Scientists and Their Beliefs in God

 

May 19, 2009 version

 

Seven Scientists Who Believe in God......................... 1

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)...................................... 1

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)........................................ 1

Robert Boyle (1627-1691)....................................... 2

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)...................................... 2

Gottfried W. Leibnitz (1646-1716)......................... 3

Albert Einstein (1879-1955).................................... 3

Charles B. Thaxton (living)...................................... 4

Selected Lists of Scientists and Advances................. 4

Some Far Eastern Scientific Advances.................... 4

Indian Subcontinent Advances................................ 4

Middle Eastern Advances........................................ 5

Former Soviet Union / Finland Advances............... 6

Some Western Scientists Who Believed in God...... 6

Non-Theistic Scientists / Engineers.......................... 7

Scientists with Other Beliefs................................... 8

Scientists with Beliefs Unknown to me................... 9

 

 

Seven Scientists Who Believe in God

 

   “All human discoveries seem to be made only for the purpose of confirming more and more strongly the truths come from on high and contained in the sacred writings.” John Herschel (1791-1871) discoverer of over 500 new nebulas.

 

Galileo Galilei (1564-1642)

 

   Galileo was born in Pisa in 1564. His father Vincenzio was a mathematician and musician. As a child Galileo studied logic, Greek, and Latin, but disliked science, though he liked inventing machines. He was also a good musician and painter. Until he was 17, his father kept him away from math, because he was afraid studying math would take him away from his study of medicine. Galileo became interested in math when he overheard a lesson in geometry. His father reluctantly sent him to college, Later he had to drop out though, because of lack of money.

 

   He enjoyed reading of Copernicus and Kepler, but he was at first reluctant to get into astronomy because he feared ridicule. His first telescope was 3X magnification, but his best was 32X. They were used all over Europe. He was the first to see the mountains on the moon, the moons of Jupiter, and sunspots. He believed comets were solar reflections on the air.

 

   Galileo showed off his telescope to Rome in 1611. The Catholic Church said his views were against scripture. Galileo explained why they were not, and produced other verses to show the Copernican system (earth goes around the sun) was true. He received a semi-official warning in 1615 and the next year he had to pledge to Pope Paul V he would not speak of this anymore.

 

   In 1633 Galileo later tried to get this pledge revoked, but instead got examined by the Inquisition. He was released but had to live secluded for the rest of his life.

 

   Galileo’s troubles with the established church are famous, but his problem was with the Catholic Church, not Christianity. Galileo himself was a Christian who witnessed to people and saw support for his scientific studies in the Bible.

 

Blaise Pascal (1623-1662)

 

   Pascal was a Jensenist, Catholics who believed in much of Calvinism and incurred the displeasure of the Jesuits. They especially would not like Pascal, as he gave some witty answers. He knew at least some of the Bible, and much of the early church fathers, including Augustine, Prosper of Aquitaine, Chrysostom, Hilary, and Tertullian. He also knew of Maimonides, Josephus, and Philo. Unfortunately, like many Catholic scholars, he focused more on tradition and the early church fathers than on the Bible.

 

   Like other Catholics, Pascal believed in purgatory, the apocrypha, transubstantiation, and that the Pope is the head of the church, though he acknowledged that many popes were biased. Here are a few quotes from his main work, the Pensees.

 

   “Christianity is strange. It bids man recognize that he is vile, even abominable, and bids him desire to be like God. Without such a counterpoise, this dignity would make him horribly vain, or this humiliation would make him terribly abject.” Pensees 7.537.

 

Pascal and Other Religions

 

   “It is a deplorable thing to see all men deliberating on means alone, and not on the end. Each thinks how he will acquit himself in his condition; but as for the choice of condition, or of country, chance gives them to us. It is a pitiable thing to see so many Turks, here-tics, and infidels follow the way of their fathers for the sole reason that each has been imbued with the prejudice that it is the best. And that fixes for each man his condition of locksmith, soldier, etc.” Pensees 2.98

 

Pascal’s Wager

 

   Belief in God amounts to great potential gain and no potential loss. Not believing in God means great potential loss and no potential gain. Great potential gain with no potential loss is better than great potential loss with no potential gain. So it is better to believe in God than not to believe in God.

 

   “…Nothing is so important to man as his own state, nothing is so formidable to him as eternity; and thus it is not natural that there should be men indifferent to the loss of their existence, and to the perils of everlasting suffering….” Pascal’s Pensees 3.194.

 

Pascal and Evidence of Christianity

 

   “I see many contradictory religions, and consequently all false save one. Each wants to be believed on its own authority, and threatens unbelievers. I do not therefore believe them. Every one can say this; every one can call himself a prophet. But I see that Christian religion wherein prophecies are fulfilled; and that is what every one cannot do. Pascal gave a list of messianic prophecies to show the truth of Christianity in Pensees 11:727 (p.315-316)

 

    “…The God of Christians is not a God who is simply the author of mathematical truths, or of the order of the elements; that is the view of heathens and Epicureans. He is not merely a God who exercises His providence over the life and fortunes of men, to bestow on those who worship Him a long and happy life. That was the portion of the Jews. But the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, the God of Jacob, the God of Christians, is a God of love and comfort, a God who fills the soul and heart of those whom He possesses, a God who makes them conscious of their inward wretchedness, and His infinite mercy, who unites Himself to their inmost soul, who fills it with humility and joy, with confidence and love, who renders them incapable of any other end than Himself….” Pensees 8.556.

 

“…All who seek God without Jesus Christ, and who rest in nature, either find no light to satisfy them, or come to form for themselves a means of knowing God and serving Him without a mediator. Thereby they fall either into atheism, or into deism, two things which the Christian religion abhors almost equally. Without Jesus Christ the world would not exist; for it should needs be either that it would be destroyed or be a hell….” Pensees 8:556.

 

Other Pascal’s Ponderables

 

4. “To make light of philosophy is to be a true philosopher.”

 

101 “I set it down as a fact that if all men knew what each said of the other, there would not be four friends in the world....”

 

102. “Some vices only lay hold of us by means of others, and these, like branches, fall on removal of the trunk.”

 

100. “...There are different degrees in this aversion to truth; but all may perhaps be said to have it in some degree, because it is inseparable from self-love....”

 

Robert Boyle (1627-1691)

 

   Robert Boyle was the 14th child of the earl of Cork, Ireland. He learned Latin and French as a child and went to Eton when he was 8 years old. At 14 he was in Florence studying Galileo. Most know of him for Boyle’s law in chemistry, that at constant temperature the pressure times volume is constant. Fewer people know that he gave large amounts of money for Bible translations, learned Greek and Syriac, and he founded the Boyle lectures to prove the truth of Christianity vs. atheism, theism, paganism, and Islam. He wrote on Genesis.

 

Isaac Newton (1642-1727)

 

   Born on Christmas day 1642, and lived 85 years until 1727. His father died two months before he was born, and his step-father was a rector in a church. He was raised by his grandmother. He was a poor student, until he got into a fight with another boy, and out of jealousy decided to show everyone what he could do, and became the top of his class. At 14 Newton was taken out of school to help out on his mother’s farm. He was not a very good farmhand though, always wasting his time doing mathematics.

 

   He eventually was sent back to school and graduated from Cambridge. In 1665 he discovered the binomial theorem, and differential calculus, which he called “fluxions” In 1666 he left Cambridge due to the plague, and he started to think about gravity and the moon, as well as optics and color. He was elected to the Royal society in 1672 (when he was 30) due to his experiments on color. One of Newton’s key conclusions, “that the length of the band of colors a given distance from a spectrum is the same for a prism of any substance provided the angle was the same” was wrong. This is why Newton thought telescopes were of limited use, because chromatic aberration was uncorrectable. Newton later learned of his mistake from others and after that made some telescopes.

 

   In 1692 Newton had an 18-month attack of insomnia and nervousness. In 1696 John Bernoulli challenged mathematicians to solve two problems within six months. Newton did not see the problems until a few months later, but he solved them the next day, transmitting the papers anonymously. They figured out who it was though. In 1703 he became the president of the Royal Society, and did not discover anything else of importance for the last 24 years of his life.

 

   One time an atheist friend of Newton’s came over and saw this scale model of the solar system that Newton had. He remarked at how beautiful it was and asked who made it. Newton nonchalantly replied that no one did; it just made itself. The atheist asked again, got the same answer, and started to get angry. Newton replied, “if you cannot believe something as simple as this model cannot make itself, how can you believe the heavens made themselves?”

 

   Newton wrote more on theology than he did on science. However, his writings were heretical as he denied that Jesus was God. Newton became wealthy, invested a lot in the stock market which he lost in 1680 in the “South Sea Bubble.” Intellectual genius does not necessarily mean financial acumen.

 

Gottfried W. Leibnitz (1646-1716)

 

   Leibnitz and Newton independently invented calculus. Leibnitz first used the term “function”.

 

   Leibnitz knew both Latin and German at 8. His father was a professor of moral philosophy at Leipzig, and died when Gottfried was 8. After that, Leibnitz was for the most part self-taught, and had begun learning Greek by age 12. Between 12 and 15 he studied logic and Protestant theology. At 15 he went to the University of Leipzig to study law, which started with a two year study of Neo-Aristotelian philosophy. He wrote a number of brilliant essays on law, philosophy “what is an individual”, and mathematics before he was 21.

 

   Leibnitz thought the Cartesian philosophy was only the ante-room of truth. He wrote a chapter by chapter critique of Locke’s Essay.  He thought a newborn soul is not a blank tablet, but rather an unworked block of marble, with hidden veins that affect its ultimate form.

 

Apart from calculus, Leibnitz was concerned with answering why God allowed evil. Leibnitz wrote at great lengths to explain why this was the best of all possible worlds God could have created. Unfortunately Leibnitz was off-base here. As Christians we do not need to defend this fallen place as the best of all possible worlds, for it is not. The best of all possible worlds is Heaven, and as Norm Geisler said, this is the best of all possible paths to the best of all possible worlds.

 

Albert Einstein (1879-1955)

 

   While Einstein was getting his Ph.D., he worked in the patent office, where he was bothered by the Michelson-Morley experiment that implied the speed of light was constant regardless of direction. Ten years later in 1905 he wrote his first paper, on the general theory of relativity, including E = mc2. Later he published his special theory of relativity, primarily dealing with gravity. Einstein extended Planck’s theory of quantum mechanics, but he was against results that appeared to make some natural effects indeterminate. He is famous for his saying, “God does not play dice with the universe”

 

   Albert Einstein supported Zionism but was a non-practicing Jew, a liberal pacifist who wisely left Germany when Hitler came to power. He could not see a universe that was self-created, without God. Yet like many Jews of that time, he was somewhat bitter toward God for allowing the Holocaust. Concerning the view that western religion is the basis for science, Einstein said, “To the Sphere of religion belongs the faith that the regulations valid for the world of existence are rational, that it is comprehensible to reason. I cannot conceive of a genuine scientist without that profound faith. The situation may be expressed by an image: science without religion is lame, religion without science is blind.” (Einstein: His Life and Times by Philipp Frank. 1953. p.286) Unfortunately Einstein rejected a personal God, believing instead in the pantheistic God of Benedict Spinoza. He also rejected rewards or punishment in the afterlife.

 

   Most curiously, Einstein put a “fudge factor” in some of his equations so a “Big Bang” origin would not be required, because that would imply a personal God. When others noticed this, he admitted his error and reluctantly concluded that the universe was created. See The Baker Encyclopedia of Christian Apologetics by Norm Geisler p.213-215 for more info.

 

Charles B. Thaxton (living)

 

   Professor Rejer Hooykas was a Dutch historian of science who wrote of the profound impact Christianity has had on the rise of modern science. Thaxton was greatly influenced by him at Harvard in 1971.

 

  With Walter L. Bradley and Clarence Meninga, they authored, The Mystery of Life’s Origin : Reassessing Current Theories in 1984. In this book they show how temperature, sunlight, and estimated early atmospheric oxygen (0.2 to 0.4%) making the concentration of organics in the supposed “primeval organic soup” 10-7 Molar, about the same as the organics in the ocean water today without the life. Since that book was published, many non-theistic scientists have abandoned the idea that life could have evolved in the open water. Current theories include hot water vents, clay deposits, and panspermia, that life was “seeded” here from another place.

Meekness and Truth™ Ministries, Inc.

www.biblequery.org or meeknessandtruth.org

 


Selected Lists of Scientists and Advances

 

Some Far Eastern Scientific Advances

Irrigation, silk, gunpowder, fireworks, catapults, paper, abacus, block printing, medicines, Mongol bows, advanced lacquer, Samurai swords, compass.

Recently airplane, engines, memory chips, supercomputers, video machines, flat panel screens

Scientists

Lifetime

Contribution

Chen Ning Yang and Tsung-Dao Lee (both Chin.-Amer.)

1922-    & 1926-

parity violations in weak interactions. 1957 Nobel (physics)

Chien-Shiung Wu

(Chinese-American)

1912-1997

Beta decay does not preserve parity

Shinichiro Tomonaga

1906-

quantum electro-dynamics. Shared 1930 Nobel

Hideki Yukawa

1907-1981

1945 Nobel for meson

Yoichiro Namby (Japanese-Amer.)

1921

Strong interaction color symmetry

Kenichi Fukui

1918-

1981 Nobel prize in chemistry

Samuel Chao Chung Ting

1936-

Shared 1976 Nobel J/psi particle

Leo Esaki (Japan)

1925-

Shared 1973 Nobel semiconductor tunneling

Yuan T. Lee (Chinese-American)

1936-

Shared 1986 Nobel mass spec. detection

Susumu Tonegawa

1939-

Japanese molecular biologist 1987 Nobel prize in medicine for antibody diversity

 

Indian Subcontinent Advances

Irrigation, zero in math, indoor plumbing (1800 B.C.)

Scientists

Lifetime

Contribution

Aryabhatta

476 A.D.-

Astronomer and mathematician who cataloged all known mathematical rules in poetry. Tables of sines, the sums of powers, quadratic equations.

Many Indians

c.638-1150

Solved many complex algebra problems

Chandrasekhara Raman

1888-1970

Raman effect in spectroscopy. 1930 Nobel prize

Satyendra Bose

1894-1974

statistical calculations of bosons

Homi Jehangir Bhabha

1909-1966

Started nuclear energy in India

Subramanyan Chandresekhar (Indian-American)

1910-1995

Shared 1983 Nobel for structure and evolution of white dwarf stars

Abdul Salam (Qadiani) of Pakistan

1926-1996

Shared the 1979 Nobel prize in physics. He was a Qadiani, whom many Muslims consider non-Muslim heretics

In Pakistan

c.2000

Pakistani A-bomb

A Muslim in India

late 20th

Indian A-bomb

 

Middle Eastern Advances

“Allah is omniscient does not justify ignorance” al-Biwini(sp?) 1048 A.D.

Irrigation, Damascus swords, shipbuilding, musical instruments, military cannons, coffee and spices, great maps, surgery, sanitation to fight plague, and cataloging plants and animals. Babylonians solved quadratic algebraic equations and a few cubic ones.

Middle Eastern Theistic Scientists / Philosophers

Scientist

Lifetime

Contribution

Khalid ben Yezid

-708

First Muslims writer on alchemy. Pupil of the Syrian monk Marianus

Abu Yahya al Batriq

722

Al Mansur had him translate into Arabic books he requested from the Byzantine Emperor

Geber (Jabir ibn-Hayyan)

c.760-c.815

Arab alchemist who distilled vinegar and made nitric acid. He started the search for transmuting metals and was fascinated with liquid mercury

Abu-Maaschor (Albumazar)

805-885

Works translated into Latin, including Flores Astrologici, from which we get our word astrology. Thought the world created when 7 planets in conjunction with stars.

Mohammed ibn Mu-sa al-Khowarizmi

c.825

The word Algebra came from his name

Mohammed ben Begir al Batani (Albategnius)

c.850-929

Corrected some of Ptolemy’s tables. Introduced sines and tangents in the Mideast. His works published in Latin by Melanchthon.

Rhazes (Al-Razi)

c.850-c.925

Persian alchemist who made plaster of Paris and studied antimony

Abu Kamil

c.900

algebra contributions

Avicenna (Ibn-Sina)

979/980-1037

Most important physician between Roman and modern times. Also a scientist, philosopher, and logician who wrote almost 200 works. Albert Magnus in England learned much from him

Ibn al Haytham

 

died 1039 A.H.

Studied pressure, magnetism, and optics. Said that we see by light hitting our eyes, not rays the eye shoots out.

Avempace (Ibn Gabirol)

1021-1058

Jewish Spanish philosopher who espoused Aristotle

Averroes (Abu al-Walid Mohammed bin Ahmad ibn Mohammed ibn Roshd)

1126-1198

Admirer of Aristotle. Said much of the poverty and distress came from the way Muslims treated women

al-Karkhi

c.1100

algebra contributions

Quth al-Din

1236

Explained rainbow’s shape

‘Izz al Din al Jaldaki

died 1360 A.D.

Studied evaporation Separated gold from silver with nitric acid.

Turks

After 1500

live smallpox vaccine

 


Former Soviet Union / Finland Advances

Many strong mathematicians, rockets, nuclear

Scientists

Lifetime

Contribution

Ivan P. Pavlov

1849-1936

1904 Nobel dig.nerves

Mikhail Lomonosov

1711-1765

had atomic views 150 years ahead of his time. Nobody in the west read his works

Artturi I. Virtanen (Finland)

1895-1973

1945 Nobel prize in chemistry

Nikolai N. Semenov

1896-1986

1/2 1956 Nobel prize in chemistry

Pyotr Kapitsa

1894-1984

Worked with Rutherford. He won 1/3 1978 Nobel prize in physics for superfluidity (not superconductivity) on helium

A.I. Oparin

1894-1980

communist, biochemist who worked on origin of life experiments

Dmitri I. Mendeleev

1834-1907

Periodic Table

Andrey Markov, Sr.

1856-1922

Russian Mathematician. Stochastic processes and Markov chains

Andrey Markov, Jr.

1903-1979

Russian mathematician. Markov’s principle, Markov’s rule

Andrei Sakharov

1921-1989

Soviet H-bomb

Some Western Translators and Educators

Scientist

Lifetime

Contribution

Alcuin (Monk under Charlemagne

735-804

Wrote on astronomy, the Trinity, other.

Einhard

c.770-840

palace scholar under Charlemagne

Gerbert

c.940-1003

Became Pope Sylvester II in 999

Gerard of Cremona

c.1114-1187

 

Robert of Chester

fl.1140-50

Translated al-Khowarizmi

Manuel Chrysolores

c.1355-1415

brought Greek learning to W. Europe

 

Some Western Scientists Who Believed in God

Scientist/ Engineer

Lifetime

Contribution

Albert of Bollstadt (Albert Magnus)

1193/1206-1280

Alchemist

Leonardo da Vinci

1452-1519

physics, art

Nicholas Copernicus

1473-1543

Taught the planets revolved around an immoveable sun

Tycho Brahe

1545-1601

At least a theist

John Napier

1550-1617

Discoverer of logarithms, he was a strong Protestant who in 1594 wrote, “Plaine Discovery of the Whole Revelation of Saint John”

Francis Bacon

1561-1626

scientific method

Galileo Galilei

1564-1642

telescope, gravity, solar system

Johann Kepler

1571-1626

planet’s elliptical orbits

William Harvey

1578-1657

circulation of blood. At least a theist.

Puritans

1600-1700

A higher percentage of Puritans were in the English Royal Society than in the general population

Athanasius Kircher

1601-1680

Jesuit who anticipated the germ theory and wrote of Noah’s flood

John Wilkins

1614-1672

scientist and clergyman who wrote how Noah’s ark would be of adequate size to fit all of the animals.

Walter Charleton

1619-1707

President of the Royal College of Physicians who wrote on the flood and miracles

Blaise Pascal

1623-1662

math, fluid flow

Robert Boyle

1627-1691

Boyle’s law - chemistry. Learned Hebrew, Greek, Syriac. Founded the Boyle lectures to prove Christianity vs. atheists, theists, pagans, Jews, and Muslims.

John Ray

1627-1705

natural history

Nicolaus Steno

1631-1686

stratigraphy

Thomas Burnet

1635-1715

geologist and clergyman

Nicolas Lemery

1645-1715

chemist who converted to Catholicism

Sir William Petty

1623-1687

statistics, economics

Christiaan Huygens

1629-1695

Huygen’s Principle. At least a theist

Isaac Barrow

1630-1677

Cambridge math prof. who taught Newton. He later retired to teach God’s Word

Robert Hooke

1635-1703

physicist and geologist. Hooke’s Law of elasticity. At least a theist

Increase Mather

1639-1723

son of Cotton Mather, astronomer on comets, theologian, and one of the first presidents of Harvard.

Nehemiah Grew

1641-1712

physician and botanist. Protestant who wrote on the unique creative design of plants and animals.

Isaac Newton

1642-1727

Co-inventor of calculus, gravity, Newton’s 3 laws

Gottfried Wilhelm Leibnitz

1646-1716

co-inventor of calculus, and anticipated Boolean algebra

John Flamsteed

1646-1719

Founded the Greenwich observatory

William Derham

1657-1735

ecology

Cotton Mather

1662-1727

published treatises on “animacules” causing smallpox, and President of Harvard

John Woodward

1665-1728

paleontology

John Harris

1666-1719

mathematician, clergyman, Wrote an English dictionary 1704

William Whiston

9 Dec 1667-22 Aug 1752

succeeded Isaac Newton at Cambridge. Wrote on flood geology. Translated Josephus and was an Arian like Newton. He thought the Tatars were the lost tribes, and the Millennium would start in 1766.

John Hutchinson

1674-1737

paleontologist who wrote on the flood. Also studied Hebrew.

Bayes

1702-1761

Probability, Presbyterian minister

Benjamin Franklin

1706-1790

Believed in God, unsure about Christ’s divinity, had a mistress, was perhaps the last person who could know all of science.

Carolus Linnaeus

1707-1778

taxonomy-classified life

Leonard Euler

1707-1783

mathematician and physicist

Gustavus Brander

1720-1787

paleontologist who wrote on the flood

Jean Deluc

1727-1817

Coined the word geology. He and his father invented the barometer. Wrote of a worldwide flood.

Richard Kirwan

1733-1812

Mineralogy

Joseph Townsend

1738-1816

English geologist and clergyman published much of William Smith’s work

William Herschel

1738-1822

discovered Uranus, galactic astronomy

Antoine Lavoisier

1743-1794

A Catholic

James Parkinson

1755-1824

perforated appendix, Parkinson’s disease, wrote on the flood and coal from plants

Alessandro Volta

1745-1827

first electric battery; Christian

William Kirby

1759-1850

entomologist and English clergyman

Benjamin Barton

1766-1815

physician, biologist, recent creationist

Thomas Malthus

1766-1834

economics, over-population, clergyman

John Dalton

9/15/1766-7/17/1844

atomic theory, Dalton’s law of gases. Quaker

Georges Cuvier

1769-1832

comparative anatomy

Samuel Miller

1770-1840

Presbyterian minister and influential science writer chronicling the 18th century,

Thomas Young

1773-1829

double-slit experiment

Charles Bell

1774-1842

anatomist and surgeon

Andre Marie Ampere

1775-1836

father of electrodynamics

John Kidd

1775-1851

chemical synthetics

Hans Christian Oersted

1777-1851

electromagnetism

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss

1777-1855

Gauss’s Law

Humphrey Davy

1778-1829

Thermokinetics, safety lamp

Benjamin Silliman

1779-1864

mineralogy, geology, founded the American Journal of Science

Peter Mark Roget

1779-1869

physician and physiologist, Roget’s Thesaurus

Thomas Chalmers

1780-1847

social scientist, professor of theology, popularized the “gap theory”

David Brewster

1781-1868

optical mineralogy, kaleidoscope, opposed Darwinism

William Buckland

1784-1856

geologist and priest in the Church of England

William Prout

1785-1850

food chemistry

Adam Sedgwick

1785-1873

Named Cambrian and Devonian periods. A friend of Darwin but against evolutionary ideas, saying the result would be harmful.

Augustin L. Cauchy

1789-1857

Developed infinitesimal calculus and studied permutation groups. He was friends with Lagrange and Laplace.

George Boole

1815-1864

Irish mathematician. He developed Boolean algebra

Michael Faraday

1791-1867

Electromagnetics

Sam. F.B. Morse

1791-1872

Telegraph

John Herschel

1792-1871

son of William, he found 500 nebulas

Charles Babbage

1792-1871

Computer science, Operations research, Opthamaloscope, mathematical analysis of Biblical miracles

Edward Hitchcock

1793-1864

geologist in Mass. And Vermont, against Darwinism

William Whewell

1794-1866

anemometer

Joseph Henry

1797-1866

Electric motor, galvanometer; http://siarchives.si.edu

Richard Owen

1804-1892

zoology, paleontology, non-Christian theist against Darwinism

Matthew Maury

1806-1873

oceanography

Louis Agassiz

1807-1873

glaciers, fish, most famous biologist behind Darwin

Henry Rogers

1808-1866

geology of the Appalachians , wrote of the universal flood

James Glaisher

1809-1903

Founded the British Meteorological Society

Phillip H. Gosse

1810-1888

Ornithologist. Plymouth Brethren, said the earth was young, but fossils and sediments created with appearance of age

Henry Rawlinson

1810-1895

deciphered Behistun inscription

James Simpson

1811-1870

anesthesiology, gynecology

James Dana

1813-1895

President of the Geological Society of America, theistic evolutionist

Joseph Henry Gilbert

1817-1901

agricultural chemist, apposed Darwinism

James Joule

1818-1889

A unit of energy is named after him

Thomas Anderson

1819-1874

discovered pyridine, opposed Darwinism

George Gabriel Stokes

1819-1903

Viscosity and Stokes Law in fluid flow

Charles Piazzi Smyth

1819-1900

Astronomer, studied Egyptian pyramids. Weird guy influential in Anglo-Israelism error

John William Dawson

1820-1899

Canadian geologist and old-earth Creationist

Gregor Mendel

1822-1884

Mendelian genetics

Louis Pasteur

1822-1895

Bacteriology, biochemistry, sterilization, immunology. Opposed Evolution

Henri Fabre

1823-1915

entomology of living insects

Lord Kelvin (William Thompson)

1824-1907

A unit of temperature is named after him, Atlantic cable

William Huggins

1824-1910

astral spectrometry

Bernhard Riemann

(Georg F.B. Riemann)

1826-1866

non-Euclidean geometries, Riemann space

Joseph Lister

1827-1912

antiseptic surgery

Balfour Stewart

1828-1887

electricity in ionosphere

Joseph Clerk Maxwell

1831-1879

Maxwell’s law in electrodynamics, statistical thermodynamics

P. G. Tait

1831-1901

vector analysis

Josiah Gibbs

1839-1903

chemical thermodynamics

Osborne Reynolds

1842-1912

Reynold’s Number in fluid flow

Sir William Abney

1843-1920

Interstellar molecules, son of a clergyman

Alexander MacAlister

1844-1919

Professor of Anatomy at Cambridge

A.H. Sayce

1845-1933

Expert on the Hittites

John Bell Pettigrew

1848-1894

President of the Royal Medical society. Allowed for evolution and design

George Romanes

1848-1894

biologist, physiologist. Christian, personal friend of Darwin, lost his faith, returned to Christianity, unclear if a theistic evolutionist or creationist.

Lord Rayleigh  (John Strutt)

1849-1919

Fluid flow, successor to Maxwell at Cambridge

John Ambrose Fleming

1849-1945

electronics, electron tube, thermionic valve

Edward H. Maunder

1851-1928

astronomer at Greenwich

William Mitchell Ramsay

1851-1939

One of the two greatest archaeologists. Liberal who became a conservative Christian

Sir William Ramsay

(born in Glasgow)

1852-1916

discovered argon, isotopic chemistry, transmuting elements. Founded the Indian Institute of Technology

Howard A. Kelly

1858-1943

Gynecology/Obstetrics prof. at Johns Hopkins. Wrote A Scientific Man and His Bible.

George Washington Carver

1864-1943

authority on peanuts and sweet potatoes at the Tuskegee Institute

Wilbur and Orville Wright

1867-1912, 1871-1948

First successful flight 12/17/1903. Wilbur assisted his father in legal work for the Church of the United Brethren in Christ

Robert A. Millikan

1868-1953

1923 Nobel (physics)

Douglas Dewar

1875-1957

Wrote books on evolution prior to being a creationist Christian

Paul Lemoine

1878-1940

ex-Evolutionist and President of the Geological Society of France

Albert Einstein

1879-1955

non-practicing Jew who firmly believed in God

Charles Stine

1882-1954

An organic chemist with DuPont. Wrote the booklet, “A Chemist and His Bible”

A. Rendle Short

1885-1955

Professor of surgery

L. Merson Davies

1890-1960

Geology, paleontology

Sir Cecil P. G. Wakeley

1892-1979

surgeon, president of the Bible League

Theodosius Dobzhansky

1900-1975

Ukrainian research of fruit flies. A signer of the 1950 UNESCO document, The Race Question, which refuted Nazi racial scientific claims. Wrote Genetics and the Origin of Species. A Russian Orthodox whose belief in God was similar to the Jesuit priest Teilhard de Chardin’s. Dobzhansky criticized the pope’s anti-evolutionary views and protestant creationists.

Werner Heisenberg

1901-1976

Uncertain which principle he found

Werner von Braun

1912-1977

Lutheran German. Famous rocket scientist

A.E. Wilder-Smith

1915-1995

Phys. org. chemistry. 70 pubs. and 30 books.

Lane P. Lester

Living

Wrote Natural Limits to Biological Change

Hugh Ross

living

astronomer

Michael Denton

1943- living

molecular biologist who wrote Evolution : A Theory in Crisis that was influential in the Intelligent Design movement. Later he changed his views and believed more in evolution

Charles Thaxton, Walter L. Bradley, Clarence Meninga

living

molecular biologists. Authored The Mystery of Life’s Origin

Thomas G. Barnes

living

wrote Origin and Destiny of the Earth’s Magnetic Field

William A. Dembski

living

math, Intelligent Design

Robert Newman

living

Intelligent Design

Dean H. Kenyon

living

Biology, Biophysics

Jeffrey P. Schloss

living

ecology, evolutionary biology, Int. Design

Jonathan Wells

living

cell biology

Howard J. Van Till

living

astronomer, wrote The Fourth Day

Davis A. Young

living

old-earth geologist, wrote Christianity & The Age of the Earth.

Creation Research Society

1963: 10 scientists

Over 700 scientists

H.S. Lipson

quoted in 1980

physicist. “In fact, evolution became, in a sense, a scientific religion; almost all scientists have accepted it and many are prepared to “Bend” their observations to fit with it. .. To my mind, the theory [evolution] does not stand up at all.

Some of this was taken from Morris, Henry.  Men of Science Men of God : Great Scientists Who Believed the Bible, revised edition. Master Books. 1988. the AskJeeves.com Web site, Encyclopedia Britannica, and the World Almanac Book of Facts.

 

Non-Theistic Scientists / Engineers


To balance things out, here are a few of the non-Theistic Scientists / Engineers

Scientist

lifetime

Contribution

Rene Descartes

(pronounced (de CART)

1596-1650

man of science, philosopher. Immoral, could not stand a God who watched his private life

Joseph Priestley

1733-1804

chemistry of gases. Unitarian minister. Learned Sumerian, Syriac, Arabic among other languages. Invented soda water. Believed in phlogiston.

Charles Darwin

1809-1882

Theory of Evolution. Someone started the rumor that he converted on his deathbed, but his letters and his son’s testimony prove that false.

Karl Marx

1818-1883

communism, economic theory. The world has not been the same  since.

Sigmund Freud

1856-1939

People only have three drives: self preservation, sexual gratification, and self-destruction. (Love for God and others are excluded)

Alfred Adler

1870-1937

People often motivated by a sense of inferiority

Karl Jung

1875-dead

psychologist

Margaret Sanger

1883-1966

Overt racist who founded Planned Parenthood

Julian Huxley

1887-1975

paleontology

H. S. Shelton

 

 

R.A. Fisher

1890-1962

Believed in eugenically improving the human race by discouraging inferior people from having children

Sewall Wright

1889-1988

Worked with R.A. Fisher and J.B.S. Haldane on theoretical population genetics. Developed the inbreeding coefficient.

J. B. S. Haldane

1892-1964

biochemist, geneticist. Worked on population genetics

Margaret Mead

1901-1978

Her research on the “free sex” in the Pacific has been largely discredited as dishonest. Before this, her results had a wide impact.

Linus Pauling

1901-1994

1954 Nobel applied quantum mech. To chemistry. Affiliated with the Unitarians

Tyndall

 

 

Ernst Mayr

1904-2005

Paleontology

Abraham Maslow

1908-1970

psychologist, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Isaac Asimov

1920-1992

Influential science writer

George C. Williams

1926-

Uniformitarian. Taught marine vertebrate zoology

Niles Eldredge

1943-

paleontology, Jointly proposed Punctuated Equilibrium

Stephen J. Gould

1941-2002

paleontology, Jointly proposed Punctuated Equilibrium

Richard Dawkins

1941-

Uniformitarian

Maynard Smith

1920-2004

Uniformitarian

Stanley

 

Punctuated Equilibrium

Elisabeth Vrba

 

Punctuated Equilibrium. Turnover pulse hypothesis

A.G. Cairns-Smith

-1982-

Wrote Genetic Takeover and the Mineral Origins of Life

Michael Charney

 

anthropology, zoology

Sidney Fox

 

 

William Shockley

1910-1989

Transistors

Louis W. Alvarez

1911-1988

1935 Nobel prize, impact theory for dinosaur extinction

Hubert P. Yockey

1915-

Wrote The Mathematical Foundations of Molecular Biology. Worked with Oppenheimer on the Manhattan project. Very critical of origin of life experiments

Richard Feynman

1918-1988

Shared 1965 Nobel prize in physics

Leslie Orgel

1927-2007

British biochemist

Donald Johanson and Tim White

 

Paleontologists who discovered “Lucy”

H. Gutfreund

 

Wrote Biochemical Evolution

Stephen Hawking

Living

 

Louis and Mary Leakey

 

 

Albert L. Lehninger

 

Wrote the textbook Biochemistry

Cyril Ponnamperuma

1923-1994

biochemist

Stanley Miller

1930-2007

Experiments on the origin of life

Carl Sagan

1934-1996

Science writer, host of “The Cosmos”. Ex-husband of Lynn Margulis

Lynn Margulis

1938-

Theory of Eukaryotic organelles. ex-wife of Carl Sagan

Philip Kitcher

1947-

Wrote Abusing Science : The Case Against Creationism

G. G. Simpson

 

 

Geoffrey Zubay

 

Wrote textbook in 1983

R. Lohrmann

 

 

F. Clark

 

 

R.L.M. Synge

 

 

 

Scientists with Other Beliefs

Rudolph Virchow

1821-1902

pathology, anti-evolutionist, but unsure of his views on God

George Wald

1906-1997

evolutionist with admittedly impossible beliefs. 1967 Nobel Prize

Francis Crick

1916-2004

life starting is “almost a miracle” Panspermia

Ilya Prigogine

1917-2003

evolution highly improbable, even over billions of years.. 1977 Nobel prize in chemistry

Robert Jastrow

1925-2008

agnostic astronomer. Wrote in God and the Astronomers Big Bang theory points to God

Michael Behe

1952-

non-theist, Intelligent Design proponent

Jeremy Rifkin

quoted in 1983

A highly controversial evolutions. “We no longer feel ourselves to be guests in someone else’s home and therefore obliged to make our behavior conform with a set of preexisting cosmic rules. It is our creation now. WE make the rules. We establish the parameters of reality.

“Brothers, think of what you were when you were called. Not many of you were wise by human standards; not many were influential; not many were of noble birth. But God chose the foolish things of the world to shame the wise; God chose the weak things of the world to shame the strong.” 1 Cor. 1:26-27 NIV


Scientists with Beliefs Unknown to me

Empedocles

c.B.C. - c.430 B.C.

Came up with four kinds of matter: air, earth, fire, water

Johann Gutenberg

c.1397-c.1468

printing press

Georg Bauer (Agricola)

1494-1555

mining and metallurgy book

Andreas Vesalius

1514-1603

Anatomist

William Gilbert

1540/4-1603

electricity and magnetism

Henri Poincare

1854-1912

 

Arrhenius

 

 

Marie and Pierre Curie

 

Shared 1903 Nobel prize

Laplace

 

 

Legendre

 

 

Edmund Halley

1656-1742

At 22 years old one of the most renowned astronomers

Jean Le Rond d’Alembert

11/1717-1783

French mathematician and philosopher. Figured out the precession of equinoxes

Marcello Malpighi

1628-1694

used the microscope to view capillaries and glands

Daniel Bernoulli

1700-1782

Bernoulli’s principle

Henry Cavendish

1731-1810

Measured Newton’s gravitational constant

Charles Augustin de Coulomb

1736-1806

elasticity

Joseph-Louis Lagrange

1736-1813

prof. of geometry at an artillery academy when he was 18. Analytic al mechanics

James Watt

1736-1819

steam engine

Claude Louis Berthollet

1748-1822

 

Antoine Francois de Fourcroy

1755-1809

 

James Smithson

1765-1829

English Chemist and mineralogist. Founded the Smithsonian Institution

Joseph Fourier

1768-1830

heat diffusion

Jean-Baptiste Biot

1774-1862

light polarization

Amadeo Avogadro

1776-1856

Avogadro’s number

David Brewster

1781-1868

Brewster’s Law of light

Augustin-Jean Fresnel

1788-1827

transverse nature of light

Georg Ohm

1789-1854

Ohm’s Law V = IR

Felix Savart

1791-1841

electromagnetism

Gabriel Lame

1795-1870

mathematical Lame’s functions

Sadi Carnot

1796-1832

thermodynamics

Joseph Henry

1797-1878

electromagnetics

Christian Doppler

1803-1853

sound waves

Wilhelm E. Weber

1804-1891

sensitive magnetometers

William Hamilton

1805-1865

Hamiltonian classical mechanics

Johann von Lamont

1805-1879

astronomer and magnetician

Karl Weierstrass

1815-1897

 

Armand-Hippolyte-Louis Fizeau

1819-1896

First measured the speed of list

Jean-Bernard-Leon Foucault

1819-1868

accurately measured the speed of light

Hermann von Helmholtz

1821-1894

First Law of Thermodynamics: energy is conserved

Rudolf Clausius

1822-1888

Second Law of Thermo. entropy never decreases

Joseph Leidy

1823-1891

anatomy

Gustav Lirchhoff

1824-1887

Three laws of spectral analysis

Johann Balmer

1825-1898

Hydrogen spectrum

Bayer

 

chemist

Enrico Fermi

1901-1954

atomic physics

Navier

 

fluid dynamics

Lamarck

 

Lamarckian example: giraffes constantly stretching their necks caused offspring to have longer necks

Sir Edward Frankland

1825-1899

chemist, valence theory

Percy Faraday Frankland

1858-1946

son of Edward

William Suddards Franklin

1863-1930

 

Emile-Michel-Hyacinthe Lemoine

1840-1912

mathematician and engineer. Also a musician

Sir James George Frazier

1854-1941

anthropologist, author of The Golden Bow

Irving Langmuir

1881-1857

Nobel prize chemist

Rumford

 

 

Charles Friedel

1932-1899

Chemist

James Mason Crafts

 

Chemist

Johann Heinrich Lambert

1827-1777

mathematician, physicist, astronomer, proved the irrationality of pi, hyperbolic trig functions, theorems on conics, theoretical photometry

Joseph WIlson Swan

1828-1914

carbon-filament incandescent light

Alfred Nobel

1833-1896

Started the Nobel prizes, with the money he made from inventing dynamite. 355 patents.

Joseph Stefan

1835-1893

blackbody radiation

Ernst Mach

1838-1916

Refused to believe in atoms

Joseph Dewar

1842-1923

Liquified nitrogen, Dewar flask

Charles Lapworth

1842-1920

catalogued Ordovician strata

Ludwig Boltzmann

1844-1906

statistical mechanics

Georg Cantor

1845-1918

 

WIllard F. Libby

1908-1980

1960 Nobel prize for radiocarbon dating

Roland Eotvos

1848-1919

gravitational and inertial mass equivalent

Roderick Murchison

 

geologist

Sir Horace Lamb

1849-1934

math, hydrodynamics, wave theory

Ferdinand Georg Frobenius

1849-1917

mathematician

Oliver Heaviside

1850-1925

electromagnetism, operational calculus, vectors

Geroge Francis FitzGerald

1851-1901

Lorentz-FitzGerald contraction for Michelson-Morley experiment

John Henry Poiynting

1852-1914

Poynting’s vector for electromagnetic waves

Henri Poincare

1854-1912

 

Janne Rydberg

1854-1919

 

Edwin H. Hall

1855-1938

 

Heinrich Hertz

1857-1894

electromagnetism

Nikola Tesla

1857-1943

alternating current

MORETOCOME

 

 

Alexander Mikhailovich Liapunov

1857-1918

mathematician

Sir William Maddock Bayliss

1860-1924

physiologist

William Shirley Bayley

1861-1943

geologist

Robert Thompson Leiper

1881-

biologist

Gilbert Newton Lewis

1875-1946

Lewis acids/bases

Bronsted

 

chemist

Isidor Isaac Rabi

1898-1988

1944 Nobel Magnetic resonance

Otto Stern

1888-1969

1943 Nobel - magnetic moment of a proton

Robert Shapiro

 

biochemist, wrote Origins : A Skeptics Guide to the Creation of Life on Earth

Chandra Wickamasinghe

 

 

Ignaz Semmelweiss

 

reduced hospital mortality by having patients wash hands in chlorinated lime

Fred Hoyle

 

 

Morowitz

 

 

Edward Jenner

1749-1823

smallpox vaccine from cowpox. Son of a clergyman, he vaccinated many poor people for free

Max Born

 

 

Silliam Smith

1769-1839

Father of English geology

Charles Laveran

1845-1922

discovered the plasmodian that causes malaria

Nicola Tesla

1832-1943

 

Ernest Rutherford

1871-1933

 

Georg Simon Ohm

1787-1854

 

Charles de Coulomb

1736-1806

 

Joseph Henry

1797-1878

 

Neinrich Rudolf Hertz

1857-1894

 

James Prescott Joule

1818-1889

 

Ernst Mach

1838-1916

physicist who refused to believe in atoms

Glenn T. Seborg

1912-1999

Shared 1951 Nobel prize in chemistry

George Wierstrauss

 

 

Alessandro Volta

1745-1827

Made the first battery

James Watt

1731-1819

 

William Eduard Weber

1804-1891

 

Fritz Haber

 

1918 Nobel prize for ammonia synthesis

de Bakey

 

 

Cooley

 

 

Paul Chu

 

 

Albert A. Michelson

1852-1931

Precisely measured the speed of light. Nobel (physics)

Morley

 

 

Willem Einthoven

1860-1927

physiologist who invented the electrocardiogram

Gotthold Ferdinand Eisenstein

1823-1852

mathematician binary quadratic forms

Walfrid Van Ikman

1874-1954

oceanographer and physicist

Christaan Eijkman

1858-1939

vitamin deficiencies

George Theobald

1859-1934

Pathology. Killed bateria cultures can give immunity

Solomon Lefschetz

1884-1972

Topology

Frederic & Irene Joliot-Curie

1900-1958

1897-1956

co-discovered artificial radioactivity

John Cockcroft

1897-1967

co-invented particle accelerator

Anton van Leeuwenhook

1632-1723

made 250 microscopes up to 270X. First to see bacteria, protozoa, rotifers

Tsung Dae Lee

(Chinese born American)

1926-

Nobel physicist

Maurice H. F. Wilkins

1916-

Shared the Nobel prize with Watson and Crick

Fermat

 

corresponded with Pascal

Jack Kilby

 

Nobel prize for co-inventing the transistor

Simon Newcout(sp?)

1835-1909

famous astronomer who taught that heavier than air flight was impossible.

Louis-Victor de Broglie

 

1929 Nobel prize in Physics

Paul Ehrenfest

 

physicist and Einstein’s friend

Wheeler

 

 

WIlliam Gilbert

1544-1603

thought the earth is a giant magnet

Willebrod Snell

1580-1626

Snell’s Law of refraction

Joseph J. Thomson

 

1906 Nobel (physics)

Conrad Lorenz

 

 

Johannes D. van der Waals

 

1910 Nobel prize

Otto Hahn

1879-1968

1/2 1944 Nobel fission

Alexander Fleming

1881-1955

Observed penicillin

Erwin Schroedinger

1887-1961

Shared 1933 Nobel for atomic theory of wave mechanics

Wallace Hume Carothers

1896-1937

Chemist

John D. Cockroft

1897-1967

Shared 1951 Nobel transmuted elements

Patrick Maynard Stuart Blackett

1897-1974

developed the cloud chamber

Howard Walter Florey

1898-1968

co-discovered of penicillin

P.A.M. Dirac

 

 

Wolfgang Pauli

1900-1958

1954 Nobel Paul exclusion principle

Thomas Watson

 

 

Thomas R. Cech

 

Shared 1989 Nobel prize for self-replicating RNA. Very careful in his speech to not say anything beyond what research demonstrates

Ernest Thomas Sinton Walton

1903-1995

Shared 1951 Nobel for transmuting elements

George Gamow

(Russina-Amer.)

1904-1968

nuclear reactions in stars

Otto Frisch

1904-1979

Uranium fission

(Julius) Robert Oppenheimer

1904-1967

Worked on the atom bomb

Emilio Segre

1905-1989

Shared 1959 Nobel for anti-proton

Own Chamberlain

1920-

Shared 1959 Nobel for anti-proton

Nikolai Basov

(Russian)

1922-2001

Theoretical basis of the maser

Lars Onsager

(1931)

 

Max K.E.L. Planck

 

1918 Nobel prize

Neils Bohr

1885-1962

1922 Nobel, electrons orbit in energy states

Hubble

 

 

Wilhelm Roentgen

 

1901 Nobel prize

Antoine Cesar Becquerel

1788-1878

electrochemistry

Alexandre Becquerel

1820-1891

 

Louis Alfred Becquerel

1814-1862

 

Antoine Henri Becquerel

1852-1908

Shared 1903 Nobel prize

See www.askjeeves.com/main/famous physicists  www.nidlink.com/~jfromm/history.htm