Pre-Nicene Teaching on Refuting Error Grid – June 2017 version

REFUTE HERETICAL GROUPS

DISPUTE AGAINST OTHER ERRORS

Legend for Cells

r1. Dispute with Ebionites/Judaizers (Partial) Col 2:16-17

D1. Do not judge/condemn others Mt 7:1-5; Lk 6:37

W = Wrote explicitly on this teaching

r2. Simon Magus and his heresy/error (Partial) Acts 8

D2. Dispute against Judaism Acts 3:23; Rom 9:1-2

I = Implied as true or opposite is false

r3. Against Marcion (partial)1Jn4;2Jn7

D3. Dispute against Greco-Roman paganism

N = Implied since accepted Nicene Creed

r4. Dispute against Valentinian Gnostics

D4. Dispute philosophy that denies One God

m = Mixed: some agree, others did not

r5. Dispute against Sethians or Ophites

D5. Dispute against the Magi / Zoroastrians

P = Partial (ex: Justin Martyr on  r3: Marcion, but not many heresies)

r6. Dispute against Encratite Gnostics (Partial) 1 Tim 4:3

D6. Dispute Indians/Bra[c]hmans/Gymnosophist

r7. Dispute against other Gnostics          (Partial) 1 Jn 4:2

D7. Dispute Egyptian myths

- = no reference found

r8. No mixing Christ and other religions 1Jn 4:3;Gal 1:8-9

D8. Dispute Chaldean/Babylonian religion

X = Disagree

r9. Avoid docetic belief-not suffer in flesh. partial 1Jn4:2-

D9. Dispute Syrian or Arabian religions

blank = not researched yet

r10. Dispute against Sabellians/Sabellios (Oneness)

D10. Dispute Druid or other European myths

Writer totals include W’s & I’s but not P’s

Rows: blue=Bible manuscript, khaki=spurious, green=heresy, orange=schism, pink=strange writer, red=Christians persecuted, brown=Christians persecuting

Christian writer, heretic, or Bible manuscript

Pages

Date A.D.

r1

r2

r3

r4

r5

r6

r7

r8

r9

r10

D1

D2

D3

D4

D5

D6

D7

D8

D9

D10

Nero and Domitian persecute Christians

50 & 95/96

est. 500K Christians. Labeled atheists; killed for refusing to worship emperor/idols

Clement of Rome (wrote 1 Clement)

16 ¼

97/98

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Papias of Hierapolis, disciple of John

2

95-110

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

“Presbyters” (Papias?)

½

95-117

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

Ignatius disciple of John (shortest version)

13

c.100-117

W

-

-

-

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-

W

-

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-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Trajan persecutes Christians

107-117

Answered Pliny the Younger’s letter. Christians not hunted, but killed if found.

Didache (=Teaching of the Twelve Apostles)

4 ¾

before 125

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

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-

Apology of Aristides (Greek version)

4

125or138-161

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

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-

W

W

-

-

Quadratus of Athens fragment (apologist)

1/8

126

-

-

-

-

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-

-

Letter to Diognetus (=Mathetes to Diognetus)

5 ¼

c.130

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

W

W

W

-

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-

-

Hadrian persecutes Christians

118 & 134

Hadrian loved Greek culture, and he persecuted both Jewish & Christian people.

Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs

29

70-135

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Bar Cochba persecutes Christians

135

Christians persecuted in Israel because they would not join Bar Cochba’s revolt.

Epistle of Barnabas

12 ½

100-150

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

-

W

-

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-

p52, p104, p87 Jn, Mt, Philemon (5, 5, 4 verses)

-138,100-150

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p46 Chester Beatty II - 70% Paul, Heb (1,680 verses)

100-150

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W

-

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p98 Revelation 1:13-2:1 (9 verses)

150?

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-

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-

2 Clement (anonymous writer)

5 ¾

c.150

-

-

-

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-

-

-

W

-

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-

Polycarp, disciple of John, to the Philippians

3 ½

100-155

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

W

-

W

-

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-

Apostolic fathers totals: all symbols except P’s

67.7

-155

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

2

2

0

1

3

2

1

0

0

1

1

0

0

Gospel of Mary (ms. p463 is 200-250 A.D.)

1

2nd century

-

-

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-

-

-

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Shepherd of Hermas

46 ½

c.160

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

-

-

-

-

Justin Martyr, philosopher and apologist

137

c.138-165

-

W

P

W

-

-

W

W

-

P

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

Evarestus’ Martyrdom of Polycarp

5

c.169

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Marcion of Pontus, pupil of Cerdo/Cerdon. Apelles & Prepon from Marcion.

before 170-

Gnostics believed Creator was evil or foolish, rejected O.T., mixed in paganism.

Menander then Satorninos/Saturnilus (ascetic Gnostics)

c.150-4th cen.

Cerdo & Menander from Simon in Acts. Encratite gnostics came from Saturnilus.

Dionysius of Corinth (wrote against Marcion)

1/3

170

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Tatian's Diatessaron

86

died 172

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

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-

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-

-

-

Tatian. Encratite Gnostic later

18

died 172

-

-

-

W

-

X

-

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-

-

-

-

W

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

Basilides & his pupil Isidorus, changed from Menander 's teaching

2.5

132-135-4th

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sethians/Borborites (libertine Gnostics)

20

?-4th century

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Hermetic Gnostics -no mention of Christ/Jesus

6

?-4th century

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Valentinians including Heracleon, Colorbasus, Marcus, & Ptolemy

23+12

c.150-4th cen.

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Other gnostics: Cainites, Carpocrates, Docetics, Peretae, Cerinthus, Dositheus, Monoimus, Hermogenes, Marcillinians, Melchisedecians, Nicolaus, Ophites, Secundus/Epiphanes

37

c.150-4th century

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p66 Bodmer II Papyri - 92% of John (817 verses)

c.125-175

-

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-

p4, p64, p67 Lk 1:58-59,etc. Mt 26:7-8,etc. (95 verses)

c.150-175

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

p90 Jn 18:36-19:7 (11 verses)

c.175

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Christians of Vienna and Lugdunum (Lyons)

6 ½

177

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Athenagoras (apologist)

33 ½

177

-

-

-

-

-

-

I

-

-

P

-

-

W

W

-

-

W

-

W

-

Persecution of Marcus Aurelius

162/166-180

Aurelius was a Stoic philosopher. Persecution mainly in Gaul, ended when he died

Claudius Apollinaris of Hierapolis

½

160-177/180

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

-

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-

Melito/Meleto of Sardis (Quartodecimian)

11

170-177/180

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

P

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

Hegesippus (chronicler, against Gnostics)

2 ½

170-180

-

W

W

W

-

-

W

I

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Rhodon (against Marcion and Apelles)

½

180

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Theophilus of Caesarea

1/8

180

-

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-

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Theophilus of Antioch (to Autolycus)

32

168-181/188

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

W

-

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-

W

W

W

-

-

W

W

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-

Ebionite Clementine Homilies (Law, Father, Son)

123 ½

-188-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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W

W

W

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-

Ebionite Letter of Peter to James

2

-188-

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-

-

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Ebionite Letter of Clement to James

4 ½

-188-

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-

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-

-

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Christians warning about Ebionites

1

182-325

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Irenaeus Proof of Apostolic Preaching

22.75

c.160-202

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

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-

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-

Irenaeus of Lyons, disciple of Polycarp

262

182-188

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Gospel of Peter (Serapion finally against this)

2

180-190

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

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-

Maximus of Jerusalem -wrote on origin of evil

5

185-196

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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Polycrates of Ephesus (Quartodecimian)

½

196

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Akhmin Apocalypse of Peter (Greek)

2

100-200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p32 (=P. Rylands 5) Titus 1:1-15; 2:3-8 (21 verses)

150-200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p77 Mt 23:30-39 (10 verses)

200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

-

-

-

p23 James 1:10-12, 15-18 (7 verses)

ca.200

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Passion of the Scillitan Martyrs -died 180 A.D.

¾

180-202

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

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-

Caius and the Muratorian Canon

3

190-217

-

-

W

W

-

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Sabellian heresy (Praxeas, Noetus)

c.200-257-

Patripassians believed Father, Son, & Spirit were one person.

Zephryinus & Callistus of Rome (adoptionists)

199-222

God came upon the human man Jesus. Callistus excommunicated Sabellius.

Persecution of Septimus Severus

202

est. 2M Christians. A Christian helped him when ill, but didn’t repeal existing laws

Passion of Perpetua and Felicitas

7

c.201/205

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Acts of Paul and Thecla (Tertullian said faked by a presbyter)

6

before 207

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Romans kill first known martyrs in Britain

209

Alban, Julius, and Aaron were formerly thought killed in 304/5 A.D.

Serapion of Antioch (against Marcion)

1/3

191/200-210

-

-

P

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Minucius Felix (The Octavius)

25

210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

-

W

W

-

-

Apollonius of Ephesus (against Montanists)

1

c.210

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

Clement of Alexandria Stromata

245.75

193-202

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

 

W

P

P

Clement of Alexandria Protorepticus

34.75

c.195

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

P

W

W

W

-

Clement of Alexandria (remainder)

109

193-217/220

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

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Tertullian (joined the Montanist Church)

736

198-220

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

Tertullian’s 5 Books Against Marcion

194

207/8

W

-

W

W

-

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

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-

W

W

W

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-

Tertullian: On Monogamy, On Modesty

41.25

213

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

p75 Lk 3:18-22; etc. Jn 1:1-11:45,etc. (1,166 verses)

175-225

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

-

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-

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-

-

-

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0189 Acts 5:3-21 (earliest N.T. parchment) (19 verses)

175-225

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

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-

-

-

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-

p45 Chester Beatty I, Four gospels + Acts (833 verses)

200-225

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Green Collection #425 Rom 9:18-21 some Rom 10

early 3rd

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

p29 Acts 26:7-8,20 (3 verses), p30 1 Th 4:12-13,16-17, 5:3,8-10,12-18,25-28; 2 Th 1:1-2; 2:1,9-11 (25 verses)

ca.225

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Ebionite Recognitions of Clement

134

211-231

-

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

W

W

-

W

-

Bardaisan/Bardesan of Syria (heretical). Against Marcion & Valentinus.

11 ½

154-224/232

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

Asterius Urbanus (against Montanists)

2 ¾

c.232

-

-

W

-

-

W

W

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Elchasaite Ebionites (said Jesus God’s Son)

2 ¼

before 235

X

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Justin's Book of Baruch -Moses,Heracles,Christ

2.5

188-235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Naaseni Gnostics & The Gospel of Thomas

3+6

188-235

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

W

X

-

-

-

X

X

-

-

Hippolytus, pupil of Irenaeus (undisputed)

218

222-235/6

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

W

-

W

W

W

W

W

W

W

-

W

Maximin Thrax persecutes Christians

235-238

First empire-wide persecution, but only of clergy. It stopped when he was killed.

Narrative of Zosimus

4 ½

before 240

-

-

-

-

-