Bible Query – Early Manuscripts of Titus

April 29, 2012 version

 

Q: In Tt, what are early New Testament manuscripts we have preserved today?

A: Here are many of them.

p32 Titus 1:11-15; 2:3-8 (latter half of 2nd century) The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts has a photograph of part of p32 on p.124.

c.200 A.D. - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

p61 Romans 16:23,25-27; 1 Corinthians 1:1-2, 2-6; 5:1-3, 5-6, 9-13; Philippians 3:5-9, 12-16, Colossians 1:3-7, 9-13, 1 Thessalonians 1:2-3; Titus 3:1-5, 8-11, 14-15 Philemon 4-7. c.700 A.D.

c.700 A.D. - 1968 - The Text of the New Testament.

About 700 A.D. - 1975 - Aland et al. Third edition.

About 700 A.D. - 1998 - Aland et al. Fourth revised edition.

Sinaiticus 340-350 A.D.

Titus was not preserved in Vaticanus

Alexandrinus c.450 A.D.

Bohairic Coptic 3rd/4th century

Sahidic Coptic 3rd/4rth century

I Washington D.C. 5th century (Titus 2:10, others?)

Gothic 493-555 A.D.

Ephraemi Rescriptus 5th century

Claromontanus 6th century

Ethiopic [Eth] from c.500 A.D.

Palestinian Syriac [Syr Pal] from c.6th century

Peshitta Syriac [Syr P] 411-435 A.D. Over 350 manuscripts.

Harclean Syriac [Syr H] 616.A.D Thomas of Harkel

048 Fifth century

 

Q: In Tt, what are the textual variations with the Textus Receptus, the basis for the KJV?

A: Jay P. Green, Sr. in the Interlinear Bible records variations in approximately 3 words between the Textus Receptus and the majority text. These are in 3 places (Titus 2:2, 2:8, 3:8). He does not record any additional alternates.

 

Q: In Tt, what are some of the textual variations?

A: Paul's Letter to Titus has a total of 659 Greek words in 46 verses. This is the count in both Aland et al. 3rd edition and Aland et al. 4th revised edition, including 1 word in brackets. The text of the 3rd edition is on-line at http://www.greekbible.com. Titus has an estimated  word-for-word accuracy of 98.8%, with 8 words in question. These are in 7 verses (7 places).

   Below are the variations with the primary choice and the top alternate choice. Aland et al. 4th revised edition and 3rd edition, from which this primarily is based, also give a judgment of the degree of certainty per variation. The list below does not include many places where the evidence for a particular reading is so strong that the alternatives are very unlikely. See the next question for which manuscripts support which variants.

Titus 1:4 "Grace and" vs. "Grace" vs. "Grace, mercy, and" (2 words) (Aland, NRSV, Everyman's Bible Commentary First Timothy p.24)

Titus 1:9 (absent) vs. "Do not appoint those who have married twice or make them deacons, and do not take wives in a second marriage; let them not come to serve the Deity at the altar. As God's servant reprove the rules who are unjust judges and robbers and liars and unmerciful" (only in 13th century manuscript 460, so 34 Greek words not counted in the totals)

Titus 1:10 "and" is absent

Titus 1:11 (absent) vs. "The children who abuse or strike their parents you must check and reprove and admonish as a father his children.) Only in 13th century manuscript 460, so 18 Greek words not counted in the totals)

Titus 2:5 "self-controlled" vs. "homeworkers" (1 letter difference)

Titus 2:7 "incorruption" vs. "freedom from envy" vs. "sincerity" vs. "indifference"

Titus 3:1 Add the word "and"

Titus 3:6 "Jesus Christ our Savior" vs. "Jesus Christ our God" (only some Byzantine lectionaries so 1 word not counted in the totals)

Titus 3:9 "arguments" vs. "argument"

Titus 3:15a Add the word "amen" at the end (Aland, NRSV)

Titus 3:15b (absent) vs. "To Titus) (Sinaiticus, Ephraemi Rescriptus, Ethiopic). Other manuscripts have, "To Titus of the of Cretans assembly First overseer chosen. Written from Nicopolis of Macedonia."

Conclusion: Sinaiticus has the shorter variant in all cases, the Byzantine Lectionary has the longer variant in all cases, and Alexandrinus has the longer variant only in Titus 1:4. A correction in Sinaiticus has "amen" in Titus 3:15

Bibliography for this question: The Greek New Testament Third Edition by Kurt Aland et al., The Greek New Testament Fourth Edition by Kurt Aland et al., Interlinear Greek-English New Testament by George Ricker Berry, the Interlinear Bible by Jay P. Green, The Expositor's Bible Commentary volume 8, A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament 2nd edition by Bruce M. Metzger, The Orthodox Corruption of Scripture by Bart Ehrman, The Complete Text of the Earliest New Testament Manuscripts edited by Philip W. Comfort and David P. Barrett, The Expositor's Greek Testament edited by W. Robertson Nicoll, and footnotes in the NASB, NIV, NKJV, and NRSV Bible translations. Manuscripts of the Greek Bible : An Introduction to Paleography by Bruce M. Metzger also has interesting information on the characteristics and quality of the copying of each manuscript.

 

Q: In Tt, how do the early manuscripts compare with each other?

A: The table below shows each of the places in question, and the number says which variant is in each manuscript.


This chart shows variants of early writers and manuscripts of Titus. The darker the shading the later the writing. Shaded verses mean we are virtually certain of the correct reading. For each verse, the variant Aland et al. views as correct is labeled as "1", the next choice "2", and so on. Corrections to manuscripts by later scribes are not included. "A" after a choice simply means the choice with the fewest words. A question mark means it is probably but not certain the manuscript had these words. Parentheses means fragmentary or hard to read. Where there is more than one number, such as "1 /2?", this means that one or more manuscripts in the family give the first choice, and one or more manuscripts are not clear, but appear to give the second choice. A parenthesis, such as (6), means that through translation or loss of letters are not sure, but it appears to support reading 6.

Place of variant

words

Cl A

Origen

p32

p61

048

Si

Hilary

Syr H

Syr Pal

Sahidic

Ital b

Ital d

Lucifer

Vulgate

Pelagius

Jerome

Chrysostom

A

 

C

D

I

Bohairic

Ethiopic

Armen.

Georgian

Syr P

Byzant.

Tt 1:4

2 and

-

2

-

-

-

1

-

(2)

-

(1)

1

1

-

1

-

1

1

2

1

1

-

1/ 2?

(1)

1

1/(2)

1

2

Tt 1:10

1

-

-

-

-

-

2

1

2

-

2

1

1

1

1/ 2?

2

1

1

2

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tt 2:5

1

2

-

1

-

 

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

3?

-

-

-

1

1

1

1

-

-

-

-

-

-

Tt 2:7

1

-

-

2

-

 

1

-

-

-

2

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

1

1

1

 

-

-

-

-

-

-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Tt 3:1

1 and

-

-

-

-

-

1

-

2

2

2

1

2

1

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

-

2

2

2

2

2

2

Tt 3:9

1

-

-

-

-

 

2

-

1

-

1

-

1

-

1

-

-

-

1

1

2

 

1

2

2

-

1

 

Tt 3:15a

1 amen

-

-

-

1?

1

1

-

2

-

1?

3

3

-

(4)/(5)

(4)

1

2

1

1

3

-

1?/2

2

1?

2

2

2

Tt 3:15b

2

-

-

-

2?

1

2

-

8

-

1

-

-

-

 

-

-

-

3

2

(2)

-

6

2

-

-

7

-

Place of variant

words

Cl A

Origen

p32

p61

048

Si

Hilary

Syr H

Syr Pal

Sahidic

Ital b

Ital d

Lucifer

Vulgate

Pelagius

Jerome

Chrysostom

A

C

D

I

Bohairic

Ethiopic

Armen.

Georgian

Syr P

Byzant.

by Steven M. Morrison, PhD.