, in our virtues alone." On Jewish Meats ch.5 p.649

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.18 p.663 says that the angels and Christ rejoice over our repentance.

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "one and true Father, good, merciful, and loving-yea, Himself Goodness and Mercy and Love-rejoice in the repentance of His own sons!" Epistles of Cyprian letter 51 ch.23 p.333

Anatolius (270-280 A.D.) "as He Himself also says: ‘Rejoice with Me; for I have found the sheep which I had lost.’" Paschal Canon ch.10 p.149

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) alludes to Psalm 104:31. "God shall have completed the world, He shall rejoice in us." Banquet of the Ten Virgins discourse 9 ch.1 p.344

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "That supreme Majesty rejoices in such a worshipper as this, as it takes him as a son and bestows upon him the befitting reward of immortality, concerning which I must now speak, and refute the persuasion of those who think that the soul is destroyed together with the body." Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.67 p.151

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 9 ch.3 p.183 "whom He [God] might choose friends for His Son, with whom He might rejoice"

 

Gi16. Calling God Abba, Father

 

Galatians 4:6

 

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "To those, no doubt, who have received the grace of the "adoption, by which we cry, Abba Father.’" He mentions this in other places too. Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.1 p.419

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) calls God Abba, Father. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.5

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "filiorum, in quo clamamus, Abba Pater;" "of the Son, in whom we exclaim, Abba Father;" Stromata book 3 ch.11 p.395

Clement of Alexandria (c.195 A.D.) "the Word, reaching and resting in the same truth, and crying Abba, Father." Exhortation to the Heathen ch.9 p.197

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "therefore the assurance that we are the children of God, ‘He hath sent forth His Spirit into our hearts, crying, Abba, Father.’" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.4 p.436

Theodotus the probable Montanist (c.240 A.D.) says that "we cry, Abba, Father." Excepts from Theodotus ch.20 p.45

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "adoption, whereby we cry, Abba, Father." Origen Against Celsus book 1 ch.57 p.421

Origen (233/234 A.D.) "For the Spirit that in the hearts of the blessed cries: ‘Abba, Father, knows well that the groans in the earthly habitation are likely only to press down upon them that have fallen or strayed from the way." Origen On Prayer ch.2.3 p.19

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) "makes mention of His saying, "Abba, Father, all things are possible unto Thee;" Commentary on Luke 22:42, etc. p.117

 

Gi17. God of Abraham

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

Vaticanus (325-350 A.D.) contains most of the Old Testament.

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Nor have we trusted in any other (for there is no other), but in Him in whom you also have trusted, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.11 p.199

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) "From the writings of Moses also this will be manifest; for thus it is written in them, ‘And the Angel of God spake to Moses, in a flame of fire out of the bush, and said, I am that I am, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, the God of thy fathers; go down into Egypt, and bring forth My people.’" [Exodus 3:6] First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.63 p.184

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 14.34 p.66 mentions the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. See also section 34.20 p.96.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "whom invoking, he exclaimed, ‘LORD God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, hear me to-day, and let all this people know that Thou art the God of Israel.’" [1 Kings 18:36] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.5 p.419. See also book 3 ch.12.3 p.430.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "This is He who is called in the Law the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, the God of the living; although the sublimity and greatness of this God is unspeakable." Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.8. see also ch.21.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "And that he is beloved of God, God intimates when He says, ‘The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob.’ For the first is found to have been expressly called ‘friend;’ and the second is shown to have received a new name, signifying ‘he that sees God;’" Stromata book 2 ch.5 p.351. See also Stromata book 5 ch.10 p.459.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "‘Ask, and ye shall receive,’ is suitably said to one who was aware from whom he ought to ask,-by whom also some promise had been given; that is to say, "the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob." Now, the Gentiles knew nothing either of Him, or of any of His promises." Prescription Against Heretics ch.8 p.247

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) "by citing the word in the law, ‘I am the God of your fathers: ye shall have no other gods besides me;’" Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.2 p.223.

Origen (c.240 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 9 ch.3 p.89

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "‘the angel of the Lord appeared in a flame of fire. And he said, I am the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob.’" Commentary on John book 1 ch.34 p.315

Origen (239-242 A.D.) says our God is the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Homilies on Ezekiel homily 7 ch.4.1 p.103

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And He said unto him, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.19 p.524

Athanasius (318 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham. Incarnation of the Word ch.40.4 p.58

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "with authority, the God of Abraham, the Protector of Isaac, the Holy One of Israel, the Instructor of Moses" Oration of Simeon and Anna ch.6 p.387

 

Among heretics

The Gnostic Valentinus (before 222-235/236 A.D.) "This is, as he says, what (God) declares to Moses: ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and my name I have not announced to them;’" [Valentinus’ view] in HippolytusRefutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.31 p.90

The Gnostic Basilides (before 222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) says a false god was the god of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob according to Hippolytus "But (in reality) the Hebdomad was king and lord of this quarter of the universe, and the Ogdoad is Arrhetus, whereas the Hebdomad is Rhetus. This, he says, is the Archon of the Hebdomad, who has spoken to Moses, and says: ‘I am the God of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and I have not manifested unto them the name of God’ (for so they wish that it had been written)-that is, the God, Arrhetus, Archon of the Ogdoad." Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.13 p.106-107

 

Gi18. God of Isaac

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Nor have we trusted in any other (for there is no other), but in Him in whom you also have trusted, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.11 p.199

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 14.34 p.66 mentions the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. See also section 34.20 p.96.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "whom invoking, he exclaimed, ‘LORD God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, hear me to-day, and let all this people know that Thou art the God of Israel.’" [1 Kings 18:36] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.5 p.419. See also book 3 ch.12.3 p.430.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "This is He who is called in the Law the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, the God of the living; although the sublimity and greatness of this God is unspeakable." Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.8. See also ch.21.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "And that he is beloved of God, God intimates when He says, ‘The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob.’ For the first is found to have been expressly called ‘friend;’ and the second is shown to have received a new name, signifying "he that sees God;" Stromata book 2 ch.5 p.351. See also Stromata book 5 ch.10 p.459.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "‘Ask, and ye shall receive,’ is suitably said to one who was aware from whom he ought to ask,-by whom also some promise had been given; that is to say, "the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob." Now, the Gentiles knew nothing either of Him, or of any of His promises." Prescription Against Heretics ch.8 p.247

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) "by citing the word in the law, ‘I am the God of your fathers: ye shall have no other gods besides me;’" Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.2 p.223.

Origen (c.240 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 9 ch.3 p.89

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "‘the angel of the Lord appeared in a flame of fire. And he said, I am the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob.’" Commentary on John book 1 ch.34 p.315

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And He said unto him, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.19 p.524

 

Among heretics

Valentinus (before 222-235/236 A.D.) "This is, as he says, what (God) declares to Moses: ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and my name I have not announced to them;’" [Valentinus’ view] in HippolytusRefutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.31 p.90

The Gnostic Basilides (before 222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) says a false god was the god of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob according to Hippolytus "But (in reality) the Hebdomad was king and lord of this quarter of the universe, and the Ogdoad is Arrhetus, whereas the Hebdomad is Rhetus. This, he says, is the Archon of the Hebdomad, who has spoken to Moses, and says: ‘I am the God of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and I have not manifested unto them the name of God’ (for so they wish that it had been written)-that is, the God, Arrhetus, Archon of the Ogdoad." Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.13 p.106-107

 

Gi19. The God of Jacob

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 23:32; Acts 7:32

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Nor have we trusted in any other (for there is no other), but in Him in whom you also have trusted, the God of Abraham, and of Isaac, and of Jacob." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.11 p.199

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "This is the generation of them that seek the Lord, that seek the face of the God of Jacob." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.36 p.212

Tatian’s Diatessaron (died 172 A.D.) section 14.34 p.66 mentions the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob. See also section 34.20 p.96.

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "whom invoking, he exclaimed, ‘LORD God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, hear me to-day, and let all this people know that Thou art the God of Israel.’" [1 Kings 18:36] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.5 p.419. See also book 3 ch.12.3 p.430.

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) "This is He who is called in the Law the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob, the God of the living; although the sublimity and greatness of this God is unspeakable." Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.8. See also ch.21.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "And that he is beloved of God, God intimates when He says, ‘The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob.’ For the first is found to have been expressly called ‘friend;’ and the second is shown to have received a new name, signifying ‘he that sees God;’" Stromata book 2 ch.5 p.351. See also Stromata book 5 ch.10 p.459.

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "‘Ask, and ye shall receive,’ is suitably said to one who was aware from whom he ought to ask,-by whom also some promise had been given; that is to say, "the God of Abraham, of Isaac, and of Jacob." Now, the Gentiles knew nothing either of Him, or of any of His promises." Prescription Against Heretics ch.8 p.247

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "‘all nations have ‘to ascend to the mount of the Lord and to the house of the God of Jacob,’ who demands of His saints in martyrdom that death which He exacted even of His Christ." Treatise on the Soul ch.50 p.227

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "‘Come ye, and let us go up to the mountain of the Lord, and to the house of the God of Jacob; and He will teach us His way, and we will walk in it: for out of Sion shall go forth the law, and the word of the Lord from Jerusalem.’" Five Books Agianst Marcion book 3 ch.21 p.339

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) "by citing the word in the law, ‘I am the God of your fathers: ye shall have no other gods besides me;’" Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.2 p.223.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "‘the angel of the Lord appeared in a flame of fire. And he said, I am the God of Abraham and of Isaac and of Jacob.’" Commentary on John book 1 ch.34 p.315

Origen (c.240 A.D.) mentions the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. Homilies on Jeremiah homily 9 ch.3 p.89

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "And He said unto him, I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.19 p.524

 

Among heretics

The Gnostic Valentinus (before 222-235/236 A.D.) "This is, as he says, what (God) declares to Moses: ‘I am the God of Abraham, and the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob; and my name I have not announced to them;’" [Valentinus’ view] in HippolytusRefutation of All Heresies book 6 ch.31 p.90

The Gnostic Basilides (before 222-235/236 A.D.) (partial) says a false god was the god of Abraham, Isaac and Jacob according to Hippolytus "But (in reality) the Hebdomad was king and lord of this quarter of the universe, and the Ogdoad is Arrhetus, whereas the Hebdomad is Rhetus. This, he says, is the Archon of the Hebdomad, who has spoken to Moses, and says: ‘I am the God of Abraham, and Isaac, and Jacob, and I have not manifested unto them the name of God’ (for so they wish that it had been written)-that is, the God, Arrhetus, Archon of the Ogdoad." Refutation of All Heresies book 7 ch.13 p.106-107

 

Gi20. God of Israel

 

Exodus 24:10; Numbers 16:9; Joshua 7:19; Judges 5:3; 1 Samuel 5:8; 2 Samuel 7:26; 1 Kings 11:31; 2 Kings 10:31; 1 Chronicles 4:10; 2 Chronicles 2:12; Ezra 1:3; Psalm 41:13; Isaiah 17:6; 45:3; Jeremiah 7:3; Ezekiel 8:4; Zephaniah 2:9; Malachi 2:16

Matthew 15:31; Luke 1:68

(implied) Deuteronomy 6:4

(implied) Amos 4:12 "prepare to meet your God, O Israel"

Genesis 49:24 (partial, rock of Israel)

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Blessed be the Lord, the God of Israel, who only doeth wondrous things: and blessed be His glorious name for ever and ever:" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.64 p.230

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "whom invoking, he exclaimed, ‘LORD God of Abraham, God of Isaac, and God of Jacob, hear me to-day, and let all this people know that Thou art the God of Israel.’" [1 Kings 18:36] Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.6.5 p.419

Tertullian (205 A.D.)"applicable certainly to whomsoever the Lord God of Israel may lead forth in like" Scorpiace ch.2 p.635

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) calls God "the Holy one of Israel". Tertullian on Modesty ch.8 p.82

Tertullian (203/204 A.D.) "Because blessed Is the Lord God of Israel, who only" Five Books Against Marcion book 5 ch.9 p.449

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) (implied) "Thou art God, and we knew not; God of Israel, the Saviour." Do you see, he says, how the Scriptures proclaim one God? And as this is clearly exhibited, and these passages are testimonies to it, I am under necessity, he says, since one is acknowledged, to make this One the subject of suffering." Against the Heresy of One Noetus ch.2 p.224 (Hippolytus is summarizing Noetus’ argument, but Hippolytus does not disagree that God is the God of Israel. Hippolytus agrees that God is One, but also shows that God is three too.

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Lord that saveth thee and the God of Israel that chooseth thee. And instead of" Commentary on John book 10 ch.26 p.406

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "Also in that according to Luke: ‘And Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying, Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, who hath foreseen redemption for His people, and hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of His servant David.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 second part ch.7 p.519

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "which call Thee by Thy name, the God of Israel.’" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.12 p.111

 

Among corrupt or spurious works

pseudo-Justin Martyr (after 168 A.D.) "wings, and the wheels beside them; and the glory of the Lord God of Israel was over them above" [Ezekiel 11:22] Hortatory Address to the Greeks ch.31 p.286

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "Psalms it is sung: "Blessed be the Lord God of Israel, and the whole earth shall" Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.5 p.386

 

Gi21. God is patient or long-suffering

 

Clement of Rome (96/98 A.D.) "and let us look stedfastly to the Father and Creator of the universe, and cleave to His mighty and surpassingly great gifts and benefactions, of peace. Let us contemplate Him with our understanding, and look with the eyes of our soul to His long-suffering will. Let us reflect how free from wrath He is towards all His creation." 1 Clement ch.19 p.10

Ignatius of Antioch (100-107/116 A.D.)"Let us therefore be of a reverent spirit, and fear the long-suffering of God, that it tend not to our condemnation." [Greek] Letter to the Ephesians ch.11 p.54

Letter to Diognetus ch.8 p.28 (130-150 A.D.) "For God, the Lord and Fashioner of all things, who made all things, and assigned them their several positions, proved Himself not merely a friend of mankind, but also long-suffering [in His dealings with them.] Yea, He was always of such a character, and still is, and will ever be, kind and good, and free from wrath, and true, and the only one who is [absolutely] good;"

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.3 p.138 "To this end, therefore, brethren, He is long-suffering, foreseeing how the people whom He has prepared shall with guilelessness believe in His Beloved."

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 3 Similitude eighth ch.11 p.43 "Because the Lord, having had compassion on all men, has sent me [the angel of repentance] to give repentance, although some are not worthy of it on account of their works; but the Lord, being long-suffering, desires those who were called by His Son to be saved."

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "Yet we do not hate you or those who, by your means, have conceived such prejudices against us; but we pray that even now all of you may repent and obtain mercy from God, the compassionate and long-suffering Father of all." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.108 p.253

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) "And that God sees all, and that nothing escapes His notice, but that, being long-suffering, He refrains until the time when He is to judge-:" Theophilus to Autolycus book 2 ch.37 p.109

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Long-suffering therefore was God, when man became a defaulter, as foreseeing that victory which should be granted to him through the Word." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.20.1 p.449.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "‘And such were some of you’-such manifestly as those still are whom you do not forgive; ‘but ye are washed,’ not simply as the rest, but with knowledge; ye have cast off the passions of the soul, in order to become assimilated, as far as possible, to the goodness of God’s providence by long-suffering, and by forgiveness ‘towards the just and the unjust,’ casting on them the gleam of benignity in word and deeds, as the sun. Stromata book 7 ch.14 p.548

Tertullian (198-202 A.D.) "So amply sufficient a Depositary of patience is God. If it be a wrong which you deposit in His care, He is an Avenger; if a loss, He is a Restorer; if pain, He is a Healer; if death, He is a Reviver." Of Patience ch.15 p.716

Tertullian (208-220 A.D.) says that God is patient. Tertullian on Modesty ch.2 p.76

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "It is well, therefore, that he premised the attribute of the most good God as most patient over the wicked, and most abundant in mercy and kindness over such as acknowledged and bewailed their sins, as the Ninevites were then doing." Five Books Against Marcion book 2 ch.24 p.315

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "But since I perceive that they have not been abashed by our forbearance, and have made no account of how God is long-suffering, though blasphemed by them," Refutation of All Heresies book 1 proemium p.10

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) "Moreover, that ‘wrath’ is no passion on the part of God, but that each one brings it upon himself by his sins, will be clear from the further statement of Paul: ‘Or despisest thou the riches of His goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?" Origen Against Celsus ch.4.72 p.529

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "‘Or despisest thou the riches of His goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering, not knowing that the patience and goodness of God leadeth thee to repentance?" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 9 ch.4 p.485

Gregory Thaumaturgus (240-265 A.D.) "For whereas the providential judgment of God does not overtake all speedily, by reason of His great long-suffering, and the wicked is not punished immediately on the commission of his offences," Metaphrase of Ecclesiastes ch.8 p.15

Peter of Alexandria (306,285-311 A.D.) (implied) (He is saying this to justify despising God’s patience) "Wretch that I am! I have not remembered that God observes the mind, and hears the voice of the soul. I turned consciously to sin, saying to myself, God is merciful, and will bear with me; and when I was not instantly smitten, I ceased not, but rather despised His forbearance, and exhausted the long-suffering of God." fragment 7 p.283

Methodius (270-311/312 A.D.) "But what to this answers the long-suffering One, He who is abundant in mercy, and slow to wrath?" Oration on Psalms ch.7 p.397

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "But now He suffers men to err, and to be impious even towards Himself, just, and mild, and patient as He is. For it is impossible that He in whom is perfect excellence should not also be of perfect patience. Whence some imagine, that God is altogether free from anger, because He is not subject to affections, which are perturbations of the mind; for every animal which is liable to affections and emotions is frail. But this persuasion altogether takes away truth and religion." The Divine Institutes book 2 ch.18 p.67

 

Among corrupt and spurious books

pseudo-Justin Martyr (after 165 A.D.) "But forgetfulness having taken possession of the minds of men, through the long-suffering of God, has acted recklessly in transferring to mortals the name which is applicable to the only true God;" On the Sole Government of God ch.1 p.290

pseudo-Methodius (after 312 A.D.) "but the grace of the Lord reigneth, drawing all men to itself by saving long-suffering." Oration Concerning Simeon and Anna ch.1 p.383

 

Among heretics

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (70-135 A.D.) book 9 ch.4 p.29 says that God is long-suffering.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 9 ch.19 p.278 says that God is long-suffering.

The Ebionite Recognitions of Clement (c.211-231 A.D.) book 3 ch.49 p.127 says that God is patient. See also ibid book 2 ch.16 p.101.

 

Gi22. God of the living

 

Exodus 3:6; Matthew 22:29

 

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "By these arguments He unquestionably made it clear, that He who spake to Moses out of the bush, and declared Himself to be the God of the fathers, He is the God of the living. For who is the God of the living unless He who is God, and above whom there is no other God?" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.5.2 p.467

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "Nor could God have known man in the womb, except in his entire nature: ‘And before thou camest forth out of the womb, I sanctified thee.’ Well, was it then a dead body at that early stage? Certainly not. For ‘God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.’" Treatise on the Soul ch.26 p.207

Origen (c.227-240 A.D.) "Consider however, whether the divine Scriptures do not in many places teach this; as where the Saviour says, ‘Or have ye not read that which was spoken at the bush, I am the God of Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob. He is not God of the dead but of the living.’" [Mark 12:26] Commentary on John book 2 ch.10 p.333

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "For far be it from the mercy of God and His uncontrolled might to suffer the number of the lapsed to be called the Church; since it is written, ‘God is not the God of the dead, but of the living.’" Epistles of Cyprian Epistle 26 ch.1 p.305

 

Gi23. God loves us or is kind

 

John 3:16; Ephesians 1:4

Isa 54:10 (God has compassion)

(implied) Exodus 2:25

 

p46 Chester Beatty II – 1,680 verses 70% Paul + Hebrews (100-150 A.D.) Ephesians 1:4

p66 Bodmer II papyri - 817 verses (92%) of John (125-175 A.D.) John 3:16

p72 (=Bodmer 7 and 8) (ca.300 A.D.) all of 1 Peter, 2 Peter, Jude 191 verses. God cares for you. 1 Peter 5:7

p9 – 1 John 4:11-12, 14-16 (3rd century A.D.) God loves us. 1 John 4:11,17

Vaticanus (B) Most of the Old Testament and all of New Testament up to Hebrews 9:15 (325-350 A.D.) John 3:16

Sinaiticus (Aleph) Almost all of the New Testament and half of the Old Testament. (340-350 A.D.) John 3:16

Alexandrinus (c.450 A.D.) All of the Old Testament except Genesis 14:14-17; 15:1-5, 16-19; 16:6-9; 1 Samuel 12:17-14:9; Psalm 19:20-79:11. All of the New Testament except Matthew 1:1-25:6, John 6:50-8:52; Romans 16:24; and 2 Corinthians 4:13-12:6.

 

Clement of Rome (96/98A.D.) "Who can describe the [blessed] bond of the love of God…. On account of the Love he bore us, Jesus Christ our Lord gave His blood for us by the will of God; His flesh for our flesh, and His soul for our souls." 1 Clement ch.49 p.18

Ignatius of Antioch (-107/116 A.D.) "Let us not, therefore, be insensitive to his kindness." Letter of Ignatius to the Magnesians ch.10 p.63

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.1 p.137 says our Lord Jesus Christ loved us in peace.

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.2 p.23 God loves mankind

Letter to Diognetus (130-150 A.D.) ch.10 p.29 "For God has loved mankind, on whose account He made the world, to whom He rendered subject all the things that are in it…"

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) quotes Luke 6:36 about how we are to be kind and merciful as our Father is kind and merciful. First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.15 p.167-168

Evarestus (c.169 A.D.) mentions the love of God and Jesus Christ. Martyrdom of Polycarp preface p.39

Shepherd of Hermas (c.160 A.D.) book 3 Similitude eighth ch.11 p.43 "Because the Lord, having had compassion on all men, has sent me [the angel of repentance] to give repentance, although some are not worthy of it on account of their works; but the Lord, being long-suffering, desires those who were called by His Son to be saved."

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons) (177 A.D.) speaks of "the Father’s love" p.780

Theophilus of Antioch (168-181/188 A.D.) says "in glory He [God] is incomprehensible, in greatness unfathomable, in height inconceivable, in power incomparable, … in goodness inimitable, in kindness unutterable." Theophilus to Autolycus book 1 ch.3 p.89

Irenaeus of Lyons (c.160-202 A.D.) says that God is compassionate. Proof of Apostolic Preaching ch.8.

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas (c.201-205 A.D.) (ANF vol.3) ch.1.3 p.700 She had found the kindnesses of the Lord to be so great.

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "And God Himself is love…" Who is the Rich Man That Shall Be Saved? 37 p.601

Clement of Alexandria (193-217/220 A.D.) "Man is justly dear to God." The Instructor book 1 ch.3 p.210 and p.211

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) the loving-kindness of God dries up our tears. On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.58 p.590

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) says that in Noah’s ark the love of God toward man was signified by the dove. Discourse on the Holy Theophany ch.7 p.236

Origen (225-253/254 A.D.) quotes Paul in Romans 8:39,39 saying nothing can separate us from the love of God. [both Latin and Greek] Origen’s de Principiis book 3 ch.2.5 p.333

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) says that God is love Treatise Concerning the Trinity ch.7 p.616

Treatise Against Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) ch.10 p.660 says the Lord is of great compassion.

Treatise On Rebaptism (c.250-258 A.D.) ch.14 p.675 says that God is love and God so loved the world.

Moyses, Maximum, and Nicostratus (248-257 A.D.) mention the love of Christ. Letter 25 ch.1 p.302.

Dionysius of Alexandria (246-265 A.D.) criticizes Novatian for make God and our Lord Jesus Christ unmerciful. Letter 8 (to Dionysius of Rome) p.103.

Athanasius (318 A.D.) says that God is loving to mankind. Athanasius Against the Heathen ch.3.35 p.22

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) God has both kindness and anger. A Treatise on the Anger of God ch.2 p.260

 

Among heretics

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 12 ch.27 p.298 says that God loves us.

The Ebionite Clementine Homilies (-188 A.D.- uncertain date) homily 2 ch.9 p.230 says that God cares for all.

Nag Hamadi Apocalypse of Peter (3rd century A.D.) Nag Hamadi Library in English p.376 says that God has pity.

Marcionite heretic Megethius (c.300 A.D.) says that the good god (the God of Christians) is compassionate and had mercy on Christians. Dialogue on the True Faith first part ch.1 805 3b p.39

 

Gi24. God avenges

 

Deuteronomy 32:35,43; 1 Samuel 24:12; 2 Kings 9:7; Isaiah 1:24; Isaiah 65:6; 66:6; Jeremiah 5:9,29; 9:9; 15:15; 51:6b,36; Romans 12:19; 2 Thessalonians 1:6; Hebrews 10:30; Revelation 6:10

Implied Psalm 79:12; 94:2; Lamentations 3:64

 

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "and I added what follows of the passage: ‘Rejoice, O ye nations, with His people, and let all the angels of God be strengthened in Him: for the blood of His sons He avenges, and will avenge, and will recompense His enemies with vengeance, and will recompense those that hate Him; and the Lord will purify the land of His people.’" Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.130 p.264

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "‘And shall not God avenge His own elect, which cry day and night unto Him? I tell you, that He will avenge them speedily.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.27.4 p.500

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "because the Lord is the avenger in respect of all such, as we also told you before, and testified." Stromata book 4 ch.12 p.424

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "So amply sufficient a Depositary of patience is God. If it be a wrong which you deposit in His care, He is an Avenger; if a loss, He is a Restorer; if pain, He is a Healer; if death, He is a Reviver." Of Patience ch.15 p.716

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "In the Revelation of John, again, the order of these times is spread out to view, which ‘the souls of the martyrs’ are taught to wait for beneath the altar, whilst they earnestly pray to be avenged and judged: (taught, I say, to wait), in order that the world may first drink to the dregs the plagues that await it out of the vials of the angels, and that the city of fornication may receive from the ten kings its deserved doom, and that the beast Antichrist with his false prophet may wage war on the Church of God; and that, after the casting of the devil into the bottomless pit for a while, the blessed prerogative of the first resurrection may be ordained from the thrones; and then again, after the consignment of him to the fire, that the judgment of the final and universal resurrection may be determined out of the books." On the Resurrection of the Flesh ch.25 p.563

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But when He [Jesus] forbids thinking about what answer to make at a judgment-seat, He is preparing His own servants for what awaited them, He gives the assurance that the Holy Spirit will answer by them; and when He wishes a brother to be visited in prison, He is commanding that those about to confess be the object of solicitude; and He is soothing their sufferings when He asserts that God will avenge His own elect." Scorpiace ch.11 p.644-645

Hippolytus of Portus (222-235/236 A.D.) "‘Rejoice over her, thou heaven, and ye angels, and apostles, and prophets; for God hath avenged you on her. And a mighty angel took up a stone like a great millstone, and cast it into the sea, saying, Thus with violence shall that great city Babylon be thrown down, and shall be found no more at all.’" Treatise on Christ and Antichrist ch.42 p.212

Novatian (250/4-256/7 A.D.) "For it cannot happen that He [God] should be the originator or architect of any evil work, who claims to Himself the name of ‘the Perfect,’ both Parent and Judge, especially when He is the avenger and judge of every evil work;" Concerning the Trinity ch.4 p.614

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "In Deuteronomy God said to Moses: ‘And the Lord said to me, A Prophet will I raise up to them from among their brethren, such as thee, and I will give my word in His mouth; and He shall speak unto them that which I shall command Him. And whosoever shall not hear whatsoever things that Prophet shall speak in my name, I will avenge it.’" Treatises of Cyprian Treatise 12 first part no.18 p.512

Cyprian of Carthage (c.246-258 A.D.) "The innocent give place to the guilty; the harmless acquiesce in punishments and tortures, sure and confident that whatsoever we suffer will not remain unavenged, and that in proportion to the greatness of the injustice of I our persecution so will be the justice and the severity of the vengeance exacted for those persecutions." Treatises of Cyprian treatise 5 ch.17 p.462

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "For He is the Deliverer, and Judge, and Avenger, and King, and God, whom we call" The Divine Institutes book 4 ch.19 p.122

Lactantius (c.303-320/325 A.D.) "For when those defenders of false gods, who are rebellious against the true God, persecute His name in us, we resist not either in deed or in word, but with meekness, and silence, and patience, we endure whatever cruelty is able to contrive against us. For we have confidence in God, from whom we expect that retribution will hereafter follow." Epitome of the Divine Institutes ch.53 p.243-244

 

Among heretics

Bardesan/Bardesanes of Syria (154-224/232 A.D.) "He began accordingly to address us as follows: ‘Many men are there who have not faith, and have not received knowledge from the True Wisdom. In consequence of this, they are not competent to speak and give instruction to others, nor are they readily inclined themselves to hear. For they have not the foundation of faith to build upon, nor have they any confidence on which to rest their hope."

 

Gi25. Christians and Jews/Israel/Moses worship the same God

 

Saying that God or Christ is for both Jews and Greeks or Gentiles is not counted here.

 

Matthew 8:11-12a (Implied) "and I [Jesus] says to you that many will come from the east and west, and sit down with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob in the kingdom of heaven. (12) But the sons of the kingdom will be cast out into outer darkness."

Romans 3:29-31

 

p40 – Romans 1:24-27; 1:31-2:3; 3:21-4:8; 6:2-5,16; 9:17,27 (3rd century A.D.) quotes Romans 3:9-31

 

Epistle of Barnabas (100-150 A.D.) ch.16 p.147 "Moreover, I will also tell you concerning the temple, how the wretched [Jews], wandering in error, trusted not in God Himself, but in the temple, as being the house of God. For almost after the manner of the Gentiles they worshipped Him [God] in the temple."

Justin Martyr (c.150 A.D.) (implied) "There were, then, among the Jews certain men who were prophets of God, through whom the prophetic Spirit published beforehand things that were to come to pass, ere ever they happened. And their prophecies, as they were spoken and when they were uttered, the kings who happened to be reigning among the Jews at the several times carefully preserved in their possession, when they had been arranged in books by the prophets themselves in their own Hebrew language." First Apology of Justin Martyr ch.31 p.173

Justin Martyr (c.138-165 A.D.) "For these words have neither been prepared by me, nor embellished by the art of man; but David sung them, Isaiah preached them, Zechariah proclaimed them, and Moses wrote them. Are you acquainted with them, Trypho? They are contained in your Scriptures, or rather not yours, but ours. For we believe them; but you, though you read them, do not catch the spirit that is in them." Dialogue with Trypho, a Jew ch.29 p.209

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-18 A.D.) "For those things which have been predicted by the Creator alike through all the prophets has Christ fulfilled in the end, ministering to His Father’s will, and completing His dispensations with regard to the human race." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 2 ch.26.2 p.397

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "Our God, one and the same, is also their [the patriarchs’] God, who knows hidden things, who knoweth all things before they can come to pass; and for this reason has He said, ‘Jacob have I loved, but Esau have I hated.’" Irenaeus Against Heresies book 4 ch.21.2 p.493

Irenaeus of Lyons (182-188 A.D.) "The apostles, therefore, did preach the Son of God, of whom men were ignorant; and His advent, to those who had been already instructed as to God; but they did not bring in another god. For if Peter had known any such thing, he would have preached freely to the Gentiles, that the God of the Jews was indeed one, but the God of the Christians another; and all of them, doubtless, being awe-struck because of the vision of the angel, would have believed whatever he told them. But it is evident from Peter’s words that he did indeed still retain the God who was already known to them; but he also bare witness to them that Jesus Christ was the Son of God, the Judge of quick and dead, into whom he did also command them to be baptized for the remission of sins; and not this alone, but he witnessed that Jesus was Himself the Son of God, who also, having been anointed with the Holy Spirit, is called Jesus Christ." Irenaeus Against Heresies book 3 ch.12.7 p.432-433

Minucius Felix (210 A.D.) "For they themselves also, as long as they worshipped our God-and He is the same God of all-with chastity, innocency, and religion, as long as they obeyed His wholesome precepts, from a few became innumerable, from poor became rich, from being servants became kings; a few overwhelmed many;" The Octavius of Minucius Felix ch.33 p.193.

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "‘Is He the God of the Jews only, and not also of the Gentiles? Yes, also of the Gentiles: if indeed He is one God,’ exclaims the noble apostle." Stromata book 5 ch.3 p.449

Clement of Alexandria (193-202 A.D.) "God wished to save the Jews by giving to them prophets, so also by raising up prophets of their own in their own tongue, as they were able to receive God’s beneficence, He distinguished the most excellent of the Greeks from the common herd," Stromata book 6 ch.5 p.490

Tertullian (198-220 A.D.) "But, for our part, contending elsewhere about God, and about all the rest of the body of heretical teaching, we now draw before us definite lines for one form of encounter, maintaining that this will, such as to have given occasion for martyrdoms, is that of not another god than the God of Israel, on the ground of" Scorpiace ch.4 p.637

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) quotes Psalm 2 and then says, "And, indeed, if another god were preached by Paul, there could be no doubt about the law, whether it were to be kept or not, because of course it would not belong to the new lord, the enemy of the law. The very newness and difference of the god would take away not only all question about the old and alien law, but even all mention of it. But the whole question, as it then stood, was this, that although the God of the law was the same as was preached in Christ, yet there was a disparagement of His law. Permanent still, therefore, stood faith in the Creator and in His Christ; manner of life and discipline alone fluctuated." Five Books Against Marcion book 1 ch.21 p.286

Tertullian (207/208 A.D.) "I have here a very wide gulf